High Technology and Education

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Chapter 6: High Technology and Education

Technology at School
Preventing Access to Inappropriate Material
Use of General Technology Among Teens and Children
Colleges and Universities
Distance Learning
Cheating and High Technology

Knowing how to use a computer or Internet browser has become as important a skill in modern life as knowing multiplication tables. Not having exposure to information technology restricts a person's access to job listings, e-mail communication, and dozens of convenient, efficient computer applications that make work and life easier. Aware of this, high schools and colleges in the late 1990s increased efforts to expose students to computers and the Internet before graduation. Most secondary and elementary schools installed computers with Internet access in classrooms and libraries. Many schools set up programs wherein their students could borrow laptops and handheld computers for extended periods of time. College administrations provided widespread broadband access to students on campus, and many professors required the use of the Internet and computer programs in college courses.

Due in part to these actions, high school and college students were among the most tech-savvy Americans at the turn of the twenty-first century. Amanda Lenhart, Mary Madden, and Paul Hitlin of the Pew Internet & American Life Project (Pew/Internet) note in Teens and Technology (July 27, 2005, http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Tech_July2005web.pdf) that 87% of teenagers between the ages of twelve and seventeen went online in 2004. The percentage of Internet users among teenagers was well above the overall percentage of adult Americans online at the time. In addition, 73% of all teenagers reported owning a desktop computer, 45% had a cell phone, 18% had a laptop, and 7% owned a personal digital assistant (PDA). In Data Memo: Parent and Teenager Internet Use (October 24, 2007, http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teen_Parents_data_memo_Oct2007.pdf), a follow-up study, Alexandra Rankin Macgill of the Pew/ Internet finds that in 2006, 93% of teens were online. In addition, 72% of teens reported owning a desktop computer, 63% had a cell phone, 51% had an iPod or MP3 player, 25% had a laptop, and 8% had a Blackberry or other PDA.

Providing students with access to high technology, however, has not been without problems. The Internet, computers, and cell phones have introduced a great deal of distraction into the life of many young people. They allow teenagers access to illicit material, such as pornography, that they normally could not obtain so easily. In addition, these technologies open up avenues for cheating and plagiarism. Largely because of the Internet, academic cheating and plagiarism skyrocketed around the turn of the millennium. Students appeared to have no qualms about copying text from the Internet and pasting it verbatim into reports and papers.

Technology at School

In February 1996 President Bill Clinton (1946) signed the Telecommunications Act into law. This legislation ushered in the E-Rate Program, which provided elementary and secondary public schools with discounts of 20% to 90% when purchasing computers for libraries and classrooms. The program had a tremendous impact on computer and Internet accessibility in public schools. In the early 1980s the student-to-computer ratio was well over 100:1. By the 200506 school year the student-to-computer ratio in public schools was 3.9:1. (See Table 6.1.)

The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) surveys hundreds of U.S. public schools each year to determine the number of computers with Internet access in the nation's elementary and secondary schools. John Wells, Laurie Lewis, and Bernard Greene report in Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 19942005 (November 2006, http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2007/2007020.pdf) that the number of students per instructional computer with Web access in 2005 was 3.8a 69% decrease in the number of students per computer from 1998, when the ratio was 12.1:1. (See Figure 6.1.) Table 6.2 presents a breakdown of students to Internet-accessible computers by minority enrollment, school size, school locale, and

TABLE 6.1 Instructional computers in public and private schools, 200506
source: Table 252. Computers for Student Instruction in Elementary and Secondary Schools: 20052006, in Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2008, U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Economics and Statistics Administration, 2008, http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/tables/08s0252.pdf (accessed August 12, 2008). Data from Market Data Retrieval, Shelton, CT. <www.schooldata.com>
[54,848 represents 54,848,000]
Level Total schools Total enrollment (1,000) Number of computersa (1,000) Students per computer Schools with a wireless network (percent) Schools with distance learning programs for students (percent)b Schools with laptop computers (percent)c Schools with high speed Internet access (percent)d Schools with video- streaming (percent)
U.S. total 114,749 54,848 14,165 3.9 54.2 19.1 59.7 84.3 43.4
Public schools, total 91,977 49,567 12,914 3.8 54.4 20.3 60 85.7 45
Elementary 53,245 23,805 5,612 4.2 49.1 11.2 55.4 85 41.3
Middle/junior high 14,310 9,376 2,503 3.7 61.6 15.6 66.2 85.8 53.2
Senior high 17,282 14,028 4,067 3.4 64 43.8 67.9 87.5 50.4
K to 12/other 7,140 2,358 733 3.2 54.7 43.2 61.7 85.9 41
Catholic schools, total 7,673 2,481 554 4.5 51 7.1 60.3 74 29.7
Elementary 6,326 1,797 358 5 46.5 3.8 57.9 71.6 27.3
Secondary 1,179 621 179 3.5 67.7 20.8 70 83.8 38.8
K to 12/other 168 63 17 3.8 73.1 7.7 65.4 73.1 38.5
Other private schools, total 15,099 2,800 697 4 52.1 6.5 50.1 66.4 24.1
Elementary 7,426 1,171 283 4.1 52.9 2 51.4 67.6 26.5
Secondary 1,274 265 77 3.4 67.5 18.1 54.2 68.7 24.1
K to 12/other 6,399 1,363 338 4 47.1 9.5 47.4 64.2 20.8
aIncludes estimates for schools not reporting number of computers.
bDistance learning programs as determined by respondents.
cFor student instruction.
dStatistics based on responses to those indicating type of Internet connection. High speed includes Internet connection types: T1, T3, and cable modem.

other factors. Surprisingly, rural schools had more instructional computers with Internet access per student than city, urban, or town schools in 2005. In rural areas, one Internet-equipped computer was present for every three students. In urban areas only one Internet-equipped computer was present for every 4.2 students. Schools with 50% minority enrollment had roughly one instructional, Internet-ready computer for every 4.1 students, whereas schools with less than 6% minority enrollment had one computer for every three students. Larger schools and schools with more impoverished students also tended to have higher ratios of students to classroom computers with Internet access.

Wells, Lewis, and Greene further note that in 2005, 10% of public schools surveyed provided laptop computers for their students to use. (See Table 6.3.) Of the schools that provided laptops to students, 47% reported they typically lent laptops to students for less than one week. (See Table 6.4.) Seventeen percent said they lent students laptops for periods between one week and a month, and 16% of these schools offered use of the laptops to students for the entire school year. The researchers also indicate that 3% of schools that did not offer laptops in 2005 planned to do so during the 200607 school year.

Nineteen percent of schools offered their students and teachers handheld computers such as PDAs and advanced calculators. (See Table 6.5.) Unlike trends in laptop programs, a greater percentage of urban schools

TABLE 6.2 Ratio of public school students to instructional computers with Internet access, by school characteristics, 19982003 and 2005
source: John Wells and Laurie Lewis, Table 6. Ratio of Public School Students to Instructional Computers with Internet Access, by School Characteristics: Various Years 19982005, in Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 19942005, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, November 2006, http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2007/2007020.pdf (accessed August 12, 2008)
School characteristic 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005
All public schools 12.1 9.1 6.6 5.4 4.8 4.4 3.8
Instructional level
Elementary 13.6 10.6 7.8 6.1 5.2 4.9 4.1
Secondary 9.9 7 5.2 4.3 4.1 3.8 3.3
School size
Less than 300 9.1 5.7 3.9 4.1 3.1 3.2 2.4
300 to 999 12.3 9.4 7 5.6 5 4.7 3.9
1,000 or more 13 10 7.2 5.4 5.1 4.3 4
Locale
City 14.1 11.4 8.2 5.9 5.5 5 4.2
Urban fringe 12.4 9.1 6.6 5.7 4.9 4.6 4.1
Town 12.2 8.2 6.2 5 4.4 4.1 3.4
Rural 8.6 6.6 5 4.6 4 3.8 3
Percent minority enrollment
Less than 6 percent 10.1 7 5.7 4.7 4 4.1 3
6 to 20 percent 10.4 7.8 5.9 4.9 4.6 4.1 3.9
21 to 49 percent 12.1 9.5 7.2 5.5 5.2 4.1 4
50 percent or more 17.2 13.3 8.1 6.4 5.1 5.1 4.1
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
Less than 35 percent 10.6 7.6 6 4.9 4.6 4.2 3.8
35 to 49 percent 10.9 9 6.3 5.2 4.5 4.4 3.4
50 to 74 percent 15.8 10 7.2 5.6 4.7 4.4 3.6
75 percent or more 16.8 16.8 9.1 6.8 5.5 5.1 4

(22%) and schools with a high minority enrollment (23%) lent their students and teachers handheld computers than rural schools (20%) or those with low numbers of minority students (21%).

Internet Access in Schools

According to Wells, Lewis, and Greene, all public schools in the United States had Internet access by 2003. (See Table 6.6.) The availability of the Internet in public schools grew rapidly during the late 1990s and then leveled off. Only 35% of public schools were wired in 1994. By 1997, 78% had Internet access, and in 1999, 95% were connected to the Internet. With regard to the type of Internet connection found in public schools, the researchers report that in 2005, 97% of public schools had always-on broadband connections as opposed to dial-up service. (See Table 6.7.) This was a huge increase from 1996, when 74% of online schools used dial-up connections. Wireless connections were also on the rise. Forty-five percent of public schools had wireless connections in 2005. Larger schools were more likely to have a wireless connection. Roughly 40% of smaller schools (three hundred students or fewer) had wireless Internet connections, as opposed to 56% of larger schools (one thousand students or more).

Internet Use in the Classroom

In 2005, 94% of public school classrooms had Internet access. (See Table 6.8.) The number of wired class-rooms had increased fairly steadily since 1994, when only 3% of classrooms had Internet access. (See Figure 6.2.) Wells, Lewis, and Greene note that half of teachers reported using the Internet for instruction during class time in 1999. Only one-third of teachers, however, believed they were adequately prepared to use the Internet to teach classes. To improve this situation, schools began offering their teachers Internet training courses. By 2005, 83% of schools with Internet access reported their school or school district offered teachers professional instruction on ways to integrate the use of the Internet into the classroom curriculum.

Lawrence Lanahan and Janet Boysen surveyed teachers' views on technology in the classroom and reported their findings in Computer Technology in the Public School Classroom: Teacher Perspectives (March 2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005083.pdf). Teachers were asked which technologies were the most essential to their teaching. More than two-thirds (68%) reported they needed a teacher computer station with access to e-mail in the classroom. Nearly as many (61%) said access to the Internet in the classroom was vital. Only half (49%) thought the class needed at least one computer for every four students. Even fewer teachers believed that presentation software (35%), a full-page scanner (20%), or a video camera (18%) were necessary. Whether or not actual classrooms had the technologies teachers wanted, 57% said their

TABLE 6.3 Public schools that lent out laptops, 200103 and 2005
source: John Wells and Laurie Lewis, Table 9. Percentage of Public Schools Lending Laptop Computers to Students, by School Characteristics:
Various Years, 200105, in Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 19942005, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of
Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, November 2006, http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2007/2007020.pdf (accessed August 12, 2008)
School characteristic 2001 2002 2003 2005
All public schools 10 8 8 10
Instructional level
Elementary 7 5 5 7
Secondary 18 18 19 18
School size
Less than 300 15 9 14 11
300 to 999 7 7 6 9
1,000 or more 13 11 10 11
Locale
City 6 6 5 7
Urban fringe 7 6 7 9
Town 13 11 9 13
Rural 14 11 12 12
Percent minority enrollment
Less than 6 percent 11 12 11 15
6 to 20 percent 9 8 8 13
21 to 49 percent 10 7 9 7
50 percent or more 9 5 6 7
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
Less than 35 percent 10 10 9 11
35 to 49 percent 9 10 9 15
50 to 74 percent 10 7 9 7
75 percent or more 10 3 7 6
TABLE 6.4 Length of time that public schools lent laptops to students, 2002, 2003, and 2005
source: John Wells and Laurie Lewis, Table 10. Percentage of Public Schools Lending Laptop Computers to Students for Various Maximum
Lengths of Time: 2002, 2003, and 2005, in Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 19942005, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, November 2006, http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2007/2007020.pdf (accessed August 12, 2008)
Maximum length of time of loan 2002 2003 2005
Less than 1 week 59 57 47
1 week to less than 1 month 19 17 17
1 month to less than 3 months a 2b 5
3 months to less than 6 months a a 5
6 months to less than the entire school year a c 5
The entire school year 16 15 16
Otherd 2b 8 5
aReporting standards not met.
bInterpret data with caution; the coefficient of variation is greater than 50 percent.
cRounds to zero.
dFor example, more than 1 school year.
Note: Percentages are based on the 8 percent of public schools lending laptop computers to students in 2002 and 2003, and 10 percent of public schools in 2005. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and not reporting where there are too few cases for a reliable estimate.

classroom technology was satisfactory. Roughly 35% said that their classrooms were not up to date.

TABLE 6.5 Public schools that lent out handheld computers, 2002, 2003, and 2005
source: John Wells and Laurie Lewis, Table 7. Percentage of Public Schools Providing Hand-Held Computers to Students or Teachers for
Instructional Purposes, by School Characteristics: 2002, 2003, and 2005, in Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 19942005, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, November 2006, http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2007/2007020.pdf (accessed August 12, 2008)
School characteristic 2002 2003 2005
All public schools 7 10 19
Instructional levela
Elementary 6 9 19
Secondary 10 14 17
School size
Less than 300 8 5 17
300 to 999 6 11 20
1,000 or more 12 21 15
Locale
City 5 11 22
Urban fringe 6 9 17
Town 6 10 15
Rural 10 10 20
Percent minority enrollmentb
Less than 6 percent 9 9 21
6 to 20 percent 7 10 16
21 to 49 percent 5 10 16
50 percent or more 7 12 23
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
Less than 35 percent 9 10 16
35 to 49 percent 5 10 18
50 to 74 percent 7 9 23
75 percent or more 5 11 21
aData for combined schools are included in the totals and in analyses by other school characteristics but are not shown separately.
bPercent minority enrollment was not available for 15 schools in 2002, 28 schools in 2003, and 20 schools in 2005.
Note: Percentages are based on all public schools.

Preventing Access to Inappropriate Material

In 2000 Congress established the Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA). Under the CIPA, schools that could not prove they use filtering or blocking technology to keep children from viewing pornographic or sexually explicit Web sites were no longer eligible for the E-Rate Program. Consequently, Wells, Lewis, and Greene indicate that almost all schools with Internet access in 2005 used some type of technology or procedure to control the access students had to content on the Internet. The types of controls used by schools can be seen in Table 6.9. Ninety-nine percent of schools in 2005 employed Internet content filtering or blocking software. Teachers or staff monitored students' activities online in 96% of schools with Internet access. Some 79% of schools required written contracts from the parents, and 76% required written contracts from students stating that students would abide by school rules for technology use. Rural schools were the most likely to use contracts as a control procedure,

TABLE 6.6 Public schools with Internet access, 19942003 and 2005
source: John Wells and Laurie Lewis, Table 1. Percentage of Public Schools with Internet Access, by School Characteristics: Various Years, 19942005, in Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 19942005, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, November 2006, http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2007/2007020.pdf (accessed August 12, 2008)
School characteristic 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005
All public schools 35 50 65 78 89 95 98 99 99 100 100
Instructional level
Elementary 30 46 61 75 88 94 97 99 99 100 100
Secondary 49 65 77 89 94 98 100 100 100 100 100
School size
Less than 300 30 39 57 75 87 96 96 99 96 100 100
300 to 999 35 52 66 78 89 94 98 99 100 100 99
1,000 or more 58 69 80 89 95 96 99 100 100 100 100
Locale
City 40 47 64 74 92 93 96 97 99 100 99
Urban fringe 38 59 75 78 85 96 98 99 100 100 99
Town 29 47 61 84 90 94 98 100 98 100 100
Rural 35 48 60 79 92 96 99 100 98 100 100
Percent minority enrollment
Less than 6 percent 38 52 65 84 91 95 98 99 97 100 99
6 to 20 percent 38 58 72 87 93 97 100 100 100 100 100
21 to 49 percent 38 55 65 73 91 96 98 100 99 99 100
50 percent or more 27 39 56 63 82 92 96 98 99 100 100
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
Less than 35 percent 39 60 74 86 92 95 99 99 98 100 99
35 to 49 percent 35 48 59 81 93 98 99 100 100 100 100
50 to 74 percent 32 41 53 71 88 96 97 99 100 100 100
75 percent or more 18 31 53 62 79 89 94 97 99 99 99

with 83% requiring parental contracts and 82% requiring student contracts. Monitoring software, which tracks the Web pages that individual students visit, was used in 67% of schools overall, with urban schools (72%) the most likely to use this technology.

Use of General Technology Among Teens and Children

Computers and Internet Use

Many children and teenagers use computers and the Internet both at school and at home. In Computer and Internet Use by Students in 2003 (September 2006, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006065.pdf), Matthew DeBell and Chris Chapman state that 68% of students in kindergarten through twelfth grade logged onto a computer at home in 2003, and 83% used computers at school. More than one-third (35%) of elementary students in grades one through five used a home computer to complete school assignments, and this percentage increased with educational level; 62% of middle school students in grades six through eight used a home computer to complete school work and 69% of high school students did. (See Table 6.10.) Overall, 45% of all students from nursery school through high school used a home computer to connect to the Internet in 2003. White students were the most likely to use a home computer to complete school assignments and to use a home computer to access the Internet. By far, the activity teens and children participated in the most was playing games. Fifty-six percent of students reported playing computer games at home, with those in grades six through eight playing them the most (61%). The drop in the percentage of game players during the high school years is likely because, besides increased homework, many older adolescents are often involved in a number of extracurricular activities, including part-time jobs, sports, school clubs, and community organizations.

Lenhart, Madden, and Hitlin note that more than twenty-one million young people aged twelve through seventeen used the Internet in 2004. Fifty-one percent said they logged online daily. Furthermore, the researchers find that many teens began logging onto the Internet in junior high; the number of Internet users shot up from 60% to 82% between sixth and seventh grades. By eleventh and twelfth grade, a full 94% of teens reported going online. According to Amanda Lenhart et al. of the Pew/ Internet, in Teens and Social Media (December 19, 2007, http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Social_Media_Final.pdf), 93% of American teenagers aged twelve to seventeen were Internet users in 2006. The researchers also note that daily use of the Internet had increased among teens: in 2006, 61% of teens reported using the Internet daily. Of those who went online every day, 27% said that they only went online once per day, and over

TABLE 6.7 Public schools with broadband access, 200003 and 2005
source: John Wells and Laurie Lewis, Table 3. Percent of Public Schools with Internet Access Using Broadband Connections, by School
Characteristics: Various Years, 20002005, in Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 19942005, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, November 2006, http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2007/2007020.pdf (accessed August 12, 2008)
School characteristic 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005
All public schools 80 85 94 95 97
Instructional level
Elementary 77 83 93 94 97
Secondary 89 94 98 97 99
School size
Less than 300 67 72 90 90 94
300 to 999 83 89 94 96 98
1,000 or more 90 96 100 100 100
Locale
City 80 88 97 97 98
Urban fringe 85 88 92 97 98
Town 79 83 97 98 98
Rural 75 82 91 90 96
Percent minority enrollment
Less than 6 percent 76 81 92 90 96
6 to 20 percent 82 85 91 96 97
21 to 49 percent 84 85 96 98 98
50 percent or more 81 93 95 97 97
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
Less than 35 percent 81 84 93 95 98
35 to 49 percent 82 86 96 96 95
50 to 74 percent 79 84 93 96 97
75 percent or more 75 90 95 93 98

one-third (34%) logged on more than one time per day. Furthermore, Lenhart et al. find that in 2006 nearly two-thirds (64%) of online teens (59% of all teens) were creating Web content, such as uploading artwork, photos, or videos, or maintaining a Web page or blog about themselves.

Teens took part in a number of activities online in 2006. Of teenage Internet users, 81% visited Web sites devoted to movies, television programs, music groups, or sports stars, 77% went online to get news, and 38% bought things online. (See Table 6.11.) Even though more than half (55%) of teens sought information about colleges or universities online, African-American students were the most likely to do so (79%); just over half (51%) of white students used the Internet to gather information about colleges and universities.

Teens and Communications

By 2006 many teens depended on the Internet and other technologies to keep in touch with one another. Table 6.12 and Table 6.13 show the daily communication choices made by teens and rank their popularity among subgroups of teens based on communication technologies used. Overall, landlines were the most popular form of communication among teens, but those who had cell phones preferred them to landlines. E-mail was the least popular communication tool among teens. Only 14% of teens reported using e-mail daily; those most likely to use e-mail were teens who also used social networking sites such as Facebook or MySpace, but even then only two out of ten (21%) reported checking their e-mail daily.

Lenhart et al. find that nearly three out of ten (28%) teens aged twelve to seventeen were multichannel communicators; that is, they had access to several communications technologies, including mobile phones, Internet access, text messaging, and social networking sites. Multichannel teens were more likely to use all forms of communication technology than were s overall. (See Table 6.14.) In particular, multichannel teens (70%) were significantly more likely to talk on their cell phones daily than were teens overall (35%), were more likely to send text messages (60% versus 27%), and were more likely to use instant messaging (54% versus 28%). Interestingly, they were also slightly more likely to meet with their friends in person (35% versus 31%).

Colleges and Universities

College students are among the most wired Americans and are typically the first to embrace new technologies. The marketing research firm Student Monitor (October 2008, http://www.studentmonitor.com/) reports that in 2008, 86% of full-time undergraduate college students owned their own computers before starting college. It also reports that 88% of college students accessed the Internet at least once per day. With a weekly average of nineteen hours, students in 2008 spent twice as much time online as those interviewed in 2000. The 2008 Student Monitor survey also reveals that nine out of ten full-time undergraduate students had a cell phone, which was more than double the rate of ownership measured in 2000.

By 2008 college students had integrated the Internet into every aspect of their life. Experience Inc., an employment services company specializing in graduate recruitment, states in 2006 Media Perception Survey (2008, http://www.experience.com/) that college and university students nationwide spent time online engaged in interactive pursuits such as uploading, downloading, and viewing photographs and videos, reading and writing blogs, and creating podcasts. In 2006, 85% of college students reported viewing and downloading photos, whereas 67% uploaded and shared photos online. Nearly three-quarters (73%) of students said they viewed or uploaded videos online. Online activities drew a larger proportion of students than television, with 43% of students reporting spending at least ten hours per week online, whereas only 17% of students reported watching television at least ten hours per week. The survey respondents indicated that

TABLE 6.8 Public school instructional rooms with Internet access, by school characteristics, 19942003 and 2005
source: John Wells and Laurie Lewis, Table 2. Percent of Public School Instructional Rooms with Internet Access, by School Characteristics: Various Years, 19942005, in Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 19942005, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, November 2006, http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2007/2007020.pdf (accessed August 12, 2008)
[in percent]
School characteristic 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005
All public schools 3 8 14 27 51 64 77 87 92 93 94
Instructional level
Elementary 3 8 13 24 51 62 76 86 92 93 93
Secondary 4 8 16 32 52 67 79 88 91 94 95
School size
Less than 300 3 9 15 27 54 71 83 87 91 93 92
300 to 999 3 8 13 28 53 64 78 87 93 93 94
1,000 or more 3 4 16 25 45 58 70 86 89 94 94
Locale
City 4 6 12 20 47 52 66 82 88 90 88
Urban fringe 4 8 16 29 50 67 78 87 92 94 96
Town 3 8 14 34 55 72 87 91 96 97 98
Rural 3 8 14 30 57 71 85 89 93 94 95
Percent minority enrollment
Less than 6 percent 4 9 18 37 57 74 85 88 93 93 96
6 to 20 percent 4 10 18 35 59 78 83 90 94 95 97
21 to 49 percent 4 9 12 22 52 64 79 89 91 95 91
50 percent or more 2 3 5 13 37 43 64 81 89 92 92
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
Less than 35 percent 3 10 17 33 57 73 82 90 93 95 96
35 to 49 percent 2 6 12 33 60 69 81 89 90 93 88
50 to 74 percent 4 6 11 20 41 61 77 87 91 94 96
75 percent or more 2 3 5 14 38 38 60 79 89 90 91

Google, Yahoo!, and MySpace were the Web sites they visited most often.

Technology and College Academics

The Internet has transformed college life from beginning to end, from the selection process undertaken by high school students considering different institutions to the employment and career services offered online to recent college graduates. In the twenty-first century high school students research colleges and universities online, take virtual campus and dormitory tours, and download recruitment materials and application forms. College students enroll for classes, pay fees, order books and course materials, communicate with teachers and other students, and may even take classes and tests online.

The Internet has also become a primary resource of information for school reports and papers from elementary school through postgraduate studies. According to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), in ARL Statistics 200506 (2008, http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/arlstats06.pdf), reference queries at university research libraries decreased 46% between 1991 and 2006, whereas the number of students served increased by 24%. During the same period interlibrary borrowing increased 164%, but circulation overall experienced a decline of 8%. Reference queries at ARL institutions peaked in 1996 with a median number (half the institutions experienced more reference transactions and half experienced fewer) of 155,336; by 2006 the median number had dropped 56% to 67,697. The decline in reference transactions can be directly linked to students' ability to conduct their own research via the Internet. To facilitate students' independent research, ARL institutions have increased expenditures on electronic materials, including electronic serial publications, monographs, and other computer resources. Of their total materials budget during the 199293 academic year, ARL libraries spent a median of 3.6% on electronic sources; by the 200102 academic year the median expenditure on electronic sources had climbed to 19.6%.

College Students and Entertainment

College students use the Internet to communicate with others, to do research, to conduct personal business, and to entertain themselves at a rate higher than that of the adult population overall. In College Students Embrace the Web (February 10, 2006, http://www.imediaconnection.com/content/8237.asp), Debra Aho Williamson reports on the pervasiveness of information technology on college campuses. According to Williamson, a survey of full-time

undergraduate students conducted in December 2005 by the Simmons Market Research Bureau showed that 94% of students used the Internet, compared to 76% of the adult population overall. In addition, 73% of full-time undergraduate students reported that in the previous thirty days they had used e-mail, compared to 51% of all adults in the survey. Forty percent of college students had used instant messaging, compared to 13% of all adults. Four out of ten (39%) college students stated they had used the Internet for research or educational purposes in the previous thirty days, compared to 17% of adults overall. Nearly one-third (32%) of college students had downloaded a game, whereas only 13% of the adults reported doing so, and a quarter (26%) of students had downloaded music though only 8% of adults reported doing so in the previous thirty days.

Steve Jones et al. of the Pew/Internet find in Let the Games Begin (July 6, 2003, http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_College_Gaming_Reporta.pdf), a survey conducted on the gaming habits of college students, that 70% of college students played computer, video, or online games at least once in a while. Seventy-one percent said they played computer games. Video games and online games followed at 59% and 56%, respectively. Jones et al. speculate that these numbers have to do with accessibility of computer games. Computer games, such as Solitaire or Tetris variants, could be played on a laptop in class, in a computer lab, or wherever there was a computer. As to gender, men generally preferred to play video games, but a higher percentage of women played online and computer games. Forty-seven percent of women played online and computer games, as opposed to 31% of men. Jones et al. suggest that women enjoyed nonaction card and puzzle games, and that these games typically could be found on a computer. Online games provide the benefit of anonymity, and many online gaming sites cater to women's interests and tastes. By contrast, video games are often violent, and when they feature female characters, these often typify male fantasies (with exaggerated figures and little clothing) rather than realistic portrayals. Of all the college students who did play games, most believed the experience to be a positive one. Half of the gamers, however, said they used video games as a way of avoiding their studies.

Distance Learning

According to Steve Jones et al. of the Pew/Internet, in The Internet Goes to College (September 15, 2002, http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_College_Report.pdf), distance learning was not very popular among college students in 2002. Only 6% of students surveyed had taken online courses for credit, and a little over half (52%) of these students believed the courses were worthwhile. Despite what undergraduates thought of distance learning at that time, the number of people enrolled in distance learning courses offered by postsecondary (i.e., following high school) institutions nearly doubled between the 199798 and 200001 school years. Tiffany Waits, Laurie Lewis, and Bernard Greene state in Distance Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions: 20002001 (July 2003, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2003/2003017.pdf) that 3.1 million students were enrolled in distance learning classes. Of these, 2.9 million were in college-level, credit-granting courses. In 200001 public two-year institutions, such as community colleges, had the highest enrollment in distance education classes, followed by public four-year institutions and private four-year institutions.

Since that time distance learning has continued to gain acceptance. In Digest of Education Statistics 2007 (March 2008, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2008/2008022.pdf), Thomas D. Snyder, Sally A. Dillow, and Charlene M. Hoffman note that in 2005 the University of Phoenix Online, an online institution, was the largest private university in the United States, with 117,309 students. This figure was more than twice the number of students enrolled at the nation's other top-five largest institutions, including Miami-Dade College, which had fall 2005 enrollment of 54,169; Arizona State University, Tempe (51,612); University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

TABLE 6.9 Percentage of public schools using selected procedures to prevent student access to inappropriate material on the Internet, 200103 and 2005
School characteristic Monitoring by teachers or other staff Blocking/filtering software
2001 2002 2003 2005 2001 2002 2003 2005
All public schools 91 91 93 96 87 96 96 99
Instructional level
Elementary 90 91 93 96 85 95 96 99
Secondary 93 92 92 95 93 98 98 98
School size
Less than 300 88 90 92 97 81 97 96 99
300 to 999 92 91 93 96 88 95 97 99
1,000 or more 93 95 93 96 93 99 96 99
Locale
City 90 88 92 98 83 91 96 99
Urban fringe 91 92 93 95 88 96 96 99
Town 84 93 94 90 87 99 98 100
Rural 95 91 92 97 87 98 97 99
Percent minority enrollment
Less than 6 percent 92 92 93 98 86 96 97 100
6 to 20 percent 93 92 96 94 86 96 99 98
21 to 49 percent 91 94 95 98 86 96 97 100
50 percent or more 88 87 89 95 87 95 93 98
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
Less than 35 percent 92 95 94 95 87 95 96 99
35 to 49 percent 94 89 95 98 86 98 98 97
50 to 74 percent 90 90 94 96 86 97 97 100
75 percent or more 87 86 89 96 86 95 95 99
School characteristic Written contract that parents have to sign Written contract that students have to sign
2001 2002 2003 2005 2001 2002 2003 2005
All public schools 80 82 83 79 75 77 76 76
Instructional level
Elementary 78 82 82 78 72 74 72 72
Secondary 87 82 84 84 87 84 87 88
School size
Less than 300 73 82 85 74 69 78 81 75
300 to 999 82 82 82 81 76 75 73 76
1,000 or more 86 81 82 82 84 81 82 80
Locale
City 78 78 78 76 72 74 70 72
Urban fringe 80 79 85 79 76 69 75 71
Town 79 84 86 80 76 85 84 79
Rural 82 87 83 83 78 83 78 82
Percent minority enrollment
Less than 6 percent 82 83 84 77 77 81 79 76
6 to 20 percent 80 82 85 77 75 73 79 74
21 to 49 percent 79 83 82 81 77 77 72 75
50 percent or more 78 80 80 81 72 75 74 78
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
Less than 35 percent 82 82 84 75 77 75 74 72
35 to 49 percent 83 86 82 79 78 80 83 77
50 to 74 percent 81 83 84 84 79 81 75 79
75 percent or more 73 76 80 83 64 71 72 78

(51,175); and Western International University (50,663). Founded in 1976 as an institution devoted to providing educational opportunities for working adults, the University of Phoenix reports in 2008 Academic Annual Report (2008, http://www.phoenix.edu/doc/about_us/AcademicAnnualReport-2008.pdf) that it served three hundred thousand students, employed twenty thousand instructors, and had an alumni base of four hundred thousand graduates. It offered over one hundred degree programs online and at learning centers throughout the United States.

The widespread use of the Internet and personal computers largely explains the growth in distance learning. E-mail allows for affordable, convenient day-to-day communication between teachers and students. CD-ROMs and the Internet provide the possibility for completely interactive course modules and timed tests. Waits,

TABLE 6.9 Percentage of public schools using selected procedures to prevent student access to inappropriate material on the Internet, 200003
and 2005 [CONTINUED]
source: John Wells and Laurie Lewis, Table 13. Percent of Public Schools with Internet Access Using Various Technologies or Procedures to Prevent Student Access to Inappropriate Material on the Internet, by School Characteristics: Various Years, 200105, in Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 19942005, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, November 2006, http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2007/2007020.pdf (accessed August 12, 2008)
School characteristic Monitoring software Honor code for students Intranet
2001 2002 2003 2005 2001 2002 2003 2005 2001 2002 2003 2005
All public schools 46 52 57 67 44 41 45 53 26 32 39 46
Instructional level
Elementary 43 51 56 66 44 41 45 52 24 34 40 46
Secondary 52 57 60 72 45 43 46 53 33 28 34 45
School size
Less than 300 42 51 56 64 38 40 43 48 17 19 26 34
300 to 999 47 52 56 67 46 42 46 54 29 37 43 49
1,000 or more 48 59 62 73 46 43 48 54 32 33 44 56
Locale
City 49 45 51 72 51 38 47 58 29 38 39 57
Urban fringe 44 53 58 65 43 44 43 56 29 37 47 46
Town 37 65 62 67 39 40 36 44 19 24 35 43
Rural 49 51 57 65 42 42 50 48 24 26 32 39
Percent minority enrollment Less than 6 percent 47 51 57 68 41 39 46 46 21 20 35 43
6 to 20 percent 44 57 64 65 45 41 50 54 30 37 41 43
21 to 49 percent 46 53 55 69 46 50 42 57 29 41 44 40
50 percent or more 45 48 54 69 44 39 43 53 27 35 38 54
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch
Less than 35 percent 45 54 63 65 48 44 45 51 29 34 43 45
35 to 49 percent 40 47 55 63 38 42 40 57 23 28 39 42
50 to 74 percent 51 53 49 71 40 40 47 51 22 30 33 44
75 percent or more 46 52 56 69 45 37 48 53 28 35 38 52

Lewis, and Greene note that a full 90% of institutions offered Internet courses where the students could review the course material on their own timetable (in other words, not in sync with everyone else in the class). Forty-three percent of institutions offered synchronous Internet courses where all students in the class were required to go on the Internet at the same time to receive instruction or take tests.

Distance Learning at the Elementary and Secondary Levels

In Technology-Based Distance Education Courses for Public Elementary and Secondary Schools: 200203 and 200405 (June 2008, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2008/2008008.pdf), a companion study to Waits, Lewis, and Greene's survey of distance education at the college level, Izabella Zandberg, Laurie Lewis, and Bernard Greene indicate that 37% of school districts and 10% of all K12 schools in the United States had students enrolled in distance education courses during the 200405 school year. An estimated 506,950 total enrollments were counted in the study, which represented a 60% increase over enrollments counted in 200203 (317,070). (Enrollments refers to the total number of enrollments in all distance education classes and is higher than the number of participating students, because some individuals took more than one class.)

Distance education experiences varied widely according to instructional level: 61% of enrollments consisted of high school students, 33% attended combined or ungraded schools, 3% were in middle or junior high school, and 2% were in elementary school. (See Figure 6.3.) Elementary school enrollments in technology-based education courses nearly quadrupled from 2,780 in 200203 to 12,540 in 200405. (See Figure 6.4.) Middle and junior high school enrollments increased 137%, from 6,390 to 15,150; combined and ungraded enrollments increased 81%, from 93,760 to 169,630; and high school enrollments increased 45%, from 214,140 in 200203 to 309,630 in 200405.

Zandberg, Lewis, and Greene find that characteristics such as size, metropolitan status, region, and poverty concentration affected the rate at which public school districts used distance education courses for their students during the 200405 school year. For example, rural districts (45%) had students enrolled in distance education courses at twice the rate of urban districts (25%); and districts in the Southeast (46%) and Central states (45%) had students enrolled in distance education courses at a higher rate than those in the West (35%) or Northeast (22%). (See Table 6.15.) The researchers suggest that rural districts used distance education at a higher rate

TABLE 6.10 Percentage of students in nursery school through twelfth grade using home computers for specific activities, by selected characteristics, 2003
source: Adapted from Matthew DeBell and Chris Chapman, Table 5. Percentage of Children in Nursery School and Students in Grades K12 Using Home Computers for Specific Activities, by Student and F amily/Household Characteristics: 2003, in Computer and Internet Use by Students in 2003, U .S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, September 2006,
http://nces.ed.g ov /pubs2006/2006065.pdf (accessed August 12, 2008)
  Home computer activity
  Play gamesa Complete school assignments Connect to the Internet Word processing E-mail Graphics, photos, images, audio, videob Spreadsheets or databasesb Manage household records or financesb
Student characteristic Total number of students (in thousands) Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent
Total 58,273 56 47 45 32 31
Student characteristic
Grade level
Nursery school 4,928 43 8 15 5 4
Kindergarten 3,719 52 12 21 8 7
15 20,043 56 35 34 19 16
68 12,522 61 62 54 42 40
912 17,062 57 69 64 52 56 26 13 3
Sex
Female 28,269 55 49 46 34 34 8 4 1
Male 30,005 57 46 44 30 29 8 4 1
Race/ethnicityc
White 35,145 66 54 54 38 39 9 5 1
Hispanic 10,215 37 34 26 20 16 4 2 1
Black 8,875 38 35 27 20 18 5 2 #
Asian 2,293 54 52 46 36 33 9 5 1
American Indian 346 30 27 22 19 16 5 2 1
More than one race 1,400 61 51 48 36 32 7 4 #
Physical disability status
Disabled 646 46 33 36 20 24 7 6 #
Not disabled 47,949 57 48 46 32 32 8 4 1
School enrollment
Public 50,653 55 48 45 32 31 8 4 1
Private 7,620 63 43 45 31 29 6 3 1
Not available. Data were not collected.
#Rounds to zero.
aRefers to playing games without using the Internet.
bQuestions about noted computer activities were asked only about persons age 15 and older. Most of these students were in grades 9 and above.
cWhite, Black, Asian, more than one race, and American Indian respectively indicate white, non-Hispanic; Black, non-Hispanic; Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic; more than one race, non-Hispanic; and American Indian, Aleut, or Eskimo, non-Hispanic. Hispanics may be of any race.
TABLE 6.11 What teens did online, 2006
source: Amanda Lenhart et al., Teen Internet Activities, in Teens and Social Media, P ew Internet & American Life Project, December 19, 2007,
http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Social_Media_Final.pdf (accessed August 21, 2008). Used by permission of the Pe w Internet &
American Life Project, which bears no responsibility for the interpretations presented or conclusions reached based on analysis of the data.
Do you ever...? Online teens (sample size = 886)
Go to websites about movies, TV shows, music groups, or sports stars 81%
Get information about news and current events 77
Send or receive instant messages (IMs) 68
Watch video sharing site 57
Use an online social networking site like MySpace or Facebook 55
Get information about a college or university you are thinking of attending 55
Play computer or console games online 49
Buy things online, such as books, clothes, and music 38
Look for health, dieting, or physical fitness information 28
Download a podcast 19
Visit chatrooms 18
TABLE 6.12 Teens' daily communications choices, 2006
source: Amanda Lenhart et al., Daily Social Communications Choices, in Teens and Social Media, Pew Internet & American Life Project, December 19, 2007, http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Social_Media_Final.pdf (accessed August 21, 2008). Used by permission of the Pew Internet & American Life Project, which bears no responsibility for the interpretations presented or conclusions reached based on analysis of the data.
THINKING ABOUT ALL THE DIFFERENT WAYS YOU SOCIALIZE AND COMMUNICATE WITH YOUR FRIENDS... ABOUT HOW OFTEN DO YOU...?
The percent of teens who communicate with their friends every day via these methods
  All teens (n = 935) Cell-using teens (n = 618) Internet-using teens (n = 886) Teens who use the Internet and have cell phones (n = 601) Teens who use social network) sites (n = 493)
Talk to friends on landline telephone 39% 41% 40% 41% 44%
Talk on cell phone 35 55 36 55 48
Spend time with friends in person 31 34 32 34 38
Instant message 28 35 30 36 42
Send text messages 27 38 28 38 36
Send messages over social network sites 21 26 23 27 41
Send email 14 15 15 16 21
Note: n is sample size.
TABLE 6.13 Rank order of teens' daily communications choices, 2006
source: Amanda Lenhart et al., Rank Order of Teen Daily Social Communications Choices, in Teens and Social Media, Pew Internet & American Life
Project, December 19, 2007, http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Social_Media_Final.pdf (accessed August 21, 2008). Used by permission of the Pew Internet & American Life Project, which bears no responsibility for the interpretations presented or conclusions reached based on analysis of the data.
The most popular methods of communicating with friends every day
Rank All Teens (n 935) Cell-using teens (n 618) Internet-using teens (n 886) Teens who use the Internet and have cell phones (n 601) Teens who use social network sites (n 493)
1 Landline Cell phone Landline Cell phone Cell phone
2 Cell phone Landline Cell phone Landline Landline
3 Face to face Text Face to face Text IM
4 IM IM IM IM SNS
5 Text Face to face Text Face to face Face to face
6 SNS SNS SNS SNS Text
7 Email Email Email Email Email
Note: n is sample size.
IM = instant messaging
SNS = social network sites

than urban and suburban districts because students in isolated communities might not have other options. Indeed, J. Carl Setzer, Laurie Lewis, and Bernard Greene note in Distance Education Courses for Public Elementary and Secondary School Students: 200203 (March 2005, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005010.pdf) that 80% of districts rated offering courses not otherwise available at the school as a very important reason for having distance education courses in their school districts, and 59% cited meeting the needs of specific groups of students as very important. Twenty-five percent of districts pursued distance education courses as a way to address issues associated with a growing population and limited space. A smaller group considered it an important way to generate revenue for the district, with 4% citing this as a very important reason for offering distance education courses and 12% declaring it somewhat important.

TABLE 6.14 Communication choices made by teens with access to multiple technologies compared with all teens, 2006
source: Amanda Lenhart et al., Multi-Channel Teens Are the Most Communicative, in Teens and Social Media, Pew Internet & American Life
Project, December 19, 2007, http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Social_Media_Final.pdf (accessed August 21, 2008). Used by permission of the Pew Internet & American Life Project, which bears no responsibility for the interpretations presented or conclusions reached based on analysis of the data.
The percent of teens who communicate with their friends every day via these methods
  All teens (n 935) Multi-channel teens (n 265)
Talk to friends on landline telephone 39% 46%
Talk on cell phone 35 70
Spend time with friends in person 31 35
Instant message 28 54
Send text messages 27 60
Send messages over social network sites 21 47
Send email 14 22
Note: n is sample size.

Setzer, Lewis, and Greene find that that the curriculum area with the largest number of distance education enrollments was social studies, with 23% of all enrollments. Other curriculum areas with high enrollments

in 200203 included English and language arts (19%), mathematics (15%), natural and physical sciences (12%), and foreign languages (12%). Approximately 45,300 enrollments (14% of all enrollments) were in Advanced Placement or college-level classes offered through distance education. Nearly half (48%) of districts depended on postsecondary institutions for the distance learning courses used by their students; other entities providing distance education courses included other schools in the district or state, virtual (online) schools, statewide education service agencies, or independent vendors.

According to Zandberg, Lewis, and Greene, 71% of districts that offered distance learning programs for their students in 200405 planned to expand their offerings. Many experts predict that distance education will become widely used during the next decade. In The Future of the Internet (January 9, 2005, http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Future_of_Internet.pdf), a survey of 1,286 technology experts in 2004, Susannah Fox, Janna Quitney Anderson, and Lee Rainie of the Pew/Internet explain that 57% agreed that in ten years students will spend part

TABLE 6.15 Number and percent of public school districts with students enrolled in distance education courses, by district characteristics, 200203 and 200405
source: Izabella Zandberg, Laurie Lewis, and Bernard Greene, Table 1. Number of Public School Districts in the Nation, Number of Public School Districts with Students Enrolled in Technology-Based Distance Education Courses, and Percent of Public School Districts with Students Enrolled in Technology-Based Distance Education Courses, by District Characteristics: 200203 and 200405, in Technology-Based Distance Education Courses for Public Elementary and Secondary Schools: 200203 and 200405, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, June 2008, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2008/2008008.pdf (accessed August 22, 2008)
  Number of districts Number of districts with students enrolled in technology-based distance education courses Percent of districts with students enrolled in technology-based distance education courses
District characteristic 200203 200405 200203 200405 200203 200405
All public school districts 15,040 15,190 5,470 5,670 36 37
District enrollment size
Less than 2,500 11,080 11,120 4,050 4,150 37 37
2,500 to 9,999 3,100 3,090 1,010 1,070 32 35
10,000 or more 820 850 410 430 50 50
Metropolitan status
Urban 1,220 1,530 290 380 23 25
Suburban 6,150 6,700 1,680 2,120 27 32
Rural 7,660 6,950 3,500 3,160 46 45
Region
Northeast 3,040 2,910 640 630 21 22
Southeast 1,750 1,750 790 800 45 46
Central 5,390 5,650 2,490 2,550 46 45
West 4,850 4,880 1,540 1,690 32 35
Poverty concentration
Less than 10 percent 4,850 5,210 1,610 1,840 33 35
10 to 19 percent 5,330 5,070 2,220 2,140 42 42
20 percent or more 3,690 3,330 1,560 1,440 42 43

of their day in a virtual classroom grouped with other students by ability rather than by age. Among those agreeing that distance learning will become more prevalent, the survey respondent Gary Kreps of George Mason University and of the National Cancer Institute said, This is already happening, where on-line education is being integrated with traditional educational programs. I like the combination of educational approaches better than pitting in-person and distance education against one another. I think that electronic education is a wonderful supplement to more traditional educational approaches. Christine Geith of Michigan State University responded that in ten years learners of all ages will have more tools at their disposal and larger networks of people from which to learnoften without time or place limitations. Lucky ones will even be in communities or professions in which the traditional expectations for judging quality will be liberated. Unfortunately for the rest of us, a short ten years . . . will not be long enough to really take advantage of the new forms of learning enabled by the internet.

Cheating and High Technology

Cheating is one of the biggest problems facing academia and includes any instance in which a student breaks the rules for an assignment or test to gain an advantage over fellow classmates. A specific type of cheating known as plagiarism occurs when a student submits someone else's work as his or her own. Plagiarism itself has several forms, including purchasing a previously written paper, copying sentences or ideas from an original source document without proper attribution, or paying someone else to complete the work. In June 2005 Donald L. McCabe of Rutgers University, the founder of the Center for Academic Integrity (http://www.academicintegrity.org/), published the results of a three-year survey of fifty thousand college students at sixty campuses across the country. Of those who admitted cheating in 2005, a quarter said they had cheated seriously on a test and half said they had cheated seriously on written assignment. The Josephson Institute of Ethics states in 2006 Report Card on the Ethics of American Youth (October 12, 2006, http://charactercounts.org/pdf/reportcard/reportcard-all.pdf) that one-third (32.9%) of high school students had copied a document from the Internet for a class assignment and that six out of ten (60.2%) admitted to having cheated on a test at least once in the previous year.

The Internet and other types of information technology have only served to fuel the cheating epidemic in the United States. Phones with text messaging allow students the opportunity to communicate with outsiders or others in class during a test. Companies that specialize in writing papers for students, commonly known as paper mills, can now deliver papers discreetly to students via e-mail. In general, the Internet provides an endless source of documents and papers from which students might copy material. Catching plagiarism on the Internet, however, involves combing through countless articles and Web sites. The issue of plagiarism from Web sources is further complicated by the fact that the Internet has obscured the distinction between what information requires attribution and what is public knowledge. McCabe's study reveals that 40% of students had used the cut-and-paste technique and that 77% regarded the practice as trivial or not cheating at all. The problem appears to have gotten worse. Only 10% of college students admitted to using the Internet to plagiarize in 1999. Of high school students surveyed, roughly 40% admitted to using the Internet to plagiarize.

To catch plagiarizers, some schools are using high-technology online services such as Turnitin.com. This online service receives papers from students and teachers and scans them into a database. The papers are then checked against more than nine billion Web pages, previously submitted student papers, and a number of books and encyclopedias. Turnitin.com indicates in Quick Facts (August 1, 2008, http://www.turnitin.com/static/pdf/Turnitin_brochure.pdf) that it handled 130,000 papers daily in 2008.

As of 2008, Princeton University and many other leading schools were still not using antiplagiarism services, holding to the belief that their campuses did not foster a culture in which cheating is acceptable. According to Emily Sachar, in Ivy League Shuns Anti-plagiarism Tool as U.S. Cheating Rises (Bloomberg.com, October 10, 2006), Peter Salovey, the dean of Yale College, said, This is not a campus characterized by any kind of cheating culture or a culture where students are attempting to cut corners. I would rather create a culture of integrity and honesty and expect the best. McCabe, however, maintains that academic cheating will escalate if schools do not confront the issue. He told Sachar, Unfortunately, inaction in the face of cheating leads to even higher levels of cheating. According to McCabe, students are more likely to cheat if they see others are getting away with it, and some students go further, believing they have to cheat to stay competitive.

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