Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd.
Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd.
Sales: ¥1.23 trillion ($11.5 billion) (2005)
Stock Exchanges: Tokyo Osaka Nagoya Fukuoka Sapporo
Ticker Symbol: 5405
NAIC: 331221 Rolled Steel Shape Manufacturing; 331210 Iron and Steel Pipes and Tubes Manufacturing from Purchased Steel; 331111 Iron and Steel Mills; 332322 Sheet Metal Work Manufacturing
Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. (SMI) is one of Japan's leading steelmakers. The company supplies steel sheets used in the automotive and electrical machinery industries, and pipes and tubes used in oil and natural gas drilling and pipelines. SMI also provides wheels, axles, and various other components used in trains in Japan. The company controls nearly 10 percent of all crude steel production in Japan, 50 percent of its domestic seamless pipe market, and 20 percent of the global seamless pipe market.
Sumitomo Metal Industries has its roots in the foundation of the Sumitomo group in copper mining in the late 16th century. Its origins as a modern company date from 1897, when Sumitomo Copper works was opened in Osaka, and as a steelmaker from 1901, when Sumitomo Steel works began operation.
Both openings represented a privatization of Japanese industry, established by the government after the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95. The copper works were acquired from the Japan Copper Manufacturing Company, the steel works with the purchase of Japan Steel Manufacturing Company.
It was a slow start, however. The newborn steel industry was unable to compete internationally because its plants were small and inefficient, and it grew very little. This situation changed with World War I, when demand grew strong at home and abroad because of large steel orders for military use by the Allied powers and the temporary withdrawal of European steelmakers from the Japanese market. From 1914 Japan supplied the Allies with iron and steel while itself engaged in limited naval military action. Japanese industry, including Sumitomo Steel works, profited economically from World War I.
After the war, heavy industry suffered a recession, and demand fell. The lull was temporary, however. The government entered into extensive railway and public-works construction, and steel production quadrupled in the 1920s. Wartime investment in plant and equipment paid off. The relatively undeveloped Japan moved toward industrial independence, and heavy industries were established.
CATASTROPHE AND GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS LEAD TO GROWTH
Growth came in part from catastrophe. During the 1923 earthquake, 44 percent of Tokyo was burned to the ground, as was 26 percent of Yokohama. Substantial rebuilding followed, and the next two years were a boom period for the Japanese steel industry, which nonetheless was unable to meet domestic needs. Japanese iron and steel production in 1927 met about 60 percent of consumption. The industry was gaining on the problem, however, and the gains showed in a steady transformation of the Japanese economy. Heavy industry accounted for only 26 percent of the value of overall Japanese output in 1925, but 37 percent of its value five years later, when its share of output was still rising.
The 1930s were a time of continued expansion and diversification because of growth of the metal, machinery, and chemical industries. Heavy industry continued to outpace light industry. The number of metals factories more than doubled, and the number of workers quadrupled. During the 1930s the yen value of production grew by 800 percent. Japan became practically self-sufficient in production of rolling stock and in steel and steel products in general. The production-to-consumption ratio reached 103 percent for steel and 115 percent for steel products. Contributing to this increased ratio were the abandonment by the Japanese government of the gold standard with attendant freeing of money for investment, technical improvements, increased government spending on armaments, exploitation of the Manchurian resources newly acquired after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, and development of Manchukuo, the Japanese puppet state in Manchuria, as a center of heavy industry.
In 1935, the Sumitomo copper and steel works were merged to form Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. Meanwhile, Japan, accustomed since 1914 to unusually high profits, had embarked on a course of economic imperialism with a view to keeping such profits flowing. Even so, only in 1936 did the military demand for steel become an important factor in keeping profits flowing. Until then the major steel users had been the construction industry and heavy industries such as shipbuilding, machinery, and the steel industry itself.
A program of government subsidy funded this growth, for example, the Subsidy Facility for Improvement of Ships of 1932–37. By this arrangement boats over 25 years old were scrapped, and subsidies were granted for replacement of up to half the number of ships scrapped. Heavy industry in general profited from such subsidization. Development of new products made of metals such as aluminum and magnesium contributed to growth in profits. During the early 1930s, heavy industries, including the chemical industry, showed profits for first time without concentration on military demand.
By 1937 the military was expanding its requirements. A five-year industry plan in March 1937 called for annual steel production of 6.5 million tons of steel by 1941, up from 5 million. Since the army wanted ten million tons produced, the option was given to export three million tons if there should be peace rather than war.
Japan went to war, first with China beginning in July 1937, and later with the Allies. Capital and labor were diverted to war industries. Government regulation of the economy increased, accompanied by continuous conflict between industry leaders and militarist-bureaucratic factions over who should control the new economic structure.
Above all things, steadiness and reliability are of the greatest importance for the prosperity and stability of the organization. Any action to make speculative profit is strictly forbidden; business is to be expanded or curtailed as necessary, taking into consideration changes in the times and the business perspective. Based on these principles, the Sumitomo Metals Group aspires to be an "excellent company" that is trusted and respected.
WARTIME BRINGS ABOUT CHANGES
The National Mobilization Law of March 1938 gave the government great authority over labor and working conditions, production, consumption and exchange of goods, control of property including confiscation, and business and industry in general. In 1941 this authority was expanded to cover virtually all aspects of business. Manufacturers, banks, and investment institutions were required to seek government permission for plant development and loans; thus savings were forced into investment in heavy industry. By the end of 1940 steel production was almost seven million tons. Industry was seen increasingly as auxiliary to the military. Private profits were eliminated or severely curtailed. Industrialists were pitted against bureaucrats. The national debt, having tripled in five years, equaled national income.
In December 1940 a compromise was reached. Private enterprise was to be the basis of the new structure. There would be closer cooperation among the state, conservative elements in the armed forces, and representatives of the great financial interests that opposed the military extremists as well as their ultraconservative business counterparts.
Sumitomo's director general, Masatsune Ogura, was made minister without portfolio in April 1941, charged with the task of overall economic coordination. An industry-oriented general replaced a bureaucrat as head of the state planning board, and an admiral with close ties to shipbuilding interests became minister of commerce and industry.
Ogura had army ties, and Sumitomo industries, including Sumitomo Metal Industries, was in both light and heavy industry, whose interests did not always coincide. Thus he was well qualified to bring the armed forces closer to business and finance, and to bring light industry closer to heavy industry.
The changes resulted in a partnership between business and the military, a military-industrial complex. War was looming, and Japan wanted to be ready. In July 1941, a few months after Sumitomo's Ogura took on these responsibilities, the United States froze Japanese assets in the United States. So did the British throughout their empire, and the Dutch in the East Indies. The Sumitomo group contributed to the war effort through its mining, manufacturing, steelmaking, banking, and other enterprises and grew considerably during the war, from 40 firms to 135 and from ¥574 million in paid-in capital to ¥1.92 billion.
After the war, Sumitomo Metal Industries changed its name to Fuso Metal Industries, reverting to the name Sumitomo when the Allied occupation ended in 1952. The group, or zaibatsu, had been dissolved in February 1948, but was reconstituted in the 1950s as a keiretsu, a confederation of interrelated companies, with the role of the family greatly diminished.
By 1951 manufacturing was back to prewar levels, after a change in Allied policy, from punishment to encouragement, with a view to balancing Far Eastern power, especially in the wake of the fall of Nationalist China and the Korean War. During the Korean War, U.S. purchases in Japan helped Japanese industry develop and grow. The iron and steel industry was a leading factor. It had been a major source of Japan's military strength in World War II and was at first to be dismantled under the Allied occupation, except for what was needed to meet domestic needs. With the new policy it, too, was encouraged.
Sumitomo Metal Industries (SMI) shared in the 1950s growth, in 1953 acquiring Kokura Steel Manufacturing Company, Ltd., and entering into a longterm modernization program that included installing large blast furnaces and building new mills in coastal areas. In 1959 it divested its nonferrous metal processing unit, establishing it as a separate company, Sumitomo Light Metal Industries, Ltd.
- Sumitomo Copper works opens in Osaka.
- Sumitomo Steel works begins operation.
- Japan begins to supply the Allies with iron and steel during World War I.
- Sumitomo Copper and Steel works merge to form Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.
- Kokura Steel Manufacturing Company, Ltd., is acquired.
- The company divests its nonferrous metal processing unit.
- Japan becomes the world's fourth largest steel producer.
- SMI's steel tubes and pipes are considered among the world's best; the company is able to supply 30 percent of world demand for wheels for rolling stock.
- The company lands a contract with British Petroleum.
- Sumitomo Mitsubishi Silicon Corporation is formed.
- The company joins with Nippon Steel and Kobe Steel to strengthen their steel-supply capabilities.
In 1962 Japan became the world's fourth largest steel producer, outstripping France and the United Kingdom. Japan was producing nearly 30 million tons of steel a year, about four times its pre-1950 total and was second to the United States in continuous hot strip mill capacity. Larger blast furnaces were being built, and oxygen converters were being installed to reduce dependence on scrap-iron imports. Japan became the first country to use oxygen converters on a large scale, after they were used for the first time anywhere, in Austria in 1953.
New plants were built along the seacoast with furnaces of 1,200-ton to 2,000-ton capacity. The coastal location made it easier to receive raw materials and to ship manufactured products. The new plants accommodated the newer, larger ships built to haul raw materials more cheaply.
SMI kept pace with these national developments. Among Japanese steel producers, it was tied in third place with Nippon Kokan and Kawasaki, each with 11.5 percent of total production. Yawata Iron & Steel led with 18.5 percent; Fuji Iron & Steel had 17 percent. By 1976 SMI had built new processing plants and established a technical research institute. Its capacity for producing blister steel, low-carbon, semi-finished material formed by heating bar iron in contact with carbon in a cementing furnace, was 22.7 million tons a year.
By 1982 SMI's steel tubes and pipes, almost half its output, were considered among the world's best. The company was able to supply 30 percent of world demand for wheels for rolling stock. It had three affiliated companies in the United States and one each in Thailand and Saudi Arabia, plus offices in the United States, Brazil, Venezuela, West Germany, Australia, the United Kingdom, Iran, and Singapore.
Sales that year were ¥1.5 trillion, the third highest in Japan after Nippon Steel and Nippon Kokan. Besides tubes and pipes, SMI production was 31 percent steel plates, 7 percent steel wire, and the rest rolling stock, castings, forgings and other products.
In the mid-1980s, major Japanese steel producers, Sumitomo Metal, Nippon Steel, NKK, Kobe Steel, and Kawasaki Steel, were hurt by the rising yen. They closed six furnaces, sending 47,000 workers to other businesses or early retirement. As a result of the cuts, these companies once again became the world's most efficient steelmakers.
SMI's main lines were iron and steel in various semifabricated and fabricated forms, engineering services, titanium, electronics, chemicals, and energy. The company had more than 80 subsidiaries and affiliated companies and participated in several overseas joint ventures. In addition to Osaka and Tokyo, it had offices in 23 other Japanese cities, as well as offices in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Düsseldorf, Vienna, London, Sydney, Singapore, Mexico City, and Beijing.
In 1988 the Sumitomo group was one of six major keiretsu, with Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sanwa, Fuyo, and Dai-Ichi Kangyo. Sumitomo Metal Industries was a leader of the Sumitomo group. SMI steel works were located in Osaka and four other cities, including two in Wakayama; laboratories were in Hyogo and Ibaraki.
In early 1990 the five largest Japanese steelmakers, faced with weak domestic demand, rising financing costs, and strong competition from mini-mills at home, and South Korean and Taiwanese steel producers abroad, cut more jobs. The five—SMI, Nippon Steel, NKK, Kobe Steel, and Kawasaki Steel—had invested heavily in automation and in the manufacture of higher-margin products such as stainless and coated steels. These investments were promising, but a less promising diversification was the move into microchip production and other nonsteel businesses. While SMI had invested least in these new fields, nine SMI affiliates had begun building semiconductor-manufacturing equipment.
The rising cost of raw material created a problem. Iron ore prices had risen 16 percent, and the cost of coking coal was up by 5 percent. Mini-mills, by contrast, were circumventing this problem by making steel out of scrap iron in small electric-arc furnaces. Scrap was available at bargain prices because new car sales had risen and old cars were scrapped proportionately.
One nonsteel diversification, SMI's investment in a U.S. computer firm, Lam Research, seemed more promising. By 1990 SMI owned a half million shares in Lam, which marketed and serviced Sumitomo's integrated-circuit technology in North America and Europe, while Sumitomo did the same for Lam's equipment in Japan. The company spent the majority of the early 1990s forging marketing agreements to bolster sales of its semiconductor and computer products.
During the mid-1990s, SMI launched a restructuring effort that included the elimination of several thousand jobs in order to cut costs. Meanwhile, the company continued to secure key partnerships to strengthen its steel business. LVT Corporation and British Steel plc joined forces with SMI in 1994 to form Trico Steel Co, a hot-rolled steel mill. Two years later, SMI and Mitsui & Co. formed Indiana Precision Forge LLC to manufacture and market cold forged auto parts. In 1997, the company landed a British Petroleum contract with SMI to provide pipes used in the oil industry. The contract was extended in 1999 when the company became the leading supplier of pipes for British Petroleum.
The Asian currency crisis began taking its toll on Japan's steelmakers in 1997. As the construction industry slowed, demand for steel began to fall. As such, SMI made several moves to remain competitive including cutting capacity, shuttering and selling unprofitable businesses, and laying off additional workers. The company suffered significant losses in the late 1990s as a result of industry downturn.
Nevertheless, SMI entered the new millennium optimistic about its future. Sure enough, the company returned to profitability in 2000. Two years later it merged its silicon wafers business with that of Mitsubishi Materials Corporation to form Sumitomo Mitsubishi Silicon Corporation. It also combined its stainless steel operations with Nippon Steel to form Nippon Steel & Sumikin Stainless Steel Corporation. In 2005, SMI joined with Nippon Steel Corporation and Kobe Steel Ltd. to strengthen their steel supply capabilities. According to the terms of the partnership, Nippon Steel and Kobe Steel agreed to invest in East Asia United Steel Corporation, a joint venture between SMI and China Steel Corporation of Taiwan. The three companies joined again in 2006, taking preemptive measures to fend off any hostile takeover attempts that could threaten their lucrative partnerships. A new commercial code was expected to take effect in Japan in 2007 that would allow foreign entities to buy Japanese firms by buying shares of the company. By launching joint defense measures, the companies hoped to thwart any takeover attempts.
The company reported a loss in fiscal 2002 but secured profits the following year. Profits continued in 2004 and 2005 amid strong demand for steel. During the company revamped operations at its Wakayama Steel Works and Kashima Steel Works facilities, which allowed both plants to maintain high capacity utilization rates.
Hiroshi Tomono was named president in 2005. Under his leadership, the company continued to focus on its steel operations as well as new business ventures that would protect it from fluctuating demand in the industry. At the same time, SMI pledged to remain highly competitive in the industry by utilizing cutting-edge technology to provide environmentally friendly products. With a longstanding history in Japan's steelmaking industry, Sumitomo Metal Industries appeared to be on track for growth in the future.
#x00A0; Jim Bowman
Updated, Christina M. Stansell
Kashima Kyodo Electric Power Company; Daiichi Chuo Kisen Kaisha; Sumitomo Metal Steel Products, Inc.; Sumikin Iron & Steel Corporation; Chuo Denki Kogyo Co., Ltd.; Sumikin Weld Pipe Company, Ltd.; Sumikin Steel & Shapes, Inc.; Wakayama Kyodo Power Company, Inc.; Sumimetal Mining Co., Ltd.; Sumikin Plant, Ltd.; Ring Techs Co., Ltd.; Shearing Kozyo, Ltd.; Sumikin Koka Co., Ltd.; Wako Steel Co., Ltd.; Ware House Industrial Co., Ltd.; Nippon Stainless Steel Kozai Co., Ltd.; Sumitomo Pipe & Tube Co., Ltd.; Sumikin Stainless Steel Tube Co., Ltd.; Sumikin Kikoh Company, Ltd.; Zirco Products Co., Ltd.; Drilltec Japan, Ltd.; Sumikin Kansai Industries, Ltd.; Kantoc Roll, Ltd.; Sumitomo Metal Plantec Co., Ltd.; Sumitomo Metals (Kokura), Ltd.; Nippon Steel & Sumikin Welding Co., Ltd.; Sumikin Precision Forge, Inc.; Umebachi Kogyo Co., Ltd.; Sumikin Recotech Co., Ltd.; Daishin Steel Wire Co., Ltd.; Sumikura Co., Ltd.; Sumitomo Metals (Naoetsu), Ltd.; Sumitomo Mitsubishi Silicon Corporation; Sumitomo Metal (SMI) Electronics Devices, Inc.; Sumikin Ceramics & Quartz Co., Ltd.; Sumitomo Metal Micro Devices, Inc.; Sumikin Molycorp, Inc.; S I Tec Co., Ltd.; Sumitomo Precision Products Co., Ltd.; Kyoei Steel Ltd.; Sumikin Bussan Corporation; East Asia United Steel Corporation; Sumitomo Titanium Corporation; Nippon Steel & Sumikin Stainless Steel Corporation; Sumitomo Metal Logistics Service Co., Ltd.; Kashima Antlers Football Club Co., Ltd.; Narumi China Corporation; Kashiwara Machine Manufacturing Co., Ltd.; Sumikin Kosan Co., Ltd.; Sumitomo Metal Technology, Inc.; Sumikin Recycling Co., Ltd.; Fuso Finance Co., Ltd.
JFE Shoji Holdings Inc.; Kobe Steel Ltd.; Nippon Steel Corporation.
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