Marine Barracks Bombing (Lebanon)
MARINE BARRACKS BOMBING (LEBANON)
A bombing that caused the deaths of 241 U.S. Marines in the Lebanese Civil War.
Following the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and the massacre by the Phalange militia of Palestinians in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps on the outskirts of Beirut, the administration of President Ronald Reagan dispatched peacekeeping troops to Lebanon in the framework of the Multinational Force (MNF). The MNF was composed of U.S., French, British, and Italian contingents tasked with shoring up the regime of President Amin Jumayyil, brother of the assassinated Bashir Jumayyil. The presence of U.S. Marines in West Beirut polarized animosities between Christians and Muslims in Lebanon, and the American contingent became the target of hatred and distrust.
Lebanese Muslims, especially Shiʿites living in the slums of West Beirut and around the airport—where the marines were headquartered—saw the MNF not as a peacekeeping force but as another faction in the Lebanese war. U.S. troops particularly were seen as perpetuating Maronite Catholic rule over Lebanon. Muslim feelings against the American presence were exacerbated when missiles lobbed by the U.S. Sixth Fleet hit innocent by-standers in the Druze-dominated Shuf mountains. On 20 October 1983, a Shiʿite Islamic Jihad member drove a truck loaded with 12,000 pounds of TNT into the lobby where the U.S. contingent was stationed and blew himself up, thereby killing 241 servicemen. In 1984, the Reagan administration withdrew the U.S. contingent from Lebanon.
see also reagan, ronald.
Friedman, Thomas L. From Beirut to Jerusalem. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1989.
Pintak, Larry. Beirut Outtakes: A TV Correspondent's Portrait of America's Encounter with Terror. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1988.
george e. irani
"Marine Barracks Bombing (Lebanon)." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 11, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marine-barracks-bombing-lebanon
"Marine Barracks Bombing (Lebanon)." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved December 11, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marine-barracks-bombing-lebanon
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.