Marine Corps Women's Reserve, U.S
In January 1943, the MCWR swore in its first director, Maj. Ruth Cheney Streeter, forty‐seven, wife of an attorney and mother of four. The MCWR officially began on 13 February 1943. In March, the first 71 officer candidates arrived at the U.S. Midshipmen School at Mount Holyoke College; 722 enlisted women entered boot camp at Hunter College in New York City.
Although the public wanted an acronym like the WACs and WAVES, the commandant refused any catchy name for Marines. The formal title remained, but informally they were called Women Reservists, shortened to WRs.
More than half of the WRs performed clerical work; the others were assigned various duties, including radio operator, photographer, parachute rigger, motor transport driver, aerial gunnery instructor, link trainer instructor, control tower operator, automotive mechanic, teletype operator, cryptographer, laundry manager, and assembly and repair mechanic. At the end of the war, the MCWR had 820 officers and 17,640 enlisted women. They worked in 225 specialties, filling 85 percent of the enlisted jobs at Marine Corps Headquarters and comprising nearly two‐thirds of the permanent personnel at all large posts and stations.
Demobilization began in June 1945, and the office of the wartime MCWR closed June 1946. However, the need for clerks to process separation orders and transportation, and settle the accounts of thousands of combat Marines, plus a growing sense of the inevitability of a permanent women's military organization, prevented total disbandment. Several hundred WRs were retained at headquarters until June 1948, when President Harry S. Truman signed the Women's Armed Services Integration Act giving equal status to women in uniform. Women then became part of the regular Marine Corps.
[See also Marine Corps, U.S.; Women in the Military.]
Jeanne J. Holm , Women in the Military, 1982.
Mary V. Stremlow , Free a Marine to Fight: Women Marines in World War II, 1994.
Mary V. Stremlow
"Marine Corps Women's Reserve, U.S." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 21, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marine-corps-womens-reserve-us
"Marine Corps Women's Reserve, U.S." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved February 21, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marine-corps-womens-reserve-us
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.