Greenspan, Stanley I(ra) 1941-
GREENSPAN, Stanley I(ra) 1941-
PERSONAL: Born June 1, 1941, in New York, NY; son of Phil and Jean Greenspan; married Nancy Thorndike, 1975; children: Elizabeth, Jake, Sarah. Education: Harvard University, B.A. (cum laude), 1962; Yale University, M.D., 1966. Religion: Jewish. Hobbies and other interests: Sports.
ADDRESSES: Office—7201 Glenbrook Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814.
CAREER: Clinical child/adult psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. National Institutes of Mental Health, research psychiatrist, Laboratory of Psychology, 1970, research psychiatrist, 1972-74, assistant chief, 1974, acting chief, 1974-75, chief, 1975-82; Mental Health Study Center, chief; Clinical Infant Development Research Unit, Laboratory of Psychology and Psychopathology, chief, 1982-84; Clinical Infant/Child Development Research Center, 1984-86. George Washington University Medical School, clinical professor of psychiatry, behavioral science, and pediatrics, 1982—. Center for Clinical Infant Programs, founder and president, 1975-84; National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families, chairman of Diagnostic Classification Committee, 1988-1996; The Interdisciplinary Council on Developmental and Learning Disorders, director, 1997—. On editorial boards of Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association, Journal of Preventive Psychiatry, Journal of Psychoanalytic Inquiry, Infant Mental Health Journal, and Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research.
MEMBER: American Psychoanalytic Association, American College of Psychiatry, American College of Psychoanalysis.
AWARDS, HONORS: Edward A. Strecker award for outstanding contributions to American psychiatry; Public Health Service Special Recognition award; Heintz Hartman prize and Mary Allen Award for contributions to psychoanalysis; Ittleson prize, American Psychiatric Association, for outstanding contributions to child psychiatry research; Ittleson prize, American Orthopsychiatric Association, for outstanding contributions to American mental health; elected to the American College of Psychiatry and the American College of Psychoanalysis.
A Consideration of Some Learning Variables in the Context of Psychoanalytic Theory: Toward a Psychoanalytic Learning Perspective, International Universities Press (New York, NY), 1975.
Intelligence and Adaptation: An Integration of Psychoanalytic and Piagetian Developmental Psychology, International Universities Press (New York, NY), 1979.
(With wife, Nancy Thorndike Greenspan) The Clinical Interview of the Child, McGraw-Hill (New York, NY), 1981, 2nd edition, American Psychiatric Press (Washington, DC), 1991.
Psychopathology and Adaptation in Infancy and Early Childhood: Principles of Clinical Diagnosis and Preventive Intervention, International Universities Press (New York, NY), 1981.
(With N. Greenspan) First Feelings: Milestones in the Emotional Development of Your Baby and Child, Viking (New York, NY), 1985.
(Editor) Infants in Multirisk Families: Case Studies in Preventive Intervention, International Universities Press (Madison, CT), 1987.
The Development of the Ego: Implications for Personality Theory, Psychopathology, and the Psychotherapeutic Process, International Universities Press (New York, NY), 1989.
(With N. Greenspan) The Essential Partnership: How Parents and Children Can Meet the Emotional Challenges of Infancy and Childhood, Viking (New York, NY), 1989.
(Editor, with George H. Pollock) The Course of Life, 4 volumes, International Universities Press, 1989-91, revised with 6 volumes, 1993, revised with 7 volumes, 1998.
Infancy and Early Childhood: The Practice of Clinical Assessments and Intervention with Emotional and Developmental Challenges, International Universities Press (New York, NY), 1992.
(With Jacqueline Salmon) Playground Politics: Understanding the Emotional Life of Your School-age Child, Addison-Wesley (Reading, MA), 1993.
Developmentally Based Psychotherapy, International Universities Press (New York, NY), 1995.
(With J. Salmon) The Challenging Child: Understanding, Raising, and Enjoying the Five Difficult Types of Children, Addison-Wesley (Reading, MA), 1995.
Developmentally Based Psychotherapy, International Universities Press (New York, NY), 1996.
(With Beryl Lieff Benderly) The Growth of the Mind and the Endangered Origins of Intelligence, Addison Wesley (Reading, MA), 1996.
Developmentally Based Psychotherapy, International Universities Press (New York, NY), 1997.
(With B. L. Benderly) The Growth of the Mind: And the Endangered Origins of Intelligence, Addison-Wesley (Reading, MA), 1997.
(With Serena Wieder and Robin Simons) The Child with Special Needs: Encouraging Intellectual and Emotional Growth, Addison-Wesley (Reading, MA), 1998.
(With Nancy Breslau Lewis) Building Healthy Minds: The Six Experiences That Create Intelligence and Emotional Growth in Babies and Young Children, Perseus Books (Cambridge, MA), 1999.
(With T. Berry Brazelton) The Irreducible Needs of Children: What Every Child Must Have to Grow, Learn, and Flourish, Perseus (Cambridge, MA), 2000.
(With J. Salmon) The Four-Thirds Solution: And Other Ways Working Parents Can Put Children First, Perseus (Cambridge, MA), 2001.
The Secure Child: Helping Children Feel Safe and Confident in an Insecure World, Perseus (Cambridge, MA), 2002.
Author of numerous articles in scientific journals and a frequent contributor to Parents' Magazine.
SIDELIGHTS: At the end of a quarter century of practicing psychiatry, Stanley I. Greenspan is in a coveted position. He is a clinical professor of psychiatry, behavioral sciences, and pediatrics, the author of over one hundred scholarly articles, and author or editor of more than twenty-five books, and the recipient of several major awards for psychiatric research. In First Feelings: Milestones in the Emotional Development of Your Baby and Child, he and wife Nancy Thorndike Greenspan describe the various stages in the emotional development of an infant: birth to three months, three months to ten months, nine to eighteen months, eighteen to thirty-six months, and thirty to forty months. At each stage the Greenspans explain the interactions between parents and child and the concomitant emotions of each. They provide guidelines for observing children and suggestions for creating a supportive environment.
Playground Politics: Understanding the Emotional Life of Your School-age Child picks up where First Feelings leaves off. In it Greenspan and Washington Post staff writer Jacqueline Salmon outline the emotional milestones of the grade school years. They treat such topics as aggression, competition, and rivalry, self-esteem and peer relations, the foundations of learning, learning challenges, and sexuality and puberty. They also provide five principles for healthy parenting: floor time, problem-solving time, empathizing with the child's point of view, breaking challenges into small pieces, and setting limits. Likewise, in The Challenging Child: Understanding, Raising, and Enjoying the Five Difficult Types of Children, Greenspan and Salmon provide practical advice to parents. They encourage parents not to feel guilty for having a difficult child, describe the five child personality types, and suggest many parenting techniques mentioned in earlier works.
In a later book, Developmentally Based Psychotherapy, Greenspan describes to other professionals how his years of research into the developmental stages of infancy and early childhood can be applied to therapeutic situations for both children and adults. In another new book, The Growth of the Mind and the Endangered Origins of Intelligence, Greenspan and Beryl Lieff Benderly offer a new view of the origins of the human mind's highest capacities. Contrary to traditional notions, Greenspan finds that intelligence as such does not arise from cognitive stimulation, but along with morality, empathy, and self-reflection, has a common foundation in specific early emotional experiences.
Greenspan again teamed up with Salmon to write The Four-Thirds Solution: And Other Ways Working Parents Can Put Children First. Like Greenspan's earlier efforts, The Four-Thirds Solution deals with the topic of child development. The book discusses the large number of American children who spend time in day-care facilities. According to the authors, more than half of all preschool age children are enrolled in day-care because of their parents' work schedule. Many of these daycare facilities, the authors say, are inadequate, and they are not able to provide the emotional development skills that children really need. As a result, by the time children begin school, they exhibit a number of alarming characteristics, such as impaired social skills and outward aggression. Greenspan and Salmon believe the solution to the problem is for parents to cut back on work, up to two-thirds of the time. The title of the book is derived from taking two-thirds multiplied by two. They also suggest that parents provide "daily doses" of quality time to their children. In essence, the authors call for American parents to rethink their priorities, even if it means less income. The book was praised by a number of literary critics, including Kay Brodie of Library Journal, who called it "valuable because it will enrich the child care debate" in the United States.
In two of his works published since 2000, The Irreducible Needs of Children: What Every Child Must Have to Grow, Learn, and Flourish and The Secure Child: Helping Children Feel Safe and Confident in an Insecure World, Greenspan lays out a blueprint for parents to follow while raising their children. In The Irreducible Needs of Children, which Douglas C. Lord of Library Journal called a "darned important book," Greenspan and co-author T. Berry Brazelton identify and explain seven important factors that they believe will "provide the fundamental building blocks for higher level emotional, social and intellectual abilities." The authors believe that a stable family life, a good education, and cultural experiences are all important factors to achieving these goals. They also feel a personal, loving relationship between parent and child is essential in a healthy upbringing. Calling The Irreducible Needs of Children "a practical, well-organized volume," William Beatty, who reviewed the book for Booklist, felt it was also "thought-provoking." Similarly, a contributor for Publishers Weekly referred to the book as "a thought-provoking but demanding read that poses incisive questions."
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
American Journal of Psychiatry, March, 1995, p. 466.
Booklist, September 1, 1993, p. 7; February 1, 1997, p. 908; October 15, 2000, p. 399.
Choice, October, 1990, p. 392; November, 1993, p. 540.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, January, 1998, pp. 120-121; August, 1999, pp. 1057-1058.
Library Journal, November 1, 2000, p. 124; November 15, 2001, p. 93.
Publishers Weekly, February 15, 1995, p. 91; July 3, 1995, p. 53; January 27, 1997, pp. 91-92; October 18, 1999, p. 78; September 18, 2000, p. 108; October 29, 2001, p. 52.
Social Services Review, March, 1994, p. 158.*