Stone, Oliver (William) 1946-
STONE, Oliver (William) 1946-
PERSONAL: Born September 15, 1946, in New York, NY; son of Louis (a stockbroker) and Jacqueline (Goddet) Stone; married Najwa Sarkis (an attaché), May 22, 1971 (divorced, 1977); married Elizabeth Burkit Cox (a film production assistant), June 7, 1981 (divorced, 1993); married; wife's name Chong; children: Sean, Michael, Tara. Education: Attended Yale University, 1965; New York University, B.F.A., 1971. Religion: Buddhist.
ADDRESSES: Home—Los Angeles, CA. Office—Ixtlan Productions, 201 Santa Monica Blvd., Ste. 610, Santa Monica, CA 90401. Agent—Michael Menchel, Rick Nicita, Creative Artists Agency, 9830 Wilshire Blvd., Beverly Hills, CA 90212.
CAREER: Director, screenwriter and producer of motion pictures. Worked as teacher in Cholon, South Vietnam, 1965-66; wiper in Merchant Marines, 1966; taxi driver in New York, NY, 1971. Ixtlan Productions (film production company), founder, 1977. Has appeared in various motion pictures, including Last Year in Vietnam, 1970, The Hand, 1981, Platoon, 1986, Wall Street, 1987, Born on the Fourth of July, 1989, The Doors, 1991, Dave, Warner Bros., 1993, and The Last Party, Triton, 1991. Has also appeared in television movies and specials, including Welcome Home, HBO, 1987; The Story of Hollywood, TNT, 1988; Firstworks, TMC, 1988; The New Hollywood, NBC, 1990; Naked Hollywood, A & E, 1991; Oliver Stone: Inside Out, Showtime, 1992; The Kennedy Assassinations: Coincidence or Conspiracy?, syndicated, 1992; Investigative Reports, "Who Killed JFK? On the Trail of the Conspiracies," A & E, 1992; Together for Our Children, syndicated, 1993; Nineteen Ninety-three: A Year at the Movies, CNBC, 1993; and Wild Palms, 1993. Director of films, including Seizure, 1974, Mad Man of Martinique,1979, The Hand, 1981, Salvador, 1986, Platoon, 1986, Wall Street, 1987, Talk Radio, 1988, Born on the Fourth of July, 1989, The Doors, 1991, JFK, 1991, Heaven and Earth, 1993, Natural Born Killers, 1994, Nixon, 1995, U-Turn, 1997, and Any Given Sunday, 1999. Military service: U.S. Army, 1967-68; served in Vietnam; received Purple Heart with oak-leaf cluster and Bronze Star.
MEMBER: Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Writers Guild of America, Directors Guild of America, Screen Writers Guild.
AWARDS, HONORS: Writers Guild of America Award for best dramatic adaptation, and Academy Award for best adapted screenplay, both 1979, both for Midnight Express; Directors Guild of America Award for outstanding feature film achievement, 1986, Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for best director, Academy Award nomination for best original screenplay, and Bulgarian Cinematography Diploma award, all 1987, and British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) Award nomination for best director, 1988, all for Platoon; Academy Award nomination for best original screenplay, 1987, for Salvador; Filmmaker of the Year Award, Motion Picture Bookers Club, 1989; Bulgarian Cinematography Diploma award, Academy Awards for best director and best screenplay, Golden Globe Awards for best director and best screenplay, and Directors Guild of America Award for outstanding feature film achievement, all 1989, SANE Education Fund/Consider the Alternatives Peace Award, 1990, all for Born on the Fourth of July; Academy Award nominations for best director and best adapted screenplay, and Golden Globe Award nominations for best director and best screenplay, all 1992, all for JFK; Academy Award nomination for best screenplay, 1995, for Nixon.
(And director) Seizure, Cinerama, 1973.
Midnight Express (adapted from the autobiography by Billy Hayes), Columbia, 1978.
(And director) The Hand (adapted from the novel The Lizard's Tail by Marc Brandel), Orion Pictures, 1981.
(With John Milius) Conan the Barbarian (adapted from tales by Robert E. Howard), Universal, 1982.
Scarface (adapted from the 1932 film of the same title by Howard Hawks), Universal, 1983.
(With David Lee Henry) Eight Million Ways to Die (based on the novel by Lawrence Block), Tri-Star, 1985.
(With Michael Cimino) Year of the Dragon (based on the novel by Lawrence Block), Tri-Star, 1985.
(With Richard Boyle; and director and co-producer) Salvador (Hemdale, 1986), in Oliver Stone's Platoon and Salvador, Vintage (New York, NY), 1987.
(With Richard Boyle; and director) Platoon (Orion Pictures, 1986), in Oliver Stone's Platoon and Salvador, Vintage (New York, NY), 1987.
(With Stanley Weiser; and director) Wall Street, Twentieth Century-Fox, 1987.
(With Eric Bogosian; and director) Talk Radio (based on the play of the same title by Bogosian and Talked to Death: The Life and Murder of Alan Berg by Stephen Singular), Universal, 1988.
(With Ron Kovic; and director and co-producer) Born on the Fourth of July (based on the autobiography by Kovic), Universal, 1989.
(With J. Randall Johnson; and director) The Doors, Tri-Star, 1991.
(With Zachary Sklar; and director and co-producer) JFK (based on On the Trail of the Assassins by Jim Garrison and Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy by Jim Marrs; Warner Bros., 1991), published as JFK: The Book of the Film: The Documented Screenplay, Applause Books (New York, NY), 1992.
(With Bruce Wagner; and director) Wild Palms (television miniseries; based on the comic strip by Wagner), American Broadcasting Company, Inc., 1993.
(And director and co-producer) Heaven and Earth (based on the memoirs When Heaven and Earth Changed Places and Child of War, Woman of Peace by Le Ly Hayslip), Warner Bros., 1993.
(Author of introduction) Michael Singer, Oliver Stone's Heaven and Earth: The Making of an Epic Motion Picture, C. E. Tuttle (Boston, MA), 1993.
(With Richard Rutowski and David Veloz; and director) Natural Born Killers (based on a story by Quentin Tarantino), Warner Bros., 1994.
(With Stephen J. Rivele and Christopher Wilkinson; and director and co-producer) Nixon, Hollywood Pictures/Cinergi, 1995, published as Nixon: An Oliver Stone Film, edited by Eric Hamburg, Hyperion (New York, NY), 1995.
(With Daniel Pyne and John Logan; and director) Any Given Sunday, 1999.
A Child's Night Dream (novel), St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1997.
Oliver Stone: Interviews, University of Mississippi Press (Jackson, MS), 2001.
ADAPTATIONS: Midnight Express was filmed in 1978 by Columbia, directed by Alan Parker, starring John Hurt and Randy Quaid; Conan the Barbarian was filmed in 1982 by Universal, directed by John Milius, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, James Earl Jones, and Max Von Sydow; Scarface was filmed in 1983 by Universal, directed by Brian DePalma, starring Al Pacino, Steven Bauer, Michelle Pfeiffer, Robert Loggia, F. Murray Abraham, and Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio; Eight Million Ways to Die was filmed in 1985 by Tri-Star, directed by Hal Ashby, starring Jeff Bridges, Rosanna Arquette, and Andy Garcia; Year of the Dragon was filmed in 1985 by Tri-Star, directed by Michael Cimino, starring Mickey Rourke.
WORK IN PROGRESS: The film Alexander, directed and with a screenplay by Stone, was scheduled for release in November of 2004.
SIDELIGHTS: Film director and writer Oliver Stone was born in New York to an American stockbroker and his French wife. As a child, he led a privileged life: He had nannies, spent summers in France where he became fluent in French, and attended exclusive prep schools. His parents divorced when he was still in high school and Stone soon learned about his father's indebtedness, and that the values he had been taught were illusory. Stone enrolled at Yale University in 1965, but soon left to teach in Saigon, South Vietnam.
Arriving in Vietnam just as the first troops were entering the conflict, he left Saigon after only six months aboard a merchant tanker. Saigon had become a city without rules where shootouts were frequent and safety was hard to find. On his way across the Pacific, Stone began writing a novel to pass the time. He was unable to find a publisher for A Child's Night Dream—St. Martin's Press eventually published it in 1997—and this let-down, along with his father's condescension, led him to enlist in the U.S. Army. Stone was sent to Vietnam, where from 1967-68 as part of the Second Platoon of Bravo Company, 3rd Battalion, 25th Infantry, he was stationed near the Cambodian border and participated in the battle of Firebase Burt. He was wounded twice and transferred to the First Cavalry's motorized unit, later receiving the Bronze Star of Valor and the Purple Heart with First Oak Leaf Cluster. His tour ended in 1968, Stone reentered college at New York University where he studied under film director Martin Scorsese. He finished his B.F.A in 1971.
An acclaimed filmmaker, screenwriter, and producer, Stone is committed to exposing what he perceives as deceit and injustice in American history, resulting in such controversial films as Born on the Fourth of July and JFK. His films typically focus on individual survivors—"angel/creeps" in the argot of Film Comment's Robert Horton—who possessed the characteristics needed to rise above a decaying society rife with violence, deceitfulness, and manipulation. Stone's films have consistently placed him at the center of controversy, inspired nationwide debate, garnered numerous prestigious awards, and, in the case of JFK, have even been the impetus for an act of congress.
Stone first gained critical attention with the screenplay for Midnight Express, a harrowing tale of an American's experiences in the Turkish penal system. Billy Hayes, who is captured at a Turkish airport while attempting to smuggle hashish, is sentenced to thirty years in prison where Turkish authorities routinely abuse and torture inmates. In the gruesome finale, Billy endures a beating from one of the guards who then prepares to sodomize the vulnerable prisoner. He escapes, dons the guard's uniform, and walks out of the prison.
Midnight Express set the tone for critical reaction to Stone's work, polarizing reviewers who have gone on to either laud or vehemently dismiss his work. Some reviewers faulted Midnight Express for its apparent condoning of violence, others viewed the film as evocative and socially relevant. Newsweek critic David Ansen decried the film's rendering of Hayes's experiences in Turkey, charging that "Billy's story has become a virtuoso horror show—an exercise in emotional manipulation designed not merely to arouse chills but to turn the audience into avengers." Ansen added that the film's "horror becomes histrionic, which is the last thing it must have been for the real Billy Hayes." Robert Edelman in Films in Review, however, argued that only "a person with a hard soul would fail to be moved by Midnight Express." Edelman found that the film is not a mere horror show; rather, it reveals that "the quality of a society is based on how it determines what is crime and punishment, and how mercifully it metes out justice." Midnight Express garnered Stone his first Academy Award for best screenplay and established him as a powerful voice in contemporary film.
In 1981 Stone wrote and directed The Hand, a chilling tale of a cartoonist whose severed hand seems to respond to his jealousy and anger by stalking people who cause him distress. Vincent Canby, writing in the New York Times, hailed the work as "a suspense-horror film of unusual psychological intelligence and wit." Canby added: "Stone's screenplay is tightly written, precise and consistent in its methods, and seemingly perfectly realized" in performances by a cast that included Michael Caine. Canby concluded that The Hand showed Stone to be "a director of very real talent."
Critics were generally less impressed with Conan the Barbarian, the sword-and-sorcery epic Stone adapted with director John Milius from the works of novelist Robert E. Howard. The film follows Conan's experiences from the time of his mother's murder while she is protecting him as an infant to his development into a fearless, overwhelmingly muscle-bound barbarian seeking to avenge his mother's death. Kevin Thomas, writing in the Los Angeles Times, praised Conan for reviving "a beloved genre in all its innocent pleasures on a spectacular scale and with sophisticated style." While Thomas called the film "lively, witty entertainment," Vincent Canby was less impressed with Conan, deeming it "an extremely long, frequently incoherent, ineptly staged adventure-fantasy set in a prehistoric past." Canby was especially dismayed by the performance of body-builder Arnold Schwarzenegger as Conan, calling his performance at best, "good-humored." Canby added: "One has the impression that [Conan] cost a lot of money, though not all of it is on the screen. One is never unaware that one is watching a lot of extras trot around Spain wearing goathair jogging shorts and horns on their hats."
Stone's 1983 screenwriting effort, Scarface, is an adaptation of the legendary 1932 gangster film directed by Howard Hawks. In Stone's version, the Depressionera, big-city environment of the original work is forsaken in favor of a more contemporary Miami suffering from a massive influx of Cuban immigrants. The title role of Tony was played by Al Pacino, who had earlier gained fame for his performances in Mario Puzo and Francis Ford Coppola's "Godfather" epics. The film contained sufficient violence to be threatened with an X rating from the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).
Reaction to Scarface was again mixed. Richard Corliss in a Time review of the film, argued that the film "lacks the generational sweep and moral ambiguity of the Corleone saga. At the end, Tony is as he was at the beginning: his development and degeneration are horrifyingly predictable; his Gotterdammerung death evokes not fear or pity, but numb relief." Canby, in a much more positive review of the film in the New York Times, found Scarface a film of "boldly original design." Canby concluded: "What goes up must always come down. When it comes down in Scarface, the crash is as terrifying as it is vivid and arresting."
Stone's next directorial project was the 1986 film Salvador. Cowritten with Richard Boyle, Salvador focuses on the reality of the civil war in El Salvador during 1980 through the eyes of Boyle, uncharitably described as "a foulmouthed photojournalist who has washed away his reputation in a flood of alcohol," by Maclean's reviewer Patricia Hluchy. David Denby, in a New York review of Salvador, lauded some of the film's cinematography, and added: "This kind of hair-trigger existential filmmaking—the atmosphere thick with loathing and violence—is not just good, it's great." Denby concluded, however, that there is "a wide streak of pop nihilism" in Stone's work. In a similarly mixed review, Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times commented: "Salvador is long and disjointed and tries to tell too many stories. . . . But the heart of the movie is fascinating. And the heart consists of . . . two losers set adrift in a world they never made, trying to play games by everybody else's rules."
In 1986 Stone directed Platoon, the first of his three films focusing on the Vietnam war that together are referred to as his "Vietnam trilogy." While Platoon deals with the day-to-day fears of the men slogging through the mud in the battlegrounds of Southeast Asia, 1989's Born on the Fourth of July follows one soldier returning stateside. Crippled for life from war-related injuries, veteran Ron Kovic's growing disillusionment with the beliefs in God, home, and country that he wore like a banner into battle are transformed by his experiences on U.S. soil into rebelliousness and open discontent. Heaven and Earth is the story of the war as told through the eyes of Le Ly Hayslip, a young woman who suffered at the hands of the Vietcong, U.S. troops in Saigon, and the residents of a California suburb by turns.
Stone's "Vietnam trilogy" was both highly praised and highly criticized. Ebert named Platoon "the best film of 1986," arguing that it serves as an exception to French filmmaker François Truffaut's classic edict that "it's not possible to make an anti-war movie," because all war movies in some sense "mak[e] combat look like fun." Pat Aufderheide in Cineaste noted the honesty of Platoon but faulted Stone for being overly sentimental. Larry Ceplair, also in Cineaste, called the film "nothing more than a B movie scenario from World War II jungle movies." Platoon, however, garnered Stone a Directors Guild of America Award, an Academy Award, and a Golden Globe Award for best director, and an Academy Award nomination for best screenplay.
Contrary to the response to many of Stone's films, critical reaction to Born on the Fourth of July was nearly universally positive. Denby praised Stone in New York for capturing "better than anyone before him, . . . the combined nightmarish and exhilarating quality of the 1966-1972 period," though he faulted Stone for being "overexplicit." Stuart Klawans, in a Nation review of the film, lauded Stone's honesty, arguing: "Born on the Fourth of July has the urgency of a truth told—or screamed—against a deafening Muzak of lies." Ebert named the film "one of the best movies of the year," describing it as one which "steps correctly in the opening moments and then never steps wrongly." Stone again was showered with awards for Born on the Fourth of July, including Academy Awards for best director and best screenplay, and Golden Globe Awards for best director and best screenplay.
Denby again praised Stone in New York for Heaven and Earth, which he admired for "moments of power and empathy." Ebert also found the film successful, though he credited some of this success to the "extraordinary performance" of leading actor Hiep Thi Le. Other critics disagreed. Stanley Kauffmann in the New Republic claimed: "From its thuddingly banal title on," Heaven and Earth "is a laborious drag through material that ought to have been powerful, ought to have dramatized the other side of Stone's concerns about the Vietnam war, the story from the Vietnamese point of view." Anthony Lane in the New Yorker faulted the film as "a deeply unappealing mixture of fuzziness and brutality; each betrays Stone's reluctance, despite his pretensions as a purveyor of true grit, to face up to his subject."
Stone's 1987 film Wall Street focused on greed and corruption in New York during the 1980s. Bud Fox, an aspiring stockbroker, "bulls his way into the office of Fortune cover-boy Gordon Gekko, the hottest speculator and corporate raider in New York," summarized Denby in New York. Bud eventually faced the true nature of Gekko: moral corruption and an utter disdain for the working class. Denby commented: "Wall Street is exactly what I had hoped for—a sensationally entertaining melodrama about greed and corruption in New York, a movie that evoked the power of big money so strongly that you can savor it on your tongue like Stilton and port." Peter C. Newman in Maclean's called Wall Street "a flawed but powerful movie," and argued that Stone's attempt "to define Wall Street's gutter ethic . . . comes so close to succeeding that at times his film ventures dangerously close to being a documentary."
Stone collaborated with playwright Eric Bogosian for the film Talk Radio. Inspired in part by the murder of Alan Berg, a Denver talk-show host who was killed by white supremacists in 1984, and by Bogosian's stage play, Talk Radio recounts the final days in the life of Barry Champlain, an abusive radio talk-show host whose tirades and insults ultimately lead to his assassination. Denby called Talk Radio "without doubt one of the most complete expressions of paranoia ever put on film," praising Stone as a "master of unease and loathing." Denby faulted the film, however, for being "too overwrought to give much pleasure." Ebert gave the film four stars in the Chicago Sun-Times, admiring Bogosian's convincing performance, "especially . . . during a virtuoso, unsettling closing monologue, in which we think the camera is circling Bogosian—until we realize the camera and the actor are still, and the backgrounds are circling." The film was not universally praised, however. John Simon in the National Review preferred the stage play to the film which, he argued, "introduces pretentious excesses."
Stone focuses on the life of Jim Morrison for his feature The Doors. Lead singer of the rock group The Doors during the 1960s, Morrison became an icon of the period alongside contemporaries Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin. Robert Horton, in Film Comment, wrote: "The Doors is an Oliver Stone movie all the way, big and brave and foolish. It's broad, juicy, cheerless, by turns exhilarating and embarrassing, always ready, indeed eager, to let passion eclipse good judgment. Which is exactly what makes Oliver Stone so valuable these days." Ebert compared the film to "being stuck in a bar with an obnoxious drunk, when you're not drinking," though he praised the performance of actor Val Kilmer: "Because of Kilmer, and because of extraordinary location work with countless extras, the concert scenes in The Doors play with the authenticity of a documentary." Though ultimately faulting the film for redundancy and for portraying Morrison as a Christ-like figure "being crucified for his audience," Kauffmann in the New Republic commented: "Stone's directing excites with its hunger, its avidity, by the way he grabs a scene cinematically, squeezes it of its juice, and casts it aside—even if the scene itself is quiet."
With JFK, Stone found himself at the center of a redhot media controversy. Although it was a position he had weathered several times in the past as a result of mixed responses to his hard-hitting cinematic projects, JFK—a draft of which was leaked to the press in 1991—succeeded in opening what many considered to be a national wound. Based on the oft-derided account of former New Orleans district attorney Jim Garrison, the film examines Garrison's investigation and conspiracy theory of the Kennedy assassination. Stone did not rely solely on Garrison's account, however. As Ebert explained: "The important point to make about JFK is that Stone does not subscribe to all of Garrison's theories, and indeed rewrites history to supply his Garrison character with material he could not have possessed at the time of these events." Many critics applauded Stone's willingness to question the ethics of American government in the film. David Ansen in Newsweek wrote: "Real political discourse has all but vanished from Hollywood filmmaking; above and beyond whether Stone's take on the assassination is right his film is a powerful, radical vision of America's drift toward covert government. What other filmmaker is even thinking about the uses and abuses of power?"
JFK also began a torrent of back-and-forth questions of factual accuracy between Stone and his detractors, although most critics, despite arguing over the films veracity, admired the movie for its cinematic accomplishments. Kauffmann, for example, though concluding that the film "distorts facts in the assassination theory it presents," nonetheless wrote: "Cinematically, JFK is almost a complete success." Ebert, admitting that when the film is over viewers are not sure they understand "exactly what Stone's conclusions are," referred to the movie as "hypnotically watchable," and "a masterpiece of film assembly." In response to the accusation that the screenplay contains over one hundred lies and omissions of fact levied by Peter Collier in American Spectator, Stone wrote CA: "JFK is actually based on research documented in 340 research notes in the book of the film which was published by Applause Books. In addition, much of the information in the film about Clay Shaw and others has now been confirmed by new documents released under the JFK Records Act of 1992, which was passed by Congress in response to our film." Despite the whirlwind of controversy, JFK received Academy Award nominations for best director and best screenplay, and Golden Globe Award nominations for best director and best screenplay.
Stone's Natural Born Killers, based on a story by Quentin Tarantino, again placed the filmmaker at the center of controversy. The storyline—about the exploits of Mickey and Mallory Knox, a couple who began their relationship by killing both of young Mallory's parents and then embarking on a maniacal cross-country killing spree—led many critics to accuse Stone of gratuitous violence. Stone referred to the film as "a satire—a commentary on violence in America, on murder and what the American media makes of it," in an interview with Stuart Fischoff in Psychology Today. For Stone, violence is "as American as apple pie. I'm not saying we should run from it. There is nothing worse than television violence—people die so easily on TV! They just drop dead. If you're going to kill somebody, show the effect of the killing. Make it powerful, make it real, so that people really understand. Violence per se is a good dramatic tool. . . . It is a necessary conceit to give pity and terror. But it should be used sacredly. Violence should be sacred."
The extreme violence in Natural Born Killers was criticized by many critics. John Simon commented in a National Review piece, "Stone's narcissism and megalomania, like badly driven horses, run away with this gross, pretentious, and ultimately senseless movie. Purporting to show how crime appeals to the American public, and how the media exploit it for the self-promotion and the public's cretinization, it is manifestly far too enamored of what it pretends to satirize, even if it knows how to do it." Other critics disagreed. Ebert rated the film four stars, and argued: "You do not see as much actual violence as you think you do in this movie; it's more the tone, the attitude, and breakneck pacing that gives you that impression. Stone is not making a geek show, with closeups of blood and guts. Like all good satirists, he knows that too much realism will weaken his effect." Ebert defended Stone against his critics by pointing to the opinion of the MPAA, which threatened to give the film an NC-17 rating. "I could point to a dozen more violent recent films that have left the MPAA unstirred, but Stone has touched a nerve here, because his film isn't about violence, it's about how we respond to violence, and that truly is shocking."
Stone returned to the arena of politics in 1995 with Nixon. The film, which traces the rise and fall of U.S. President Richard M. Nixon, again placed Stone in the center of controversy, as critics argued over the factual accuracy of the film while admiring many of the film's accomplishments. Joe Morgenstern, in a review of Nixon in the Wall Street Journal, claimed that Stone is "up to some dirty historical tricks once again." Morgenstern called the film a "bizarre, bloated and often fascinating psychobiography of our 37th president," while admiring the "gallery of terrific performances." Kauffmann in the New Republic came forth with a mixed review. While admiring especially the performance of Anthony Hopkins as Nixon, Kauffmann found that what is "missing is what Stone's best films have had: a subtext, a large theme evoked by the action on the screen." Ebert, however, called Nixon "one of the year's best films," admiring the empathetic portrayal of Nixon and the references in the film to Orson Welles's Citizen Kane, and noting in summation: "Nixon would be a great film even if there had been no Richard Nixon."
Stone once commented of his work as a director: "I consider my films first and foremost to be dramas about individuals in personal struggles and I consider myself to be a dramatist before I am a political filmmaker. I'm interested in alternative points of view."
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
American Spectator, April, 1992, pp. 28-31.
Chicago Sun-Times, April 25, 1986; December 30, 1986; December 11, 1987; December 21, 1988; December 20, 1989; March 1, 1991; December 20, 1991; December 24, 1993; August 26, 1994; December 20, 1995.
Cineaste, Volume 15, number 4, 1987.
Commonweal, May 3, 1991, pp. 294-296.
Film Comment, May-June, 1991, pp. 57-61; January-February, 1994, p. 26.
Film Quarterly, fall, 1990, pp. 44-47.
Films in Review, December, 1978, p. 635.
Hudson Review, autumn, 1987, pp. 458-464.
London Review of Books, February 13, 1992, pp. 6-8.
Los Angeles Times, May 14, 1982.
Maclean's, July 21, 1986, p. 50; December 28, 1987, p. 46.
Nation, January 1, 1990, pp. 28-30; March 25, 1991, pp. 388-391; May 24, 1993, pp. 713-715.
National Review, January 22, 1988, pp. 65-66; March 24, 1989, pp. 46-49; February 5, 1990, pp. 58-59; September 26, 1994, p. 72.
New Republic, January4&11, 1988, pp. 24-25; February 13, 1989, p. 26; January 29, 1990, pp. 26-27; April 1, 1991, p. 28; January 27, 1992, pp. 26, 28; September 7 & 14, 1992, pp. 72-73; February 7, 1994, p. 26; October 3, 1994, p. 26; January 22, 1996.
Newsweek, October 16, 1978, pp. 76, 81; December 23, 1991, p. 50.
New York, March 24, 1986, pp. 86, 88-89; December 14, 1987, pp. 86-88; December 12, 1988, pp. 112, 114; December 18, 1989, pp. 101-102; February 17, 1992, pp. 44-47; January 10, 1994, p. 44.
New Yorker, July 28, 1986, pp. 77-80; January 22, 1990, pp. 122-124; January 17, 1994, p. 87.
New York Review of Books, February 17, 1994, pp. 22-24.
New York Times, April 24, 1981; May 15, 1981; May 15, 1982; December 9, 1983, p. C18.
Psychology Today, September-October, 1993, pp. 44-45, 64, 66-69.
Sight and Sound, spring, 1991, p. 7; August, 1993, pp. 60-61.
Time, October 16, 1978; December 5, 1983, pp. 96-97.
Wall Street Journal, December 21, 1995, p. A10.
Washington Post, May 14, 1982.
Wilson Library Bulletin, March, 1992, pp. 51-53.*