Doyle, Arthur Conan 1859-1930

views updated

DOYLE, Arthur Conan 1859-1930

(A. Conan Doyle, Conan Doyle)

PERSONAL: Born May 22, 1859, in Edinburgh, Scotland; died of a heart attack, July 7, 1930, in Crowborough, Sussex, England; son of Charles Altamont (a civil servant and artist) and Mary (Foley) Doyle; married Louise Hawkins, August 6, 1885 (died, 1906); married Jean Leckie, September 18, 1907; children: (first marriage) Mary Louise, Kingsley; (second marriage) Denis, Adrian Malcolm, Lena Jean. Education: Edinburgh University, B.M., 1881, M.D., 1885.

CAREER: Novelist and physician. Assistant to physician in Birmingham, England, 1879; ship's surgeon on whaling voyage to Arctic, 1880; ship's surgeon on voyage to west coast of Africa, 1881-82; physician in Southsea, Portsmouth, England, 1882-90; ophthalmologist in London, England, 1891; writer. Lectured on spiritualism in Europe, Australia, the United States, and Canada, 1917-25, South Africa, 1928, and Sweden, 1929. Wartime service: Served during the Boer War as chief surgeon of a field hospital in Bloemfontein, South Africa, 1900.

MEMBER: British Society for Psychical Research.

AWARDS, HONORS: Knighted, 1902.


"sherlock holmes" series; detective fiction

A Study in Scarlet (novel; first published in Beeton's Christmas Annual, November, 1887; also see below), illustrated by father, Charles Doyle, Ward, Lock (London, England), 1888, Lippincott (Philadelphia, PA), 1890, published as A Study in Scarlet: The First Book about Sherlock Holmes, Ward, Lock, 1920, illustrated by Joseph A. Brown, Hart (New York, NY), 1976, introduction by Hugh Greene, Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1977, edited and with an introduction by Owen Dudley Edwards, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1994, with an introduction by Iain Sinclair, Penguin (New York, NY), 2001, with an introduction by Anne Perry and notes by James Danly, Modern Library (New York, NY), 2003.

The Sign of Four (novel; first published in Lippincott's Monthly, February, 1890; also see below), Blackett, 1890, Collier (New York, NY), 1891, bound with The Big Bow Mystery, by Israel Zangwill, Scribner (New York, NY), 1928, introduction by Graham Greene, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1977, published as The Sign of the Four, Conkey, 1900, abridged version, edited by Elizabeth Fowler, illustrated by Leonard Vosburgh, Hart (New York, NY), 1960, illustrated by Frank Bolle, Lion Books, 1973, published as The Sign of the Four; or, The Problem of the Sholtos, introduction by P. G. Wodehouse, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1975, edited and with an introduction by Christopher Roden, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1994, with an introduction by Peter Ackroyd and notes by Ed Glinert, Penguin (New York, NY), 2001.

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (short stories; also see below), illustrated by Sidney Paget, Harper (New York, NY), 1892, with a new introduction, A & W Visual Library, 1975, with an introduction by Steven Marcus, Schocken (New York, NY), 1976, illustrated by Richard Lebenson, with an afterword by Fred Strebeigh, Reader's Digest (Pleasantville, NY), 1987, with an afterword by Peter Glassman, illustrated by Barry Moser, Morrow (New York, NY), 1992, edited and with an introduction by Richard Lancelyn Green, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1994.

The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes (short stories; also see below), illustrated by Sidney Paget, Newnes (London, England), 1893, revised edition, illustrated by W. H. Hyde and Sidney Paget, Harper (New York, NY), 1894, with an introduction by Kingsley Amis, J. Murray (London, England), 1974, with an introduction by Leslie Fielder, Schocken (New York, NY), 1976, with an afterword by George Fletcher and illustrated by Sergio Martinez, Reader's Digest (Pleasantville, NY), 1988, edited and with an introduction by Christopher Roden, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1994.

A Scandal in Bohemia (also see below), Munro (New York, NY), 1895.

Sign of the Four, a Scandal in Bohemia, and Other Stories, Burt (New York, NY), 1900.

The Hound of the Baskervilles (novel; serialized in Strand magazine, 1901-02), illustrated by Sidney Paget, McClure, Phillips (New York, NY), 1902, with an introduction by Frank Condie Baxter, Doubleday, Page (Garden City, NY), 1926, illustrated by Gil Walter, Looking Glass Library (New York, NY), 1961, with an introduction by James Nelson, Dodd, Mead (New York, NY), 1968, published as The Hound of the Baskervilles: Another Adventure of Sherlock Holmes: A Facsimile of the Adventure As It Was First Published in the Strand Magazine, London,, introduction by Samuel Rosenberg, Schocken (New York, NY), 1975, with foreword and afterword by John Fowles, Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1977, with photographs by Michael Kenna, Arion Press (San Francisco, CA), 1985, illustrated by Sidney Paget and Sergio Martinez, Portland House Illustrated Classics (New York, NY), 1988, published as The Hound of the Baskervilles: Another Adventure of Sherlock Holmes, edited and with an introduction by W. W. Robson, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1994, edited with an introduction and notes by Christopher Frayling, Penguin Books (New York, NY), 2001, with an afterword by Anne Perry, Signet (New York, NY), 2001, excerpt published as The Hound of the Baskervilles: Chapter 11, Baker Street Irregulars (New York, NY), 2001, with an introduction by Laurie R. King and notes by James Danly, Modern Library (New York, NY), 2002.

The Return of Sherlock Holmes (short stories; also see below), illustrated by Charles Raymond Macauley, McClure, Phillips (New York, NY), 1905, with an introduction by Angus Wilson, J. Murray (London, England), 1974, Penguin (New York, NY), 1987, illustrated by David Johnson, with an afterword by John L. Cobbs, Reader's Digest (Pleasantville, NY), 1991, published as The Return of Sherlock Holmes: A Facsimile of the Stories As They Were First Published in the Strand Magazine, London, with an introduction by Samuel Rosenberg, Schocken (New York, NY), 1975.

Study in Scarlet, and, The Sign of Four, with a note by Dr. Joseph Bell, Appleton (New York, NY), 1902, reprinted, Dover (Mineola, NY), 2003.

Stories of Sherlock Holmes, Harper (New York, NY), 1904.

The Valley of Fear (novel; serialized in Strand magazine, 1914-15; also see below), illustrated by Arthur I. Keller, Doran (New York, NY), 1914, with an introduction by Len Deighton, Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1977, with an introduction by Owen Dudley Edwards, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1994, published as The Valley of Fear: A Sherlock Holmes Novel, illustrated by Arthur I. Keller, Doran, 1915.

His Last Bow: Some Reminiscences of Sherlock Holmes (short stories; also see below), J. Murray (London, England), 1917, with an introduction by Julian Symons, 1974, edited and with an introduction by Owen Dudley Edwards, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1994, published as His Last Bow: A Reminiscence of Sherlock Holmes, Doran (New York, NY), 1917, reprinted, Sun Dial Press (Garden City, NY), 1937.

The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes (short stories; also see below), Doran (New York, NY), 1927, illustrated by Don Irwin, Children's Press (Chicago, IL), 1968, with an introduction by C. P. Snow, J. Murray (London, England), 1974, with an introduction by W. W. Robson, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1994.

Sherlock Holmes: His Adventures, Memoirs, Return, His Last Bow, and The Case-Book, J. Murray (London, England), 1929.

Sherlock Holmes: A Study in Scarlet, The Sign of Four, The Hound of the Baskervilles, The Valley of Fear, the Complete Long Stories, J. Murray (London, England), 1929.

The Complete Sherlock Holmes, Doubleday, Doran (Garden City, NY), 1930, reprinted, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1953.

Tales of Sherlock Holmes, Burt (New York, NY), 1906, with an afterword by Clifton Fadiman, illustrated by Harvey Dinerstein, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1963.

Sherlock Homes and Dr. Watson: A Textbook of Friendship, edited by Christopher Morley, Harcourt (New York, NY), 1944.

Cases of Sherlock Holmes, Webster (St. Louis, MO), 1947.

Sherlock Holmes: Selected Stories, edited and with an introduction by S. C. Roberts, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1951, reprinted, 1998.

The Later Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, definitive text, corrected and edited by Edgar W. Smith, illustrated by Frederic Dorr Steele, Sidney Paget, and others, Limited Editions Club (New York, NY), 1952.

A Treasury of Sherlock Holmes, Hanover House (Garden City, NY), 1955.

Sherlock Holmes Investigates, selected and with an introduction by Michael Hardwick and Mollie Hardwick, illustrated by Sidney Paget, J. Murray (London, England), 1963, Lothrop, Lee & Shephard (New York, NY), 1967.

Sherlock Holmes, Detective, with a preface by Raymond T. Bond, Dodd, Mead (New York, NY), 1965.

Sherlock Holmes' Greatest Cases, introduction by Howard Haycraft, F. Watts (New York, NY), 1966.

The Annotated Sherlock Holmes: The Four Novels and the Fifty-six Short Stories Complete, edited with introduction, notes, and bibliography by William S. Baring-Gould, illustrated by Charles Doyle and others, C. N. Potter (New York, NY), 1967.

Red-headed League, and The Adventure of the Speckled Band (also see below), illustrated by Paul Spina, F. Watts (New York, NY), 1968, reprinted, Creative Education (Mankato, MN), 1990.

My Life with Sherlock Holmes: Conversations in Baker Street by John H. Watson, M.D., edited by J. R. Hamilton, Murray (London, England), 1968, Hawthorn Books (New York, NY), 1976.

The Illustrated Sherlock Holmes Treasury, Avenel Books (New York, NY), 1976, published as The Illustrated Sherlock Holmes Treasury, illustrated by Sidney Paget, George Hutchingon, and Frank H. Townsend, C. N. Potter (New York, NY), 1984, revised and expanded edition published as Great Works of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: The Illustrated Sherlock Holmes Treasury, Chatham River Press (New York, NY), 1986.

The Sherlock Holmes Illustrated Omnibus, illustrated by Sidney Paget, with introductions by Steven Marcus, Leslie Fiedler, and Samuel Rosenberg, Schocken (New York, NY), 1976.

The Best of Sherlock Holmes, Franklin Library (Franklin Center, PA), 1977.

The Sherlock Holmes Book of Quotations: Being a Compilation of the Words of Wit and Wisdom Spoken by the World's First Consulting Detective: And Including the Observations of His Friend and Biographer, John H. Watson, M.D.: With a Selection of the More Memorable Remarks Made by Their Intimates and Acquaintances, compiled and classified by Bruce R. Beaman, Gaslight (Bloomington, IN), 1980.

The Uncollected Sherlock Holmes (short stories), compiled by Richard Lancelyn Green, Penguin Books, 1983.

Sherlock Holmes (selections), illustrated by Sidney Paget, George Hutchinson, and Frank H. Townsend, Chatham River Press (New York, NY), 1983.

Mysteries of Sherlock Holmes, New American Library (New York, NY), 1985, illustrated by Paul Bachem, Grosset & Dunlap (New York, NY), 1996.

A Study in Scarlet [and] The Hound of the Baskervilles, illustrated by Greg Spalenka, afterword by G. K. Chesterton, Reader's Digest (Pleasantville, NY), 1986.

Baker Street Dozen, edited by P. J. Doyle and E. W. McDiarmid, Congdon & Weed (New York, NY), 1987.

The Speckled Band, illustrated by Dean Morrissey, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1987.

Sherlock Holmes Reader (includes "The Red-headed League" and "The Adventure of the Speckled Band"), Courage Books (Philadelphia, PA), 1994, published as The Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Reader: From Sherlock Holmes to Spiritualism, edited by Jeffrey Meyers and Valerie Meyers, Cooper Square Press (New York, NY), 2002.

Sherlock Holmes: Two Complete Adventures (miniature edition), Running Press (Philadelphia, PA), 1989.

Six Great Sherlock Holmes Stories, Dover (Mineola, NY), 1992.

The Best Sherlock Holmes Stories, Hearthstone (Munslow, Shropshire, England), 1995.

Sherlock Holmes, illustrated by Sidney Paget, Knopf (New York, NY), 1996.

Selected Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, introduction by E. D. Hirsch, Jr., Core Knowledge Foundation (Charlottesville, VA), 1997.

The Quotable Sherlock Holmes, selected and with an introduction by John H. Watson III, Mysterious Press (New York, NY), 2000.

Favorite Sherlock Holmes Detective Stories, Dover (Mineola, NY), 2000.

Sherlock Holmes: The Complete Illustrated Short Stories, Chancellor Press (London, England), 2000.

The Valley of Fear and Selected Cases, introduction by Charles Palliser, notes by Ed Gliners, Penguin (New York, NY), 2001.

Sherlock Holmes: The Complete Illustrated Novels, Chancellor Press (London, England), 2001.

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes and The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes, Penguin (New York, NY), 2001.

Quotable Sherlock, compiled and edited by David W. Barber, illustrated by Sidney Paget, Quotable Press (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), 2001.

A Study in Scarlet; and, The Sign of Four, Dover (Mineola, NY), 2003.

Collected Sherlock Holmes, with an introduction and notes by Kyle Freeman, Barnes & Noble Classics (New York, NY), 2003.

A Study in Scarlet, and, The Sign of Four, Dover (Mineola, NY), 2003.

The New Annotated Sherlock Holmes, edited and with a preface and noted by Leslie S. Klinger, introduction by John le Carré, Norton (New York, NY), 2004.


Beyond the City, Wm. L. Allison (New York, NY), c. 1870s, published as Beyond the City: The Idyll ofa Suburb, illustrated by Pamela Mattix, afterword by Howard Lachtman, Gaslight (Bloomington, IN), 1982.

The Mystery of Cloomber, Ward & Downey, 1889, Munro (New York, NY), 1895, illustrated by Paul M. McCall, afterword by Jack Tracy, Gaslight (Bloomington, IN), 1980.

The Firm of Girdlestone (semiautobiographical), Lovell (New York, NY), 1890, illustrated by Paul M. McCall, afterword by Jack Tracy, Gaslight (Bloomington, IN), 1980.

The Doings of Raffles Haw (serialized in Answers, 1891-92), Lovell (New York, NY), 1891, illustrated by Paul M. McCall, afterword by John Bennett Shaw, Gaslight (Bloomington, IN), 1981.

The Parasite, Constable (London, England), 1894, published as The Parasite: A Story, illustrated by Howard Pyle, Harper (New York, NY), 1895.

The Stark Munro Letters: Being a Series of Sixteen Letters Written by J. Stark Munro, M.B., to his Friend and Former Fellow-Student, Herbert Swanborough, of Lowell, Massachusetts, during the Years 1881-1884 (autobiographical; also see below), Appleton (New York, NY), 1895, with an afterword by C. Frederick Kittle, illustrated by Lisa Rivard, Gaslight (Bloomington, IN), 1982.

Rodney Stone, illustrated by Sidney Paget, Appleton (New York, NY), 1896, reprinted, J. Murray (London, England), 1963.

The Tragedy of the Korosko (see also below), illustrated by Sidney Paget, Smith, Elder, 1898, reprinted, Gaslight (Bloomington, IN), 1983, published as A Desert Drama: Being the Tragedy of the Korosko, Lippincott (Philadelphia, PA), 1898.

A Duet with an Occasional Chorus, Appleton (New York, NY), 1899, with an afterword by Peter E. Blau, illustrated by Michele Lauber, Gaslight (Bloomington, IN), 1990.

Tragedy of the Korosko, and The Green Flag, and Other Stories of War and Sport, Appleton (New York, NY), 1902.

The Lost World: Being an Account of the Recent Amazing Adventures of Professor George E. Challenger, Lord John Roxton, Professor Summerlee, and Mr. E. D. Malone of the Daily Gazette (also see below), Burt (New York, NY), 1912, illustrated by Gil Walker, Looking Glass Library (New York, NY), 1959, with an introduction and notes by Robert L. Wilson and Richard Adams, Longman (London, England), 1980, edited and with an introduction and notes by Ian Duncan, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1995, with an introduction by Michael Crichton and notes by Julia Houston, Modern Library (New York, NY), 2003.

The Poison Belt (also see below), illustrated by Harry Rountree, Doran (New York, NY), 1913, with an introduction by John Dickson Carr and epilogue by Harlow Shapley, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1964, with an introduction by Katya Reimann, University of Nebraska Press (Lincoln, NE), 2001.

The Adventure of the Six Napoleons, Collier (New York, NY), 1917.

The Dealings of Captain Sharkey, Doran (New York, NY), 1925.

The Land of Mist, Hutchinson (London, England), 1925, Doran (New York, NY), 1926.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: Three Adventure Novels (contains The Lost World, The Poison Belt, and The White Company), Gramercy (Avenel, NJ), 1996.

The Lost World; and, The Poison Belt: Professor Challenger Adventures, introduction by William Gibson, Chronicle Books (San Francisco, CA), 1989.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: Three Adventure Novels, Gramercy Books (Avenel, NJ), 1996.

The Haunted Grange of Goresthorpe, Arthur Conan Doyle Society (Ashcroft, British Columbia, Canada), 2000.

historical novels

Micah Clarke: His Statement As Made to His Three Grandchildren, Joseph, Gervas, and Reuben, during the Hard Winter of 1734, Harper (New York, NY), 1889, edited by Virginia Kirkus, illustrated by Henry C. Pitz, 1929.

The White Company (serialized in Cornhill magazine, 1891), Lovell (New York, NY), 1891, illustrated by George Willis Bardwell, Harper (New York, NY), 1922, illustrated by N. C. Wyeth, Cosmopolitan Book (New York, NY), 1922, illustrated by James Daughtery, Harper, 1929, with an introduction by Donald J. Harvey, Dodd, Mead (New York, NY), 1962, with an introduction by Anthony Burgess, J. Murray (London, England), illustrated by N. C. Wyeth, Morrow (New York, NY), 1988.

The Refugees: A Tale of Two Continents (serialized in Harper's Monthly magazine, 1893), illustrated by T. De Thulstrup, Harper (New York, NY), 1893, reprinted, Inheritance Publications (Pella, IA), 2004.

The Great Shadow (first published in Arrowsmith's Christmas Annual, 1892), Harper (New York, NY), 1893, reprinted, 1920.

Uncle Bernac: A Memory of the Empire, illustrated by Robert Sauber, Appleton (New York, NY), 1897, illustrated by John Mackay, J. Murray (London, England), 1968.

Sir Nigel: Boyhood of the Commander of the White Company (sequel to The White Company; serialized in Strand magazine, 1905-06), illustrated by Arthur Twidle, Smith, Elder (London, England), 1906, illustrated by the Kinneys, McClure, Phillips, 1906, illustrated by James Daugherty, Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1931, with an introduction by Mary Renault, J. Murray (London, England), 1975, Hart Publishing (New York, NY), 1976.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: The Historical Romances, two volumes, New Orchard Editions (New York, NY), 1986.

short stories

Mysteries and Adventures, Scott, 1890, published as The Gully of Bluemansdyke and Other Stories, 1892, published as My Friend the Murderer and Other Mysteries and Adventures, Lovell, Coryell (New York, NY), 1893, reprinted, Books for Libraries Press (Freeport, NY), 1971.

The Captain of the Polestar and Other Tales, Longmans, Green (London, England), 1890, Books for Libraries Press (Freeport, NY), 1970.

(With Campbell Rae Brown) An Actor's Duel [and] The Winning Shot (the former by Brown, the latter by Doyle), Dicks, 1894.

Round the Red Lamp: Being Facts and Fancies of Medical Life (horror; also see below), Appleton (New York, NY), 1894, reprinted, Books for Libraries Press (Freeport, NY), 1969.

The Surgeon of Gaster Fell (also see below), Ivers (New York, NY), 1895.

The Exploits of Brigadier Gerard (adventure), illustrated by W. B. Wollen, Appleton (New York, NY), 1896, reprinted, J. Murray (London, England), 1976, edited and with an introduction by Owen Dudley Edwards, Canongate Press (Edinburgh, Scotland), 1991.

The Green Flag and Other Stories of War and Sport (see also above), McClure (New York, NY), 1900, Books for Libraries Press (Freeport, NY), 1969.

The Stark-Munro Letters and Round the Red Lamp, Appleton (New York, NY), 1902.

Adventures of Gerard, illustrated by W. B. Wollen, McClure, Phillips (New York, NY), 1903, with an introduction by Elizabeth Longford, J. Murray (London, England), 1976, with an introduction by George MacDonald Fraser, published as Exploits and Adventures of Brigadier Gerard, New York Review Books (New York, NY), 2001.

Round the Fire Stories, McClure (New York, NY), 1908, reprinted, Chronicle Books (San Francisco, CA), 1991.

The Last Galley: Impressions and Tales, illustrated by N. C. Wyeth, Rountree, Paget (New York, NY), 1910, reprinted, J. Murray (London, England), 1931.

One Crowded Hour (also see below), Paget (New York, NY), 1911.

Danger! And Other Stories, J. Murray (London, England), 1918, Doran (New York, NY), 1919.

Three of Them: About Naughtiness and Frogs and Historical Pictures, Doran (New York, NY), 1919.

Tales of the Ring and Camp, J. Murray (London, England), 1922, published as The Croxley Master and Other Tales of the Ring and Camp, Doran (New York, NY), 1925.

Tales of Terror and Mystery, J. Murray (London, England), 1922, with an introduction by Nina Conan Doyle Harwood, illustrated by Barbara Ninde Byfield, Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1977, reprinted, Trident Press International (Naples, FL), 2001, published as The Black Doctor and Other Tales of Terror and Mystery, Doran (New York, NY), 1925, reprinted, Buccaneer Books, 1982.

Tales of Twilight and the Unseen, J. Murray (London, England), 1922, published as The Great Keinplatz Experiment and Other Tales of Twilight and the Unseen, Doran (New York, NY), 1925.

Tales of Adventure and Medical Life, J. Murray (London, England), 1922, published as The Man from Archangel and Other Tales of Adventure, Doran (New York, NY), 1925, reprinted, Books for Libraries Press (Freeport, NY), 1969.

Tales of Long Ago, J. Murray (London, England), 1922, published as The Last of the Legions and Other Tales of Long Ago, Doran (New York, NY), 1925.

The Three of Them: A Reminiscence, J. Murray (London, England), 1923.

The Story of Spedegue's Dropper, Doubleday, Doran (New York, NY), 1929.

The Macarot Deep and Other Stories (also see below), Doubleday, Doran (New York, NY), 1929.

Conan Doyle's Stories for Boys, Cupples & Leon (New York, NY), 1938.

Sherlock Holmes, and Other Detective Stories, Illustrated Editions (New York, NY), 1941.

The Professor Challenger Stories (includes The Lost World, The Poison Belt, The Land of Mist, The Disintegration Machine, and When the World Screamed), J. Murray (London, England), 1952, published as Complete Professor Challenger Stories, Transatlantic, 1952.

Tales of Brigadier Gerard, illustrated by Eileen M. Hill, J. Murray (London, England), 1968.

The Ring of Thoth, and Other Stories, J. Murray (London, England), 1968.

The Maracot Deep, with an introduction by John Dickson Carr, Norton (New York, NY), 1968.

The Best Supernatural Tales of Arthur Conan Doyle, selected and with an introduction by E. F. Bleiler, Dover (New York, NY), 1979.

The Edinburgh Stories of Arthur Conan Doyle, Polygon Books (Edinburgh, Scotland), 1981.

Uncollected Stories: The Unknown Conan Doyle, compiled and with an introduction by John Michael Gibson and Richard Lancelyn Green, Doubleday (Garden City, NY), 1982.

Masterworks of Crime and Mystery, edited by Jack Tracy, Dial (New York, NY), 1982.

Conan Doyle Stories, Hippocrene Books, 1985.

Supernatural Tales of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, edited and with an introduction by Peter Haining, W. Foulsham (New York, NY), 1987.

Strange Studies from Life and Other Narratives: The Complete True Crime Writings of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, selected and edited by Jack Tracy, introduction by Peter Ruber, illustrated by Sidney Paget, Gaslight (Bloomington, IN), 1988.

The Best Horror Stories of Arthur Conan Doyle, edited by Frank D. McSherry, Martin H. Greenberg, and Charles G. Waugh, Academy Chicago (Chicago, IL), 1989.

Tales for a Winter's Night, Academy Chicago (Chicago, IL), 1989.

When the World Screamed and Other Stories, J. Murray (London, England), 1968, Chronicle Books (San Francisco, CA), 1990.

The Horror of the Heights and Other Tales of Suspense, Chronicle Books (San Francisco, CA), 1992.

The Collected Brigadier Gerard Stories, Hearthstone (Munslow, Shropshire, England), 1995.

The Lost World and Other Thrilling Tales, edited and with an introduction and notes by Philip Gooden, Penguin (New York, NY), 2001.


(With J. M. Barrie) Jane Annie; or, The Good Conduct Prize (comic opera; first produced in London, England, 1893), Chappell (London, England), 1893.

Foreign Policy (one-act; based on Doyle's short story "A Question of Diplomacy"), first produced in London, England, 1893.

Waterloo (one-act; based on Doyle's short story "A Straggler of '15"; first produced as A Story of Waterloo in Bristol, England, 1894), Samuel French (New York, NY), 1907.

Halves (prologue and three acts; based on the story by James Payn), first produced in Aberdeen, Scotland, 1899.

(With William Gillette) Sherlock Holmes (four-act; based on Doyle's short story "The Strange Case of Miss Faulkner"; first produced in London, England, 1899), Samuel French (New York, NY), 1922, Doubleday, Doran (New York, NY), 1932, definitive text corrected and edited by Edgar W. Smith, with an introduction by Vincent Starrett, Heritage Press (New York, NY), 1957.

A Duet (A Duologue) (one-act comedy; based on Doyle's novel A Duet with an Occasional Chorus; first produced in London, England, 1902), Samuel French (New York, NY), 1903.

Brigadier Gerard (four-act comedy; first produced in London, England, 1906), Gaslight (Bloomington, IN), 1986.

The Fires of Fate (four-act; based on Doyle's novel The Tragedy of the Korosko), first produced in Liverpool, England, 1909.

The House of Temperley, first produced in London, England, 1910.

A Pot of Caviare (one-act; based on Doyle's short story), first produced in London, England, 1910.

The Speckled Band: An Adventure of Sherlock Holmes (three-act; based on Doyle's short story "The Adventure of the Speckled Band"; first produced in London, England, 1910), Samuel French (New York, NY), 1912.

The Crown Diamond (one-act; first produced in Bristol, England, 1921), privately printed, 1958.

It's Time Something Happened (one-act), Appleton (New York, NY), 1925.

Exile: A Drama of Christmas Eve (one-act), Appleton (New York, NY), 1925.

Angels of Darkness: A Drama in Three Acts: A Facsimile of the Original Manuscript, edited by Peter E. Blau, Baker Street Irregulars in Cooperation with the Toronto Public Library (New York, NY), 2001.

Also author of Sir Charles Tregellis, Admiral Denver, The Stonor Case, The Lift, and Mrs. Thompson (based on the novel of the same title by W. B. Maxwell).


The New Revelation, Metropolitan Magazine (New York, NY), 1917, with introduction and afterword by George J. Lankevich, SquareOne Classics (Garden City, NY), 2001.

The Vital Message, Doran (New York, NY), 1919.

Spiritualism and Rationalism, Hodder & Stoughton (London, England), 1920.

The Wanderings of a Spiritualist, Doran (New York, NY), 1921, reprinted, Ronin (Berkeley, CA), 1988.

The Evidence for Fairies, Doran (New York, NY), 1921.

Fairies Photographed, Doran (New York, NY), 1921.

The Coming of the Fairies, Doran (New York, NY), 1922, reprinted, Weiser, 1972.

(With others) The Case for Spirit Photography, preface by Fred Barlow, Hutchinson (London, England), 1922, Doran (New York, NY), 1923.

Our American Adventure, Doran (New York, NY), 1923.

(Compiler) The Spiritualists' Reader, Two Worlds, 1924.

Our Second American Adventure, Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1924.

(Contributor) James Marchant, editor, Survival, Putnam (New York, NY), 1924, Doyle's contribution published separately as Psychic Experiences, 1925.

The History of Spiritualism, two volumes, Doran (New York, NY), 1926, reprinted, Arno Press (New York, NY), 1975.

Pheneas Speaks: Direct Spirit Communications in the Family Circle, Doran (New York, NY), 1927.

Our African Winter, J. Murray (London, England), 1929.

The Roman Catholic Church: A Rejoinder, Psychic Press (London, England), 1929.

The Edge of the Unknown (essays), Putnam (New York, NY), 1930, reprinted, Time-Life Books (Alexandria, VA), 1991.


Songs of Action (poetry; also see below), Doubleday & McClure (New York, NY), 1898.

The Great Boer War, McClure, Phillips (New York, NY), 1900, reprinted, Struik, 1976.

The War in South Africa: Its Cause and Conduct, McClure, Phillips (New York, NY), 1902.

The Story of Mr. George Edalji, privately printed, 1907, published as The Case of Mr. George Edalji, Blake, 1907.

Through the Magic Door (criticism), illustrated by W. Russell Flint, Smith, Elder (London, England), 1907, McClure (New York, NY), 1908, reprinted, Doubleday, Page (Garden City, NY), 1925.

The Crime of the Congo, Doubleday, Page (New York, NY), 1909.

The "Arch Adept" of the "First Degree," De Laurence, Scott (Chicago, IL), 1910.

Songs of the Road (poetry; also see below), Doubleday, Page (New York, NY), 1911.

The Passing of the Legions, Paget (New York, NY), 1911.

The Case of Oscar Slater, Hodder & Stoughton (New York, NY), 1912.

Great Britain and the Next War, Small, Maynard, 1914.

To Arms!, preface by F. E. Smith, Hodder & Stoughton (London, England), 1914.

The German War (essays), Hodder & Stoughton (London, England), 1914.

The Story of British Prisoners, Central Committee for National Patriotic Organization (London, England), 1915.

Western Wanderings, Doran (New York, NY), 1915.

A Visit to Three Fronts: June, 1916, Hodder & Stoughton (London, England), 1916, published as A Visit to Three Fronts: Glimpses of the British, Italian, and French Lines, Doran (New York, NY), 1916.

The Origin and Outbreak of the War, Doran (New York, NY), 1916.

The British Campaign in France and Flanders, six volumes, Doran (New York, NY), 1916-20, enlarged edition published as The British Campaigns in Europe, 1914-1919, Bles, 1928.

The Guards Came Through and Other Poems (also see below), J. Murray (London, England), 1919, Doran (New York, NY), 1920.

Fairies Photographed, Doran (New York, NY), 1921.

The Poems of Arthur Conan Doyle: Collected Edition (contains Songs of Action, Songs of the Road, and The Guards Came Through and Other Poems), J. Murray (London, England), 1922.

Memories and Adventures (autobiography), Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1924, with a foreword by Richard Lancelyn Green, Greenhill Books (London, England), 1988.

(Translator from the French) Leon Denis, The Mystery of Joan of Arc, J. Murray (London, England), 1924, Dutton (New York, NY), 1925.

The Works of A. Conan Doyle: One Volume Edition, W. J. Black (New York, NY), 1928.

Strange Studies from Life: Containing Three Hitherto Uncollected Tales Based on the Annals of True Crime, additional material by Philip Trevor, edited and with an introduction by Peter Ruber, Candlelight Press, 1963.

Essays on Photography: The Unknown Conan Doyle, compiled with an introduction by John Michael Gibson and Richard Lancelyn Green, Secker & Warburg (London, England), 1982.

33, compiled and with an introduction by John Michael Gibson and Richard Lancelyn Green, Avenel Books (New York, NY), 1982.

The Adventure of the Priory School: A Facsimile of the Original Manuscript in the Marvin P. Epstein Sherlock Holmes Collection, introduction by Len Deighton, Santa Teresa Press (Santa Barbara, CA), 1985.

Letters to the Press, edited with an introduction by John Michael Gibson and Richard Lancelyn Green, University of Iowa Press (Iowa City, IA), 1986.

A Regimental Scandal: A Facsimile of the Manuscript, edited by Christopher Roden and Barbara Roden, with a foreword by Dame Jean Conan Doyle and an introduction by Richard Lancelyn Green, Arthur Conan Doyle Society (Penyffordd, Chester, England), 1995.

Contributor of works such as "The Truth sbout Sherlock Holmes" in a variety of genres to many magazines and newspapers, including Strand, Chambers's Journal, Harper's, Blackwood's, Saturday Evening Post, McClure's, London Society, Cornhill, Lippincott's, Boston Herald, Philadelphia Inquirer, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and New York Times. Contributor to What Irish Protestants Think: Speeches on Home Rule, Irish Press Agency (Westminster, England).

ADAPTATIONS: Many of Doyle's works have been adapted for film, including A Study in Scarlet, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, The Hound of the Baskervilles, His Last Bow, The Firm of Girdlestone, and The Exploits of Brigadier Gerard. Doyle's writings have also been adapted for plays, television (including a series based on The Lost World), and filmstrips. Several stories, novels, and children's books have been based on the characters of Sherlock Holmes and others created by Doyle.

SIDELIGHTS: Arthur Conan Doyle is not considered to have been a great writer, but his work was great in one regard: he created one of the most famous characters in the history of fiction. Indeed, the name of Sherlock Holmes is synonymous with detective, and the deerstalker cap and calabash pipe suggest Holmes to people all over the world, even to those who have never read any of the four novels and fifty-six short stories Doyle wrote about him. Yet those kinds of cap and pipe are not mentioned and the phrase "Elementary, my dear Watson" is never uttered in any of the sixty tales. Interestingly, Holmes's more recognizable features were not even Doyle's creation; the hat was the creation of illustrator Sidney Paget; the pipe came from an actor who frequently performed the role of Sherlock Holmes in plays.

Many who are familiar with Sherlock Holmes have never heard of Doyle; to countless others, Doyle is known only as the author of the "Holmes" stories, despite the many other works he wrote during his career. What is true decades later was also very largely true during Doyle's lifetime, and this fact did not make him happy. He felt that he had better things to offer the world of literature than a series of detective stories; in particular, he considered his greatest achievements in fiction to be his historical novels. Outside the realm of fiction, Doyle believed that his most important writings were those in which he attempts to prove the truth of spiritualism and communication with the dead, a cause to which he devoted the last eleven years of his life. Doyle was so afraid that Holmes would distract his own and his readers' attention from what he considered his more important work that he killed the detective in one story, only to be forced by public demand to resurrect him later.

Although Doyle was not a great writer who communicated profound truths about the human condition, he was a good writer, with four principal areas of strength. First, his style is vigorous, clear, and readable. In fact, as he himself declared in a 1923 Collier's essay, "The Truth about Sherlock Holmes," his style might have been too clear: "I cultivate a simple style and avoid long words so far as possible, and it may be that this surface of ease has sometimes caused the reader to underrate the amount of real research which lies in all my historical novels." As Doyle biographer Ronald Pearsall put it in Conan Doyle: A Biographical Solution: "Doyle's style hardly altered for forty years. He sat down and wrote, unworried by the hesitations and concern for literary propriety that make 'artistic' novelists of his time (such as George Moore) almost unreadable. He was never brainwashed by 'fine writing.'" Judging by the almost complete absence of revisions in his extant manuscripts, this style was as easy for him to write as it is to read.

Second, Doyle was able, through concise, sensuous description, to evoke atmosphere and a sense of place. Even today, tourists who visit London for the first time after reading the "Sherlock Holmes" stories often experience a feeling of familiarity, as though they had been there before. In the most famous of the "Holmes" novels, The Hound of the Baskervilles, the eeriness of the moors is vividly conveyed, and in certain passages of Doyle's historical novels, the reader is almost thrust bodily into the clang and crash of medieval hand-to-hand combat.

Third, Doyle could create memorable characters who, though not realistically drawn, are endowed with such striking personalities that they seem more real than many actual people. This believability applies not only to Sherlock Holmes, to whom mail, bearing his fictitious address, 221B Baker Street, London, is still sent, but applies also to such other Doyle heroes as Brigadier Etienne Gerard, Professor George Edward Challenger, and Sir Nigel Loring. At the same time, however, many of the minor characters in Doyle's fiction are not well defined or seem to be mere stock types: the innocent young woman, the unregenerate villain, the loyal companion, the stolid but bumbling Scotland Yard official.

Fourth, and perhaps most important, Doyle was a master storyteller. Even his weaker fictional efforts hold reader interest; when his plots are hackneyed and contain no real surprises—which is sometimes the case, even though Doyle prided himself on his ability to devise ingenious plots—the reader is carried along by the sheer power of the storyteller's art. In fact, this talent, like his lucid style, produced repercussions that were unwanted by Doyle: his historical novels, which he intended as authentic recreations of life in earlier periods and which were supposed to educate Englishmen in the history of their country, were treated by reviewers only as exciting adventure yarns.

Doyle was a professional writer, in the most complete sense of that term. After he gave up the practice of medicine in 1891, he lived and supported a large family on the income from his writing alone. By the 1920s he was the most highly paid writer in the world, commanding ten shillings a word. Market considerations occasionally entered into his decisions about what to write—especially in regard to the "Sherlock Holmes" stories, for which he was offered so much money that he was virtually forced to write them. But for the most part, he wrote what he wanted to write, and his choice was usually in harmony with what the public in Britain and America wanted to read. Most of his works appeared first in magazines and then in book form, so he was paid twice for each. His short stories were published in magazines and then collected in books; his novels were usually serialized in periodicals before appearing between hard covers. Doyle was also a professional author in the sense that he wrote almost constantly: on trains, in cabs, while posing for photographs, while carrying on a conversation at a party. According to his biographers, in his younger days, he could write without being distracted by one of his daughters crawling across his desk or even tearing up his manuscripts; later, he spent long hours behind a closed study door through which his children knew better than to try to enter. He kept diaries and notebooks, and most of his experiences and travels sooner or later provided material for published articles and books.

Doyle was also a professional in that he wrote in virtually every form and genre: detective stories, historical novels, science fiction, horror stories, domestic comedy, sports stories, poetry, and plays; he even collaborated on an operetta—one of his few failures. A significant portion of his writing is nonfiction, to which he brings the same stylistic and storytelling skills that made his fiction so popular. He was knighted not, as many people suppose, for writing the "Sherlock Holmes" stories, but for his pamphlet defending British actions in South Africa during the Boer War of 1899 to 1902. He also wrote histories of that war and of World War I, articles on military preparedness, literary criticism, histories and defenses of spiritualism, and vindications of men unjustly convicted of crimes.

In spite of his prodigious literary output, Doyle was by no means a retiring, closeted intellectual. He was a man of action, large in stature—six feet two inches tall, two hundred ten pounds in his prime—and an all-around athlete, proficient in rugby, boxing, and cricket; Doyle, his biographers claim, introduced the sport of skiing into Switzerland. Too old to fight in the Boer War, he served as a surgeon with a privately financed hospital near the front in South Africa. During World War I he organized a volunteer rifle company—the forerunner of the modern Home Guard—and toured the front lines to gather material for his history of the conflict.

Doyle was a true man of his time: until his obsession with spiritualism began to make him look somewhat foolish, he was regarded on both sides of the Atlantic as the very symbol of British probity, stolidity, and common sense. He shared the prejudices of his time and place in his unswerving support of the British Empire, his steadfast opposition to women's suffrage, his unquestioning acceptance of the class system, and his hostility to labor unions and Mormons. On the other hand, he was a man behind his time in that he believed in and guided his behavior by a knightly code of honor. But he was also ahead of his time: he kept abreast of scientific discoveries, and he wrote articles and stories predicting the advent of such phenomena as television and submarine warfare.

Doyle's original career as a doctor gave him the inspiration for some of his later works. While attending Edinburgh University in the late 1870s, he met Dr. Joseph Bell, a surgeon who was able to deduce his patients' occupations and other information from observing their appearance. Bell became the model for Sherlock Holmes, as professor of physiology William Rutherford did for another Doyle character, Professor Challenger. The actual practice of medicine, which at that time was in the process of becoming a true science, may also have inspired Doyle. The very deductive skills—the ability to piece together seemingly unconnected bits of information—that allowed doctors to make proper diagnoses also allowed Doyle's fictional detective to solve crimes.

To help pay for his education, Doyle worked during vacations as an assistant to various doctors. The nephew of one of these physicians told Doyle that his letters were so vivid he ought to try to write something to sell. This encouragement launched Doyle's professional writing career. His first story was rejected, but the second, "The Mystery of Sasassa Valley," appeared anonymously in Chambers's Journal in 1879. It is the tale of three young adventurers in South Africa who investigate a native superstition about a demon with a glowing red eye and discover a huge diamond. Another story, "The American's Tale," written in imitation of the style of Bret Harte, was published in the Christmas, 1880, issue of London Society.

Doyle indulged his taste for real-life adventure by signing on as a ship's surgeon on a seven-month Arctic whaling and sealing expedition in 1880. As Pearsall commented, "His whaler types crop up time and time again in his stories, sometimes dressed up in army uniform." After receiving his bachelor of medicine degree in 1881, he sailed to Africa as a surgeon on a freighter. On his return, he wrote an account of the voyage for the British Journal of Photography and submitted short stories for publication in London Society and Blackwood's.

In 1886 Doyle decided to try his hand at penning a detective novel. He said later that all the detective fiction he had read was unsatisfactory because the solution of the mystery was made to depend on chance or on some flash of intuition by the detective. Doyle, as he declared in "The Truth about Sherlock Holmes," wanted to try to "reduce this fascinating but unorganized business to something nearer to an exact science." Influenced by Edgar Allen Poe's "Dupin" stories, the "Lecoq" novels of Emile Gaboriau, and Sergeant Cuff in Wilkie Collins's The Moonstone, Doyle began work on a novel he called "A Tangled Skein." His notes reveal that his detective protagonist was originally to be called "Sherrinford Holmes" and the narrator "Ormond Sacker"; but these names were quickly replaced by "Sherlock Holmes" and "John H. Watson, M.D." The title of the novel became A Study in Scarlet.

Doyle wrote the novel in three weeks during March and April, 1886, and sent it to the Cornhill; the editor, James Payn, liked but rejected it because it was too long to publish in one issue and too short to serialize. The novel was accepted by Ward, Lock for publication in their Beeton's Christmas Annual for 1887, more than a year away. They paid Doyle twenty-five pounds for the complete rights to the story—the only money he ever received for it. When A Study in Scarlet appeared, it caused no great stir; but the 1887 edition of Beeton's Christmas Annual sold out—it is now one of the rarest and most valuable publications in the world—and the novel received complimentary reviews in minor journals and newspapers. Ward, Lock republished it in book form in 1888 with six illustrations by Doyle's father, who had been in an asylum suffering from alcoholism since 1879.

In July of 1887 Doyle started work on the first of his historical novels, Micah Clarke, dealing with the duke of Monmouth's rebellion against his father, Charles II, in the seventeenth century. According to John Dickson Carr in The Life of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, "The power of Micah Clarke, aside from its best action scenes—the bloodhounds on Salisbury Plain, the brush with the King's Dragoons, the fight in Wells Cathedral, the blinding battlepiece at Sedgemoor—still lies in its characterization: that other imagination, the use of homely detail, by which each character grows into life before ever a shot is fired in war." Charles Higham pointed out in The Adventures of Conan Doyle: The Life of the Creator of Sherlock Holmes that "the descriptions of war have a remarkable intensity, being alive with the author's love of battle"—at this time Doyle had never experienced a real war—but added that "the book suffers from deliberately antiquated 'period' diction in the dialogue and some of the descriptive material." Like many of Doyle's fictional works, the novel is narrated in the first person—in this case by Micah, a supporter of Monmouth. Doyle later claimed to have spent two years in research and five months in writing the book.

Micah Clarke received enthusiastic reviews when it was published in February, 1889, and Doyle immediately began work on another historical novel, The White Company, set in the fourteenth century. Between researching and writing The White Company, he received an offer from the American editor of Lippincott's magazine, which was published in both Philadelphia and London, for another "Sherlock Holmes" story. The proposal was made at a dinner in London that was also attended by Oscar Wilde; out of this meeting came both Doyle's The Sign of Four and Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray. The Sign of Four—published in the United States as The Sign of the Four—is set in 1888 and involves an Indian treasure, a one-legged man, a vicious Pygmy with a deadly blowgun, a character closely modeled on Oscar Wilde, and a chase down the Thames River in a motor launch. The Sign of Four appeared complete in one issue of Lippincott's and also in book form in 1890. It was well received, particularly in America, but the sensational popularity of Sherlock Holmes was yet to come.

After writing The Sign of Four, Doyle went back to The White Company. The novel follows the adventures in England, France, and Spain of the knight Sir Nigel Loring, his squire Alleyne Edricson, Edricson's friend John of Hordle, and the bowman Samkin Aylward. As Higham noted, the novel is "somewhat dated" by modern standards but is "vigorously told and scrupulously accurate." Doyle felt that the novel illuminates the national traditions of England and reveals for the first time the significance of the rise of the longbowman, and was disturbed that critics regarded it simply as a rousing adventure story. The White Company was serialized in the Cornhill before appearing in book form in 1891, and went through numerous editions.

In 1891 Doyle set himself up as an eye specialist in London, though he never attracted a single patient. Instead, he contributed a humorous story about a phonograph, "The Voice of Science," to the March, 1891, issue of a new illustrated monthly, the Strand. Doyle soon realized that a series of stories with a continuing central character could build reader loyalty for the magazine; since he had already created Sherlock Holmes, he quickly wrote six short stories featuring the detective. When the first of these, "A Scandal in Bohemia," appeared in the July, 1891, issue of the Strand, the phenomenal popularity of Sherlock Holmes began. Doyle received thirty-five pounds for each story.

The Strand stories were illustrated by Sidney Paget, whom the editors had hired by mistake, thinking that they were getting his better-known brother Walter. Sidney Paget did as much as Doyle to establish the image of Sherlock Holmes that stands today. He made Holmes handsomer than Doyle's original conception; he also introduced the deerstalker cap, which actually appears in illustrations for only eight of the thirty-eight stories for which Paget provided art work before his death in 1908. In the rest of the pictures Holmes wears various types of headgear, including toppers, felt hats, bowlers, homburgs, and even a straw boater; Doyle himself gives his detective a "close-fitting cloth cap" in one story and an "ear-flapped traveling cap" in another.

After the first few "Holmes" stories had appeared in the Strand, Doyle found himself nationally famous. He therefore decided to give up medicine, take up residence in the suburbs, and live entirely by his pen. When the editors of the Strand asked for more "Holmes" stories beyond the original six, Doyle, who had other projects in mind, set a price for the work he was sure would be rejected. Instead, his demand for fifty pounds per story was immediately accepted. He dashed off six more stories at the rate of about two per week, then turned to another historical novel, The Refugees, which was serialized and then published in book form in 1893. Doyle was never very happy with the novel, though Carr said that "the adventure-scenes in the great forests have never been surpassed for sheer vividness and power of action. They have diabolical reality, as though painted Indian-faces really did look through a suburban window." But even Carr admitted that "it is an uneven book," and Pearsall wrote that "readers of the Strand and posterity did not give, and have not given, a button for the epoch of Louis XIV and the boring misadventures of the Huguenots as laid out, in all their detail, in The Refugees." In the same period Doyle wrote his first dramatic work: a one-act play based on his short story "A Straggler of '15," which had appeared in Harper's Weekly in March, 1891. He sent the play to actor and theatre manager Henry Irving, who changed the title to A Story of Waterloo and performed it successfully on tour in 1894 and at London's Lyceum Theatre in 1896.

The first twelve "Holmes" stories were collected as The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, and the Strand asked for more. Hoping to quiet the editors' requests, Doyle demanded what he considered an outrageous amount, 1,000 pounds sterling for another dozen stories. Again, the editors accepted. While working on these stories, the incredibly productive Doyle wrote a novel about suburban life, Beyond the City, and another historical novel, The Great Shadow. Higham called the latter work "tedious," though Carr wrote that the description of the Battle of Waterloo at the end "rings in the ears and stifles the nostrils with gun smoke." Doyle also helped his friend James Barrie, who had fallen ill, complete an operetta, Jane Annie; or, The Good Conduct Prize, which was a resounding failure when it was performed at the Savoy Theatre in May, 1893.

In the fall of 1893, Doyle's wife, Louise, was diagnosed as having tuberculosis and given only months to live; in fact, she survived for thirteen years. Burdened with concern for his wife, tired of inventing new plots for Holmes, and convinced that his detective was consuming the time and attention due his "better" work, Doyle killed Holmes in "The Final Problem," the last of the twelve stories he had promised the Strand. In this story, set in April, 1891, Holmes and Watson are pursued to Switzerland by arch-criminal Professor James Moriarty, whose gang has been destroyed through Holmes's efforts. Watson returns to the brink of the Reichenbach Falls, after having been called away on a ruse, to find a note from Holmes and evidence that he and Moriarty have struggled and then fallen over the precipice to their deaths. When the story appeared in the Strand in December, 1893, twenty thousand readers canceled their subscriptions, businessmen dressed in mourning, and Doyle received letters addressing him as "You Brute." Unremorseful, Doyle collected the second twelve Holmes stories as The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes and wrote The Stark-Munro Letters, an autobiographical novel, based on Doyle's experiences with Dr. Budd, that contains some of his best comedy but ends when the protagonist and his wife are killed in a railroad accident.

Doyle then wrote the first series of "Brigadier Gerard" stories for the Strand. Gerard is based on the real-life French General Baron de Marbot, whose memoirs Doyle had read in 1892. The two series of stories, collected as The Exploits of Brigadier Gerard and Adventures of Gerard, form in Carr's judgment "the finest picture he ever did of the Napoleonic campaigns. And the reason is this: that he saw it through the eyes of a Frenchman." Gerard's "naive boasting, his complacence, his firm conviction that every woman is in love with him, all blind the reader with mirth. Above everything, his serene good nature never fails. He curls his side-whiskers, gives his mustache the Marengo twist, and rides living out of the page." The stories are exciting and frequently hilarious—sometimes with a grim humor, as characters are run through with swords or decapitated—and Gerard is one of Doyle's most memorable creations.

In 1897 Doyle wrote a play about Holmes and sent it to actor Beerbohm Tree. When Tree wanted the part of Holmes rewritten to suit himself, Doyle refused. His agent then sent the manuscript to a New York impresario, who gave it to American actor William Gillette. Gillette rewrote the play as a melodrama based on several of Doyle's stories; Doyle's original manuscript has since been lost. According to Carr and Higham, Gillette cabled Doyle, "May I marry Holmes?" Doyle replied, "You may marry him or murder him or do whatever you like with him." Gillette did not write into the play a marriage for Holmes, although—equally out of character for the reasoning machine Doyle had created—Gillette's Holmes does fall in love.

In the spring of 1898 Doyle began a new series of stories for the Strand that were collected as Round theFire Stories. One of these, "The Lost Special," in which a train vanishes without a trace between stations, is, according to Carr, "by far his finest mystery." In the fall he wrote A Duet with an Occasional Chorus, a warm, gentle, humorous look at the ordinary life of a middle-class suburban couple. The book remained among his favorites, and he refused to allow it to be serialized because he thought serialization would ruin it. Though H. G. Wells and poet Algernon Charles Swinburne admired it, the novel was too great a departure from what the public and critics expected from Doyle, and it was not successful.

When fighting broke out in South Africa between the governing British colonists and the Dutch-descended settlers known as the Boers, Doyle was too old at age forty-one to enlist as a soldier. He instead served for three months in 1900 as a doctor in a private military hospital in Bloemfontein, South Africa. On his return to England he wrote The Great Boer War, an accurate and impartial history of the conflict up to that time. The book remains highly respected; but its final chapter advocating the modernization of the British army—an argument he had earlier presented in the Cornhill—predictably earned him the scorn of the military establishment (Interestingly, all the reforms he proposed were subsequently adopted). Later, angered by charges that the British committed atrocities during the Boer War, Doyle wrote in one week a sixty-thousand-word pamphlet in rebuttal. Published in January, 1902, The War in South Africa: Its Cause and Conduct sold for sixpence per copy in Britain; thousands of translations were given away in France, Russia, Germany, and other countries. All profits from the sale of the book were donated to charity. For producing this propaganda triumph, Doyle was knighted on August 9, 1902.

In March of 1901 Doyle went on a golfing holiday with Fletcher Robinson, who told him the legend of a ghostly hound from Robinson's native Dartmoor, in Devonshire. After a trip to Dartmoor with Robinson, Doyle began writing what he called "a real creeper" of a novel based on the legend. Almost as an afterthought, he decided to use Sherlock Holmes in the novel, titled The Hound of the Baskervilles; but he was careful to set the story in 1899, before Holmes's death in the Reichenbach Falls. According to Carr, The Hound of the Baskervilles "is the only tale, long or short, in which the story dominates Holmes rather than Holmes dominating the story; what captures the reader is less the Victorian detective than the Gothic romance." The story is one of Doyle's most popular: it "is a brilliant book, without a spare word, as deftly constructed as a sonata," William Cook wrote in the New Statesman. It has been reprinted numerous times, and an illustration of the hound from the original publication of the story in the Strand was selected for the wall of the London Underground station at Baker Street.

While The Hound of the Baskervilles was being serialized in the Strand, Gillette's play, Sherlock Holmes, which had already been a hit in the United States, opened in London with equal success. Gillette went on to make a career of portraying Holmes, which he did until he was an elderly man. It was he who was responsible for the popular conception of the detective puffing on a curved-stem pipe, which he adopted because it was easy for him to use on stage; over the years, cartoonists exaggerated the pipe into the monstrous calabash. In fact, the only pipes mentioned in the Doyle stories are a brier, a long-stemmed cherrywood, and an oily black clay.

In 1903 McClure's magazine in New York offered Doyle five thousand dollars per story if he would bring Sherlock Holmes back to life, and the Strand offered more than half that amount for the British rights. Persuaded by these astronomical sums, Doyle agreed. In "The Empty House" Holmes reappears in London and tells the shocked Watson that his knowledge of the Japanese martial art of baritsu enabled him to slip through Moriarty's grasp and that the evil professor had plunged into the Reichenbach Falls alone. For reasons that, upon close examination, do not make a great deal of sense, Holmes decided to fake his own death and disappear. He has returned in "The Empty House" to apprehend Moriarty's last remaining henchman, Colonel Sebastian Moran, "the most dangerous man in London." The story is set in April, 1894, meaning that Holmes had been away for three years; in actual time, it had been ten years since he had last shown himself in "The Final Problem."

The appearance of "The Empty House" in the Strand in October of 1903 created a sensation. Along with twelve more stories, which ran in the magazine until December, 1904, it was collected in The Return of Sherlock Holmes. Holmes was as popular as ever, though some critics have contended that the stories written after what is known as "the Great Hiatus" are generally not up to the standard of the earlier ones.

Doyle was aware of this opinion, and although he disagreed with it, he enjoyed reporting—as he did in "The Truth about Sherlock Holmes"—the words of the Cornish boatman who said to him: "I think, sir, when Holmes fell over that cliff, he may not have killed himself, but all the same he was never quite the same man afterwards." Stephen Knight noted, in Form and Ideology in Crime Fiction, that some of the changes in the later "Holmes" stories correspond to changes in Doyle's own situation: "The older Doyle was a much more prosperous and prestigious man, and the later Sherlock Holmes becomes more respectable…. Holmes gives up cocaine, goes for healthy walks, gets on better with the police and is much less barbed towards Watson." Some of the stories Doyle wrote after reintroducing Holmes are set in the period after Holmes's return; others are purportedly records of cases that occurred before his disappearance.

Doyle very quickly wrote the tales that make up The Return of Sherlock Holmes, then turned to another historical novel. After a year of research and a year of writing, Sir Nigel began to run in the Strand in December, 1905. The book is what would now be called a "prequel" to The White Company and begins with Nigel Loring as a young man setting out to do three great deeds in order to be worthy of his lady. Doyle always considered the two novels about the fourteenth century to be his greatest work; but Sir Nigel, like its predecessor, was praised merely as an exciting adventure tale.

Inspired by the discovery near his home in Sussex of fossilized dinosaur footprints, Doyle in the fall and winter of 1911 wrote The Lost World, the story of four adventurers who find living prehistoric animals and people on an isolated mesa in Brazil. The young, naive journalist-narrator Edward Malone; the thin, sardonic, pipe-puffing Professor Summerlee; the dashing hunter Lord John Roxton; and above all, the squat, powerful, bellowing sarcastic genius Professor George Edward Challenger are all vividly and memorably drawn characters. The Lost World presents scenes of high comedy, as when Malone tries to pass himself off as a scientist on his first meeting with Challenger but is trapped by the professor's pseudoscientific doubletalk, and scenes of high adventure on the mesa. Furthermore, Doyle's descriptions of the pterodactyls and dinosaurs are scientifically accurate. At the end of 1912, Doyle produced another novel about Professor Challenger and his three friends. In The Poison Belt, the earth passes through a poisonous zone in the "ether," and everyone in the world except the four heroes—who are supplied with oxygen in an airtight room—appears to have died. In the end, what seemed to be death turns out to have been suspended animation.

Doyle had completed by April, 1914, his final full-length "Sherlock Holmes" novel, The Valley of Fear, a locked-room murder mystery. As in A Study in Scarlet, a long central section, told in the third person, details the events in the past that led up to the crime; this section is set in the Pennsylvania coal fields and involves a terrorist labor organization, the "Scowrers," based on the real-life Molly Maguires. Though the interpolated section is a fine adventure story in itself, some critics have objected to the obvious antilabor bias displayed by Doyle here. The first part of the novel, in which the murder is solved by Holmes, was praised by Carr as "a very nearly perfect piece of detective-story writing" and "our clearest example of Conan Doyle's contribution to the detective story." According to Carr, Doyle "invented the enigmatic clue, … the trick by which the detective—while giving you perfectly fair opportunity to guess—makes you wonder what in sanity's name he is talking about." Pearsall, on the other hand, pointed out that although the murder takes place in a moated manor house, "there is something lacking in atmosphere…. Darkest Sussex was different from the darkest Devon of The Hound of the Baskervilles. … The action is restricted to the manor house, with the actors moving around, occasionally displaying emotion, searching a room or making pregnant remarks…. There is no need for Watson's trusty revolver." Pearsall concluded that the novel's "killer in a yellow coat riding a bicycle" is far from menacing. The story, set in the period before Holmes's disappearance at the Reichenbach Falls, gives Professor Moriarty a backstage role.

Doyle's response to the outbreak of World War I was characteristic: he both took direct action—forming a volunteer rifle company in his area and visiting the front—and wrote about it in articles, lectures, and several books, including the six-volume The British Campaign in France and Flanders. He brought Holmes into the war in "His Last Bow," in which the sixty-year-old detective comes out of retirement—he has been keeping bees on the Sussex downs since 1903—to capture a German spy. (While working undercover, Holmes uses the alias "Altamont," Doyle's father's middle name.) The story was written in 1917 but is set just before the outbreak of the war in August, 1914. It was made the title piece in a collection of stories that had been appearing in the Strand at long intervals since 1908.

Sherlock Holmes stories continued to appear at irregular intervals over the years, and in 1927 the last twelve of them were collected as The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes. In the book's preface Doyle announced his intention to write no more of the stories: "I fear that Mr. Sherlock Holmes may become like one of those popular tenors who, having outlived their time, are still tempted to make repeated farewell bows to their indulgent audiences. This must cease and he must go the way of all flesh, material or imaginary." To stop writing the Holmes narratives had also been Doyle's intention when he wrote "The Final Problem" in 1893, but thirty-four years later he held to his resolution.

Exhausted from his travels and suffering from heart disease, Doyle died on July 7, 1930. The historical novels of which he was so proud are rarely read, but enjoyment is still derived from the "Brigadier Gerard" stories and The Lost World. The latter was made into a still well-regarded silent film in 1925 and has been the inspiration for other science-fiction films, including the classic "King Kong." But above all, of course, Doyle remains known for the "Sherlock Holmes" novels and short stories, which have remained continually in print more than half a century after his death and have been translated into at least fifty-six languages. The characters of Holmes and Watson have been depicted in plays, motion pictures, radio and television programs, a musical comedy, a ballet, cartoons, and comic strips; and the instantly recognizable figure of Holmes has been used in advertisements for all sorts of products. Holmes is referred to in such literary works as James Joyce's Finnegan's Wake; poet T. S. Eliot's "Macavity: The Mystery Cat" is obviously based on Professor Moriarty; and the dialogue between Becket and the Second Tempter in Eliot's blank-verse play Murder in the Cathedral was consciously based on the Musgrave Ritual in Doyle's 1893 story of that name.

Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of the Holmes phenomenon is the tongue-in-cheek pseudoscholarship that has grown up around the stories. The practitioners of this elaborate game—who call themselves Sherlockians or, in Britain, Holmesians—are educated, usually professional people. Adopting the pretense that Holmes really existed, that the stories are actual case reports written by Watson—or in two instances by Holmes himself—and that Doyle was merely Watson's literary agent, they study the sixty tales—called "the Canon (or Conan)"—to develop theories about unrecorded parts of the characters' lives and to try to explain away the main inconsistencies Doyle carelessly introduced into the stories. Among the questions that have been discussed are exact chronology of the cases, which university Holmes attended, the number of times Watson was married, the location of Watson's war wound or wounds (in A Study in Scarlet it is clearly in his shoulder; in The Sign of Four it is just as clearly in his leg), and why Watson's wife calls him "James" in "The Adventure of the Engineer's Thumb" when it was established in A Study in Scarlet that his name was John. Another perennial problem has been the exact location of Holmes's house on Baker Street, since the address 221B did not exist in the nineteenth century. Each theory is based on some hint in the stories—no matter how slender—and is buttressed with argument and evidence, including research in Victorian and Edwardian newspapers and almanacs. This tradition began in 1911 with Ronald Knox's paper "Studies in the Literature of Sherlock Holmes" and has been carried on in countless articles and books since then. In his two massive bibliographies, Ronald De Waal listed 4,457 such items. Some Sherlockians also try their hands at writing pastiches, or imitation "Sherlock Holmes" stories, copying the style of the originals as closely as possible. Some book-length pastiches, such as Nicholas Meyer's The Seven-per-Cent Solution, have been commercially successful.

Beginning with the 1933 founding in New York of the Baker Street Irregulars—named for the street urchins who assist Holmes in three of the stories—Sherlockians have been organized in clubs in at least thirteen countries, including Australia, Burma, Denmark, Germany, Holland, New Zealand, Venezuela, Sweden, and Japan. In the United States, the clubs are known as "scion societies" and take their names from titles of the stories, from cases alluded to by Watson but never recorded, or from something somehow connected with the stories: for example, the Greek Interpreters of East Lansing, Michigan; the Hounds of the Baskervilles of Chicago; the Naval Treaty of St. Louis; and the Redheaded League of Westtown, Pennsylvania. In addition, two periodicals are devoted entirely to Sherlockian scholarship: the Baker Street Journal, published by the Baker Street Irregulars, and the Sherlock Holmes Journal, published by the Sherlock Holmes Society of London.

The "Sherlock Holmes" stories have also been the subject of analysis more serious than the playful pseudoscholarship of the Sherlockians. Stephen Knight, writing in Form and Ideology in Crime Fiction, for example, looked at them from a sociological perspective and concluded that the stories became popular because they gave fictional form to the world view, the hopes, and the fears of the late-Victorian middle-class readers of the Strand. According to Knight, Holmes represents the power of individualistic, scientific rationality to impose order on an increasingly chaotic world. In some of the stories Knight also found symbolism personal to Doyle: in "The Man with the Twisted Lip," for instance, a respectable reporter discovers that he can earn more money for his family by disguising himself as a deformed beggar; the reporter's situation, Knight argued, represents Doyle's recognition that he had prostituted his own literary talent by writing the Holmes stories strictly for money. Doyle himself, as well as his most famous character, continues to be an object of fascination. In 1983, John Hathaway Winslow and Alfred Meyer, in a Science '83 article, proposed the theory that Doyle was the perpetrator of the famous Piltdown Man hoax in 1912. His motive was ostensibly to get revenge on the scientists who scoffed at his beloved spiritualism.

Although his "serious" fiction did not attract the attention he desired, Doyle's creation of Sherlock Holmes ensured his immortality as a writer. No other character in the history of fiction has ever inspired such devotion and enthusiasm, and this fact must stand as a tribute to Doyle's talent. The "Holmes" stories were written carelessly, hastily, and almost always purely for money; but the unstudied and spontaneous nature of the narratives allowed Doyle's creative abilities to be exemplified more fully than did the historical novels for which he prepared so carefully and on which he labored so arduously.



Atkinson, Michael, The Secret Marriage of Sherlock Holmes, and Other Eccentric Readings, University of Michigan Press (Ann Arbor, MI), 1996.

Baring-Gould, William S., Sherlock Holmes of Baker Street: A Life of the World's First Consulting Detective, C. N. Potter (New York, NY), 1962.

Bell, H. W., Baker Street Studies, O. Penzler Books (New York, NY), 1995.

Blackbeard, Bill, Sherlock Holmes in America, Abrams (New York, NY), 1981.

Booth, Martin, The Doctor, the Detective and Arthur Conan Doyle: A Biography of Arthur Conan Doyle, Hodder & Stoughton (London, England), 1997.

Brend, Gavin, My Dear Holmes: A Study in Sherlock, Allen & Unwin (London, England), 1951.

Brown, Ivor, Conan Doyle: A Biography of the Creator of Sherlock Holmes, Hamilton (London, England), 1972.

Bullimore, Tom, Baker Street Puzzles, Sterling (New York, NY), 1994.

Bunson, Matthew, Encyclopedia Sherlockiana: An A-to-Z Guide to the World of the Great Detective, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1994.

Butters, Roger, First Person Singular: A Review of the Life and Work of Sherlock Holmes, the World's First Consulting Detective, Vantage (New York, NY), 1984.

Carr, John Dickson, The Life of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Harper (New York, NY), 1949.

Cawelti, John G., Adventure, Mystery, and Romance: Formula Stories As Art and Popular Culture, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1976.

Concise Dictionary of British Literary Biography, Volume 5: Late Victorian and Edwardian Writers, 1890-1914, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1991.

Cox, Dan R., Arthur Conan Doyle, Ungar (New York, NY), 1985.

Dakin, D. Martin, A Sherlock Holmes Commentary, Drake (New York, NY), 1972.

De Waal, Ronald Burt, The World Bibliography of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson, Bramhall House (New York, NY), 1974.

De Waal, Ronald Burt, The International Sherlock Holmes: A Companion to the World Bibliography of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson, Archon Books (Hamden, CT), 1980.

De Waal, Ronald Burt, and George A. Vanderburgh, The Universal Sherlock Holmes, G. A. Vanderburgh (Shelburne, Ontario, Canada), 1994.

Dictionary of Literary Biography, Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 18: Victorian Novelists after 1885, 1983, Volume 70: British Mystery Writers, 1860-1919, 1988, Volume 156: British Short-Fiction Writers,1880-1914: The Romantic Tradition, 1996, Volume 178: British Fantasy and Science-Fiction Writers before World War I, 1997.

Doyle, Adrian Conan, The True Conan Doyle, J. Murray (London, England), 1945.

Doyle, Arthur Conan, My Memories and Adventures, Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 1924, reprinted, Darby, 1983.

Dudley-Edwards, Owen, The Quest for Sherlock Holmes: A Biographical Study of Arthur Conan Doyle, B & N Imports, 1983.

Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, 5th edition, Gale (Detroit, MI), 2001.

Eyles, Allen, Sherlock Holmes: A Centenary Celebration, Harper (New York, NY), 1987.

Frost, Mark, The Six Messiahs, Morrow (New York, NY), 1995.

Gut, Patricia, Bacchus at Baker Street: Observations on the Bibulous References of Mr. Sherlock Holmes and His Associates, Players Press (Studio City, CA), 1995.

Haining, Peter, editor, The Sherlock Holmes Scrapbook, New English Library (London, England), 1973.

Haining, Peter, editor, A Sherlock Holmes Compendium, Castle (New York, NY), 1980.

Haining, Peter, editor, The Final Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, Castle (New York, NY), 1981.

Haining, Peter, The Television Sherlock Holmes, revised and updated edition, Virgin (Secaucus, NJ), 1994.

Hall, Trevor H., Sherlock Holmes: Ten Literary Studies, Duckworth (London, England), 1969.

Hall, Trevor H., The Late Mr. Sherlock Holmes and Other Literary Studies, Duckworth (London, England), 1971.

Hall, Trevor H., Sherlock Holmes and His Creator, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1977.

Hammer, David L., The Before-Breakfast Pipe of Sherlock Holmes, Gasogene Press (Dubuque, IA), 1995.

Hardwick, Michael, and Mollie Hardwick, The Man Who Was Sherlock Holmes, J. Murray (London, England), 1964.

Hardwick, Michael, and Mollie Hardwick, The Sherlock Holmes Companion, Bramhall House (New York, NY), 1977.

Harrison, Michael, In the Footsteps of Sherlock Holmes, Cassell (London, England), 1958.

Harrison, Michael, The World of Sherlock Holmes, Muller (London, England), 1973.

Higham, Charles, The Adventures of Conan Doyle: The Life of the Creator of Sherlock Holmes, Norton (New York, NY), 1976.

Hjortsberg, William, Nevermore, Atlantic Monthly Press (New York, NY), 1994.

Holroyd, James Edward, editor, Seventeen Steps to 221B: A Collection of Sherlockian Pieces by English Writers, Allen & Unwin (London, England), 1967.

Holroyd, James Edward, Baker Street By-ways, O. Penzler Books (New York, NY), 1994.

Hyder, William, From Baltimore to Baker Street: Thirteen Sherlockian Studies, [Toronto, Ontario, Canada], 1995.

Jann, Rosemary, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: Detecting Social Order, Twayne (New York, NY), 1995.

Jenkins, William D., The Adventure of the Detected Detective: Sherlock Holmes in James Joyce's "Finnegan's Wake," Greenwood Press (Westport, CT), 1994.

Kaye, Marvin, The Game Is Afoot: Parodies, Pastiches, and Ponderings of Sherlock Holmes, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1995.

Keating, H. D. F., Sherlock Holmes: The Man and His World, Thames & Hudson (New York, NY), 1979.

Kestner, Joseph A., Sherlock's Men: Masculinity, Conan Doyle, and Cultural History, Ashgate (Aldershot, Hampshire, England), 1997.

King, Joseph A. Cutshall, and others, Sherlock Holmes: From Victorian Sleuth to Modern Hero, Scarecrow Press (Lanham, MD), 1996.

Klinefelter, Walter, The Origins of Sherlock Holmes, Gaslight (Bloomington, IN), 1983.

Knight, Stephen, Form and Ideology in Crime Fiction, Indiana University Press (Bloomington, IN), 1980.

Lachtman, Howard, Sherlock Slept Here: A Brief History of the Singular Adventures of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in America, with Some Observations upon the Exploits of Mr. Sherlock Holmes, Capra (Santa Barbara, CA), 1985.

Lamond, John, Arthur Conan Doyle: A Memoir, J. Murray (London, England), 1931.

Literature and Its Times: Profiles of 300 Notable Literary Works and the Historical Events That Influenced Them, Volume 2: Civil Wars to Frontier Societies (1800-1880s), Gale (Detroit, MI), 1997.

Morley, Christopher, editor, Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson: A Textbook of Friendship, Harcourt (New York, NY), 1944.

Mystery and Suspense Writers: The Literature of Crime, Detection, and Espionage, two volumes, Scribner (New York, NY), 1998.

Park, Orlando, The Shelock Holmes Encyclopedia, Carol Publishing Group (Secaucus, NJ), 1994.

Pearsall, Ronald, Conan Doyle: A Biographical Solution, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1977.

Pearson, Hesketh, Conan Doyle: His Life and Art, Methuen (London, England), 1943, Taplinger (New York, NY), 1977.

Pointer, Michael, The Public Life of Sherlock Holmes, David & Charles (Newton Abbott, England), 1975.

Pointer, Michael, The Sherlock Holmes File, C. N. Potter (New York, NY), 1976.

Reference Guide to English Literature, 2nd edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1991.

Reference Guide to Short Fiction, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1994.

Roberts, S. C., Holmes and Watson: A Miscellany, O. Penzler Books (New York, NY), 1994.

Rodin, A. E., and Jack D. Key, Medical Casebook of Doctor Arthur Conan Doyle: From Practitioner to Sherlock Holmes and Beyond, Krieger (Melbourne, FL), 1984.

Rosenberg, Samuel, Naked Is the Best Disguise: The Death and Resurrection of Sherlock Holmes, Bobbs-Merrill (Indianapolis, IN), 1974.

Ross, Thomas Wynne, Good Old Index: The Sherlock Holmes Handbook, Camden House (Rochester, NY), 1996.

St. James Guide to Crime and Mystery Writers, 4th edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1996.

St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost, and Gothic Writers, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1998.

St. James Guide to Science-Fiction Writers, 4th edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1996.

St. James Guide to Young Adult Writers, 2nd edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1999.

Satterthwait, Walter, Escapade, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1995.

Sayers, Dorothy L., Unpopular Opinions, Gollancz (London, England), 1946.

Science Fiction Writers, 2nd edition, Scribner (New York, NY), 1999.

Shreffler, Philip A., editor, The Baker Street Reader: Cornerstone Writings about Sherlock Holmes, Greenwood Press (Westport, CT), 1984.

Starrett, Vincent, editor, 221B: Studies in Sherlock Holmes, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1940.

Starrett, Vincent, The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1906, reprinted, Haskell House (New York, NY), 1971.

Tracy, Jack, The Encyclopedia Sherlockiana, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1977.

Twentieth-Century Literature Criticism, Volume 7, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1982.

Twentieth-Century Romance and Historical Writers, 3rd edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1994.

Van Liere, Edward J., A Doctor Enjoys Sherlock Holmes, Vantage (New York, NY), 1959.


American Scholar, autumn, 1968.

Atlantic Monthly, January, 1994, Nancy Cadwell Sorel, "Harry Houdini and Arthur Conan Doyle," p. 103.

Blue Book, July, 1912; May, 1953.

Bookman, December, 1892; February, 1901; July, 1901; May, 1902; August, 1903; November, 1912; July, 1914; July, 1922; October, 1927; August, 1929.

Collier's, August 15, 1908; December 29, 1923.

English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920, spring, 2002, Rosamund Dalziell, "The Curious Case of Sir Everard im Thurn and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: Exploration and the Imperial Adventure Novel, The Lost World," pp. 131-157; spring, 2004, Benjamin Fisher, "The Hound of the Baskervilles 100 Years After: A Review Essay," pp. 181-190.

Harper's, May, 1948.

Hudson Review, winter, 1949.

Journal of Popular Culture, winter, 2003, Derham Groves, "Better Holmes and Gardens: Sense of Place in the Sherlock Holmes Stories," pp. 466-471.

Living Age, March 22, 1919; November 28, 1925.

Los Angeles Times, January 14, 1987, Tyler Marshall, "Sherlock—Myth Blurs the Reality: Sleuth's Centennial," p. 1; January 18, 1987, Nicholas Meyer, "Most Rational Mr. Holmes on a Singular Anniversary," p. 1.

Medical Times, July, 1971.

Modern Fiction Studies, spring, 1969.

New England Journal of Medicine, October 1, 1953.

New Statesman, December 17, 2001, William Cook, "The Dog That Barked in the Night: William Cook on the Enduring Appeal of The Hound of the Baskervilles, 100 Years after First Publication," pp. 118-119.

Newsweek, August 24, 1959; November 18, 1974.

New Yorker, February 17, 1945.

New York Review of Books, August 17, 1978.

New York Times, March 9, 1952; January 17, 1987.

New York Times Book Review, April 2, 1944; January 21, 1968.

Pacific Quarterly, January, 1978.

Paris Match, August 8, 1959.

Playboy, December, 1966; January, 1975.

Punch, June 20, 1951.

Quarterly Review, July, 1904.

Reader, August, 1905.

San Francisco Review of Books, December, 1976; February, 1977; March, 1977.

Saturday Review, April 27, 1968.

Saturday Review of Literature, July 19, 1930; August 2, 1930; April 29, 1939; February 17, 1940.

Science '83, September, 1983.

Sports Illustrated, March 19, 1973.

Strand, August, 1892; September, 1930; August, 1943.

Texas Quarterly, summer, 1968.

Twentieth Century, May, 1901.

West Coast Review of Books, April, 1975.

Woman's Home Companion, November, 1930.

World and I, June, 2002, Laurie Morrow, "The Doctor and the Detective: Arthur Conan Doyle's Creative Journey," p. 256.*