Skip to main content

High Tech

High Tech. Style (some would deny it is anything of the sort) expressive of structures, technologies, and services by exposing and even emphasizing them, or appearing to do so (the so-called Machine Aesthetic). Some hold that High Tech originated in C19 iron-and-glass structures such as Paxton's Crystal Palace (1851), but its aggressive imagery owes more, perhaps, to Buckminster Fuller, Frei Otto, Archigram, and even Futurism and New Brutalism. The Centre Pompidou, Paris (1977), by Piano and Rogers; the Sainsbury Centre, University of East Anglia, Norwich (1977), by Norman Foster; the Lloyd's Building, London (1986), by Rogers; the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, Hong Kong (1986), by Foster; Schlumberger Research Laboratories, Cambridge (1985), by Hopkins; and the Financial Times Printing Works, Docklands, London (1988), by Grimshaw are among the most paradigmatic High Tech structures. It is also known as the Industrial Aesthetic, and it is really about image. It tends to be expensive to construct and maintain.


Architectural Review, clxi/693 (May 1977), 270–94, clxxix/1037 (Jul. 1983), 14–59;
K. Daniels (1998);
C. Davies (1988);
Forester (1987);
Jencks (1988);
Kron & and Slesin (1979);
Jane Turner (1996)

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"High Tech." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . 21 Apr. 2019 <>.

"High Tech." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . (April 21, 2019).

"High Tech." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved April 21, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.