Carnoy, Martin 1938-

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CARNOY, Martin 1938-

PERSONAL: Born 1938 in Warsaw, Poland; brought to the United States, 1940; naturalized U.S. citizen, 1945; son of Alan L. and Teresa Carnoy; married Judith Merle Milgrom (an actress), August 6, 1961 (divorced, 1980); married Jean MacDonell, March 6, 1987; children: (first marriage) David, Jonathan; (second marriage) Juliet. Education: California Institute of Technology, B.S., 1960; University of Chicago, M.A., 1961, Ph.D., 1964.

ADDRESSES: Home—2378 Branner Dr., Menlo Park, CA 94025. Offıce—School of Education, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.

CAREER: Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, research associate in economics, 1964-68; Stanford University, Stanford, CA, assistant professor, 1968-71, associate professor, 1971-77, professor of education and economics, 1977—, director of Latin American fellowship program, chairman of International Development Education Committee, 1971-72, 1975-77, 1980—. Cofounder and director of Center for Economic Studies, Palo Alto, CA. Coordinator for Robert Kennedy's presidential primary campaign, Washington, DC, 1968; cochairperson of Stanford Moratorium, 1969-70; chair of Social Studies and Educational Practice Committee, Stanford School of Education, 1995—. Consultant to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, World Bank, Venezuelan Ministry of Education, and Organization of American States.

MEMBER: American Educational Research Association, Latin American Studies Association, Negative Population Growth (member of national advisory board), Comparative and International Education Society (member of board of directors, 1998—), Union of Radical Political Economics, Concerned Citizens for Peace (founder; cochairperson, 1966-68).

AWARDS, HONORS: Ford Foundation fellowship, 1961-64; Fulbright fellowship, 1985; Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences fellowship, 1994-95; honorary doctorate, University of Stockholm, 1994.


(With Donald W. Baerrensen and Joseph Grunwald) Latin American Trade Patterns, Brookings Institution (Washington, DC), 1965.

Industrialization in a Latin American Common Market, Brookings Institution (Washington, DC), 1971.

(With Joseph Grunwald and Miguel Wionczek) TheUnited States and a Latin American Common Market, Brookings Institution (Washington, DC), 1971.

The Economics of Schooling and International Development, Centro Intercultural de Documentation (Cuernavaca, Mexico), 1971.

(With Hans Thias) Cost-Benefit Analysis in Education:A Case Study of Kenya, Johns Hopkins Press (Baltimore, MD), 1972.

(Editor and contributor) Schooling in a CorporateSociety, McKay (New York, NY), 1972, 2nd edition, 1975.

(With Joseph Grunwald) Latin American EconomicIntegration and U.S. Policy, Brookings Institution (Washington, DC), 1972.

The Social Benefits of Better Schooling, School of Education, Stanford University (Stanford, CA), 1972.

Education As Cultural Imperialism, McKay (New York, NY), 1974.

(With Michael Carter) Theories of Labor Markets andWorker Productivity, Center for Economic Studies (Palo Alto, CA), 1974.

(With Henry Levin) The Limits of Educational Reform, McKay (New York, NY), 1975.

(With Robert Girling and Russell Rumberger) Education and Public Sector Employment, Center for Economic Studies, 1976.

(With Hans Thias and Richard Sack) The Payoff to"Better" Schooling: A Case Study of Tunisian Secondary Schools, World Bank (Washington, DC), 1977.

Estudio de la education secundaria y superior en ElSalvador: Las tendencias en los requerimentos de mano de obra con educacion secundaria y superior, y las implicaciones par la politica de educredito, Center for Economic Studies, 1977.

Education and Employment: A Critical Appraisal, UNESCO International Institute for Education Planning (Paris, France), 1977.

(With Jose Lobo, Alejandro Toledo, and Jacques Velloso) Can Educational Policy Equalise Income Distribution in Latin America?, Saxon House (Westmead, England), 1979.

(With Michael Levin and Kenneth King) Education,Work and Employment-II, UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (Paris, France), 1980.

(With Derek Shearer) Economic Democracy: TheChallenge of the 1980s, M. E. Sharpe (Armonk, NY), 1980.

(With Jorge Werthein) Cuba: Cambio Economico yReforma Educativa, 1955-1978, Editorial Nueva Imagen, 1980.

(With Michael Levin) The Dialectic of Education andWork, Stanford University Press (Stanford, CA), 1982.

(With Derek Shearer and Russell Rumberger) A NewSocial Contract: The Economy and Government after Reagan, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1983.

The State and Political Theory, Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ), 1984.

Expressions of Power in Education: Studies of Class,Gender, and Race, edited by Edgar B. Gumbert, Center for Cross-cultural Education, College of Education, Georgia State University (Atlanta, GA), 1984.

(With Henry M. Levin) Schooling and Work in theDemocratic State, Stanford University Press (Stanford, CA), 1985.

Higher Education and Graduate Employment in India:A Summary of Three Case Studies, Indian Institute of Education (Pune, India), 1987.

(With Jeff Faux and Miles Kahler) The U.S. Economy after Reagan, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (Bonn, Germany), 1989.

(With Joel Samoff) Education and Social Transition in the Third World, Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ), 1990.

(Editor, with Jane Hannaway) Decentralization andSchool Improvement: Can We Fulfill the Promise?, Jossey-Bass (San Francisco, CA), 1993.

(With Seth Pollack and Pia Lindquist Wong) LabourInstitutions and Technological Change: A Framework for Analysis and a Review of the Literature, International Institute for Labour Studies (Geneva, Switzerland), 1993.

(With others) The New Global Economy in theInformation Age: Reflections on Our Changing World, Pennsylvania State University Press (University Park, PA), 1993.

Faded Dreams: The Politics and Economics of Race in America, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, England, and New York, NY), 1994.

(Editor) International Encyclopedia of Economics ofEducation, Pergamon (Tarrytown, NY), 1995.

(With son, David Carnoy) Fathers of a Certain Age:The Joys and Problems of Middle-aged Fatherhood, Faber & Faber (Boston, MA), 1995.

Sustainable Flexibility: A Prospective Study on Work,Family, and Society in the Information Age, OECD (Paris, France), 1997.

Sustaining the New Economy: Work, Family, and Community in the Information Age, Russell Sage Foundation (New York, NY)/Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA), 2000.

(Editor, with Richard Elmore and Leslie Santee Siskin) The New Accountability: High Schools and High Stakes Testing, Routledge (New York, NY), 2003.

(With Luis Benveniste and Richard Rothstein) All ElseEqual: Are Public and Private Schools Different?, RoutledgeFalmer (New York, NY), 2003.

Contributor to books, including Viewpoints on Education and Social Change in Latin America, Center of Latin American Studies, University of Kansas, 1965; The Movement for Latin Unity, edited by Ronald Hilton, Praeger, 1970; National Priorities, edited by Kan Chen, San Francisco Press, 1970; Latin American Scholarship since World War II, edited by Roberto Esgaenazi-Mayo and Michael Meyer, University of Nebraska Press, 1971; Education and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean, edited by Thomas LaBelle and Leopoldo Solis, Latin American Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 1972; La Economia Mexicana II: Politica y Desarrollo (title means "The Mexican Economy II: Policy and Development"), edited by Leopoldo Solis, Fondo de Cultura Economia, 1973; Structures of Dependency, edited by Frank Bonilla and Robert Girling, Institute of Policy Studies, Stanford University, 1973; Analytical Models in Educational Planning and Administration, edited by Hector Correa, McKay, 1975; The Problem of the Federal Budget, Institute for Policy Studies Transnational, 1975; Change in Tunisia: Studies in the Social Sciences, edited by Russell Stone and John Simmons, State University of New York Press, 1976; Power and Ideology in Education, edited by A. H. Halsey and Jerome Karabel, Oxford University Press, 1977; El Problema del Financiamiento de la Educacion, Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo y el Gobierno de Mexico, 1978; The Education Dilemma: Policy Issues for Developing Countries in the 1980s, edited by John Simmons, Pergamon, 1980; Cultural and Economic Reproduction in Education: Essays on Class, Ideology and the State, edited by Michael W. Apple, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981; and Hispanics in the Labor Force: Issues and Policies, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1993.

Also author of numerous Stanford IFG program reports. Contributor to journals, including New Republic, Educational Review, Journal of Human Resources, Economic Review, and Comparative Education Review.

WORK IN PROGRESS: Writing a book on globalization and educational reform for the International Institute of Educational Planning.

SIDELIGHTS: Martin Carnoy is a professor of education and economics at Stanford University who is interested in international education systems and, in his writings, often expresses his concern that government is not doing enough to support education, something that is becoming increasingly important in a global market in which advanced skills among labor are essential for economic success. Contrary to the viewpoint of some politicians and economists, Carnoy still believes that national policies should take a leading role in guiding the economy, a theme he expresses, for example, in his contribution to The New Global Economy in the Information Age: Reflections on Our Changing World. Here, Carnoy admits that multinational corporations indeed have a major impact on economies, but he insists that "nation-states can also be key actors in shaping what multinationals do." Government, he says, should be a major player in financing research and education in order to remain competitive in world markets.

But government can also be important in assuaging social ills, which can also make an economic impact. He explains this, for instance, in his Faded Dreams: The Politics and Economics of Race in America, in which he offers "a thoughtful and empirically based analysis of the factors responsible and the role of government in reducing [racial] inequities," according to Paula D. McClain in the American Political Science Review. In this book, Carnoy argues against simplistic explanations for why African Americans are still struggling in the American economy. It is not simply a matter of racism, nor a changing economy that is becoming more technological, nor is it, as some claim, that blacks have not shown enough initiative in seizing opportunities once they are made available; rather, says Carnoy, one must consider aspects of all of these arguments while tying them into the role government plays. "He concludes that economic inequality in the United States still has an important racial component," explained McClain, "and that a government with the will to reduce racial inequality can and should do so. Government has the capacity to invest in public education in ways that are favorable to low-income Americans and even more so to low-income minorities."

By encouraging private investment and leveling the playing field of the job market through such actions as setting wage guidelines, government can do much to improve minorities' lives, insists the author. "For Carnoy," concluded McClain, "market forces are inseparable from political ones." Although Carnoy notes a lack of political will to resolve this problem, Nation contributor David L. Kirp said that "Carnoy optimistically believes that improvement is possible," with the solution lying mainly in the redistribution of wealth. "If real progress is to be made on race," as Kirp summarized, "it's probably necessary to integrate our communities and also to redistribute the resources that affect success." While McClain concluded that many will disagree with Carnoy's position, "his work is balanced and empirically grounded. Faded Dreams has much to say to political science, and it contributes to our knowledge of the politics of economic inequality."

Sustaining the New Economy: Work, Family, and Community in the Information Age examines the ways in which globalization effects social changes. In Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, the book was praised for its wealth of data, particularly concerning developing countries; its demonstration that social changes resulting from globalization are complex; and its helpful policy recommendations. Carnoy, according to the reviewer, argues that "a strong state is essential to guide nations through the current economic transformations" but that such governments must remain "flexible." Carnoy's thinking, according to Michael P. Todaro in the Population and Development Review, is "provocative and certainly not representative of mainstream thinking about the new economy." This perspective, the reviewer concluded, "is certainly to be welcomed."

In All Else Equal: Are Public and Private Schools Different?, Carnoy and coauthors Luis Benveniste and Richard Rothstein challenge conventional wisdom about vouchers to enable low-income public school students to attend private schools. As New York Times Book Review contributor Timothy A. Hacsi explained, the authors found that "what shapes a school's environment most powerfully is the community around it," not its public or private status. Often, private schools prove to be more rigid than their public counterparts, while public schools—accused of inflexibility—"-regularly respond to public pressure." Though Hacsi criticized All Else Equal for stylistic flaws and repetitive writing, he concluded that "Anyone who cares about public education should read [it]."



American Journal of Sociology, March, 1996, Chris Tilly, review of Faded Dreams: The Politics and Economics of Race in America, p. 1482.

American Political Science Review, June, 1994, Henry R. Nau, review of The New Global Economy in the Information Age: Reflections on Our Changing World, p. 511; December, 1996, Paula D. McClain, review of Faded Dreams, p. 867.

Journal of Economic Literature, June, 1996, Anne Beeson Royalty, review of Faded Dreams, p. 787.

Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, March, 2002, review of Sustaining the New Economy: Work, Family, and Community in the Information Age, p. 199.

Monthly Labor Review, February, 1993, Peter Caltan, review of Hispanics in the Labor Force: Issues and Policies, p. 66.

Nation, April 24, 1995, David L. Kirp, review of FadedDreams, p. 567.

New York Times Book Review, March 2, 2003, Timothy A. Hacsi, "Private Lessons," p. 16.

Population and Development Review, March, 2001, Michael P. Todaro, review of Sustaining the New Economy, p. 194.

Regional Studies, July, 2001, Diane Perrons, review of Sustaining the New Economy, p. 493.


Martin Carnoy Faculty Web site, (October 27, 2003).*