Skip to main content


STARTS A UK initiative, begun in 1982 and relaunched in 1994, to promote and disseminate best practice in software development. In its later phase, it is a self-financing technology transfer program sponsored by the Department of Trade and Industry, managed by the National Computing Centre, and funded by subscribing companies. It addresses the major issues posed by industry's increasing dependence on software, concentrating on the practical rather than the theoretical, and including consideration of how to implement change. It provides information through publications, workshops, and seminars, which in its first phase included widely used advice on method and tool selection and purchasing practice.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"STARTS." A Dictionary of Computing. . 18 Mar. 2019 <>.

"STARTS." A Dictionary of Computing. . (March 18, 2019).

"STARTS." A Dictionary of Computing. . Retrieved March 18, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.