Marine sediments

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Marine transgression and marine regression

Marine transgression occurs when an influx of the sea covers areas of previously exposed land. The reverse process, called marine regression, takes place when areas of submerged seafloor are exposed above sea level by basinward migration of a shoreline. Landward displacement of coastal and marine sedimentary environments accompanies transgression, and a shift from shallow water and terrestrial sediments, to deeper-water sedimentary facies, called onlap, indicates a transgression in a vertical succession of sedimentary strata. A shift from deeper marine sediments to terrestrial and fluvial sediments, or offlap, likewise suggests a basinward migration of the shoreline, or a marine regression.

The pattern of onlap and offlap preserved along a continental margin tells its history of alternating transgression and regression. An array of interacting processes determines the position of a shoreline at a specific location, and the geometry of continental margin strata records the combined effects of these interactions. Fluctuation of absolute, global sea level resulting from cyclical growth and decay of Earth's polar ice caps, called eustasy, is only one of the many factors that determine sea level relative to a specific coastal segment. Rates of sediment supply and transport, three-dimensional patterns of deposition and erosion , and crustal subsidence and uplift all influence the geometry of onlap and offlap at a particular location. Attempts to define the history of global eustatic sea level change by interpreting the stratigraphic geometry of individual continental margins have been largely unsuccessful, and the difficulty of this scientific problem has underscored the complexity of the systems that regulate shoreline migration.

The study of strata deposited along continental margins under the influence of cyclical Earth processes such as eustatic sea level change is a branch of stratigraphy called sequence stratigraphy. Development of this geologic subdiscipline in the early 1970s is largely attributed to petroleum industry researchers who first used seismic reflection profiles to map the distribution of oil and gas bearing strata in sedimentary basins. Because relative sea level change determines the location and geometry of these oil-bearing strata along continental margins, sequence stratigraphy is a powerful predictive tool for oil and gas exploration.

See also Beach and shoreline dynamics; Ice ages; Petroleum, detection; Petroleum, history of exploration

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ooze1 / oōz/ • v. [intr.] (of a fluid) slowly trickle or seep out of something; flow in a very gradual way: blood was oozing from a wound in his scalp honey oozed out of the comb. ∎  [intr.] slowly exude or discharge a viscous fluid: her mosquito bites were oozing and itching like mad. ∎  [tr.] fig. give a powerful impression of (a quality): he oozed charm and poise the town oozes history. • n. 1. the sluggish flow of a fluid. 2. an infusion of oak bark or other vegetable matter, used in tanning. DERIVATIVES: ooz·y / ˈoōzē/ adj. ooze2 • n. wet mud or slime, esp. that found at the bottom of a river, lake, or sea. ∎ Geol. a deposit of white or gray calcareous matter largely composed of foraminiferan remains, covering extensive areas of the ocean floor. DERIVATIVES: ooz·y adj.

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ooze A pelagic mud consisting of the calcareous or siliceous remains of pelagic organisms (e.g. coccoliths, and tests of foraminiferids and diatoms (Bacillariophyceae)), and hemipelagic clay minerals. Calcareous oozes will accumulate in the deep oceans at depths shallower than the carbonate compensation depth (CCD). See also GLOBIGERINA OOZE; DIATOM OOZE; PTEROPOD OOZE; and RADIOLARIAN OOZE.

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ooze A mud that consists of the calcareous or siliceous remains of pelagic organisms (e.g. coccoliths and tests of foraminiferids and diatoms) and hemi-pelagic clay minerals. Calcareous oozes accumulate in the deep oceans at depths shallower than the carbonate compensation depth. See also diatom ooze; Globigerina ooze; pteropod ooze; and radiolarian ooze.

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oozeabuse, accuse, adieux, amuse, bemuse, billets-doux, blues, booze, bruise, choose, Clews, confuse, contuse, cruise, cruse, Cruz, diffuse, do's, Druze, effuse, enthuse, excuse, fuse (US fuze), Hughes, incuse, interfuse, lose, Mahfouz, mews, misuse, muse, news, ooze, Ouse, perfuse, peruse, rhythm-and-blues, ruse, schmooze, snooze, suffuse, Toulouse, transfuse, trews, use, Vaduz, Veracruz, who's, whose, youse •Andrews •Matthews • circumfuse • Syracuse •purlieux

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siliceous ooze A fine-grained pelagic deposit of the deep-ocean floor, which tends to occur at depths in excess of 4500 m, of which more than 30 per cent consists of siliceous material of organic origin, mainly the remains of radiolarians (see Radiolaria) and diatoms.

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siliceous ooze Fine-grained pelagic deposit of the deep-ocean floor with more than 30% siliceous material of organic origin. Radiolaria and diatom remains are the major constituents of the siliceous oozes, which tend to occur at depths in excess of 4500 m.

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ooze1 †juice, sap OE.; liquor of a tan vat, decoction of bark XVI; (from the vb.) exudation XVIII. OE. wōs, corr. to MLG. wōs(e) scum, ON. vás. Cf. next.
Hence ooze vb. exude, cause to exude XIV; percolate as through pores XVIII. ME. wōse. Now assoc. with OOZE2.

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ooze Fine, deep-ocean deposit containing materials of more than 30% organic origin. Oozes divide into two main types: calcareous ooze, at depths of 2000–3900m (6600–12,800ft), contains the skeletons of animals such as foraminifera and pteropods. Siliceous ooze, deeper than 3900m (12,800ft), contains skeletons of radiolarians and diatoms.

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ooze2 mud, slime. OE. wāse = OFris. wāse, ON. veisa stagnant pool, puddle.