Skip to main content

Baker, Sir Herbert

Baker, Sir Herbert (1862–1946). Kent-born architect who worked for Ernest George and Harold Peto (1882–7) before opening his own office and then emigrating to Cape Colony, South Africa. He quickly became a protégé of Cecil John Rhodes (1853–1902) and Lord Milner (1854–1925), under whose aegis he began to create a distinctive architecture for British South Africa, drawing together English vernacular elements, aspects of the Arts-and-Crafts movement, Dutch Colonial architecture, Baroque architecture of the Wren Revival, and much else. He adapted his eclectic style for later buildings in Rhodesia, Kenya, India, and England. For Rhodes he built the house known as Groote Schuur, Rondebosch (1893–8), in which Dutch-Colonial elements were well to the fore, followed by Government Buildings in Bloemfontein, and the masterly Union Buildings, Pretoria (1909–13), with twin cupolas derived from Wren's work at Greenwich. Baker was then appointed joint architect (with Lutyens) for the design of the Imperial Capital of New Delhi, and designed (from 1913) the north and south Secretariat Blocks as well as the circular Legislative Building. At New Delhi he introduced Indian architectural features such as chattris, and successfully combined Western and Eastern elements. Baker set up an office in London in 1912, and in 1917 he was appointed Principal Architect to the Imperial War Graves Commission, in which capacity he encouraged design of the highest calibre. Thereafter, he was responsible for some of the most grandiose developments in London, including the enormous Bank of England works (1921–39) which destroyed Soane's building (apart from the screen-wall), India House (1925), and South Africa House (1930–5) in Trafalgar Square. These buildings cannot really be described as wholly successful, for Baker seems to have been happier using Classicism with a strong dose of Arts-and-Crafts influence: in this respect his beautifully articulated war-memorial cloister at Winchester College, Hants. (1922–5), demonstrates a sensitivity not so apparent in his grander buildings.

Bibliography

H. Baker (1934, 1944);
A. S. Gray (1985);
Greig (1970);
Irving (1981);
Keath (1992);
Stamp (1977)

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Baker, Sir Herbert." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Baker, Sir Herbert." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 16, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/baker-sir-herbert

"Baker, Sir Herbert." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved August 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/baker-sir-herbert

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.