Cardoso, Fernando 1931- (Fernando Henrique Cardoso)
Cardoso, Fernando 1931- (Fernando Henrique Cardoso)
Born June 18, 1931, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; married Ruth Correa Leite (an anthropologist); children: three. Education: University of São Paulo, Ph.D.; postdoctoral study at Laboratoire de Sociologie Industrielle, University of Paris.
Office—Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University, 111 Thayer St., Box 1970, Providence, RI 02912. Agent—Harry Walker Agency, Inc., 355 Lexington Ave., 21st Fl., New York, NY 10017. E-mail—[email protected]
Government official, sociologist, educator, and writer. Worked in Brazilian government and politics, including as founder of Center for Analysis and Research, 1968; Latin American Institute for Economic and Social Planning, Santiago, Chile, professor of sociology of development, 1964-67; University of Paris-Nanterre, Paris, France, professor of sociological theory, 1967-68; University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, professor of political sciences, 1968-69; Social Science Research Council, New York, member of the Latin American Committee, 1973-76; University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, professor of the "Simon Bolivar" Chair, 1976-77; Brazilian Center of Analysis and Planning (CEBRAP), São Paulo, founder 1980-82; senator representing state of São Paulo, 1983-94; leader of the government in congress, 1985-86; deputy rapporteur in the National Constitutional Assembly, 1987; foreign minister, 1992-93; finance minister, 1993-94; president of the Federative Republic of Brazil, 1994-2002. Visiting professor of sociology, Stanford University, 1972; visiting professor, University of Paris, 1977, University of California, 1981; professor-at-large, Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI, 2003—. Chair, Instituto Fernando Henrique Cardoso; trustee, Rockefeller Foundation, 2002; president, Madrid Club, 2003; trustee, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 2003; chair of panel on civil society, United Nations, 2003; chair, Cultures of the South, Library of Congress, 2003; cochair, Inter-American dialogue, 2003; member of board of directors, World Resources Institute, 2005—.
Grand Cross of the Order of Rio Branco; Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of Portugal; named chevalier in the French Legion of Honor; named Man of the Year, LatinFinance, 1995.
(With Octavio Ianni) Côr e mobilidade social em Florianópolis: aspectos das relacoes entre negros e brancos numa comunidade do Brasil Meridional, Companhia Editora Nacional (São Paulo, Brazil), 1960.
(With Enzo Faletto) Empresário industrial e desenvolvimento econômico no Brasil, Difusão Europeia do Livro (São Paulo, Brazil), 1964.
(With Enzo Faletto) Dependencia y desarrollo en America Latina: ensayo de interpretación sociológica, Instituto de Planificación Económica y Social (Santiago, Chile), 1967, revised and expanded edition published as Dependencia e desenvolvimento na América Latina: ensaio de interpretação sociológica, Siglo XXI Editores (Mexico City, Mexico), 1969, 8th revised edition, Civilização Brasileira (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 2004, translation of the 1977 Spanish edition by Marjory Mattingly Urquidi published as Dependency and Development in Latin America, University of California Press (Berkeley, CA), 1979.
(With Carlos Estevam Martins) Homem e sociedade; Leituras básicas de sociologia geral, Companhia Editora Nacional (São Paulo, Brazil), 1968.
(With Enzo Faletto) Dependencia e desenvolvimento na América Latina; ensaio de interpretación sociológica, Zahar (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 1970.
Política e desenvolvimento em sociedades dependentes: ideologias do empresariado industrial argentino e brasileiro, Zahar (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 1971.
O modelo político brasileiro e outros ensaios, Difusão Européia do Livro (São Paulo, Brazil), 1972.
Cultura e participação na cidade de São Paulo, CEBRAP (São Paulo, Brazil), 1973.
Las contradicciones del desarrollo asociado, Taller de Estudios Políticos (Lima, Peru), 1973.
La cuestión del estado en Brasil, Taller de Estudios Políticos (Lima, Peru), 1974.
Autoritarismo e democratização, Paz e Terra (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 1975.
(With Enzo Faletto) Post scriptum a dependencia y desarrollo en América Latina, Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad (Buenos Aires, Argentina), 1976.
Clases sociales y crisis política en América Latina: seminario de Oaxaca, Siglo Veintiuno (Mexico City, Mexico), 1977.
(With Guillermo O'Donnell and Edelberto Torres Rivas) O estado na América Latina, Centro de Estudos de Cultura Contemporanea (São Paulo, Brazil), 1977.
(With Geraldo Muller) Amazônia: expansão do capitalismo, Editora Brasiliense (São Paulo, Brazil), 1977.
The Originality of the Copy: ECLA and the Idea of Development, Centre of Latin American Studies (Cambridge, England), 1977.
Democracia para mudar: Fernando Henrique Cardoso em 30 horas de entrevistas, Paz e Terra (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 1978.
On the Characterisation of Authoritarian Regimes in Latin America, Centre of Latin American Studies (Cambridge, England), 1978.
Política & sociedade, Companhia Editora Nacional (São Paulo, Brazil), 1979.
Development under Fire, Centro de Economía Transnacional (Buenos Aires, Argentina), 1979.
As idéias e seu lugar: ensaios sobre as teorias do desenvolvimento, Editora Vozes (Petrópolis, Brazil), 1980.
O novo socialismo frances e a América Latina, Paz e Terra (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 1982.
Políticas sociales para la década en América Latina, Centro Latinoamericano de Economía Humana (Montevideo, Uruguay), 1982.
(With Raúl Prébisch and Rosario Green) En torno al estado y al desarrollo, Centro de Estudios Económicos y Sociales del Tercer Mundo: Editorial Nueva Imagen (Mexico City, Mexico), 1982.
Perspectivas: Fernando Henrique Cardoso, idéias e atuação política, edited by Eduardo P. Graeff, Paz e Terra (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 1983.
(With Bernardo Sorj and Maurício Font) Economia e movimentos sociais na América Latina, Editora Brasiliense (São Paulo, Brazil), 1985.
A democracia necessária, Papirus Livraria e Editora (Campinas, Brazil), 1985.
Visões da transição, Centro de Estudos de Cultura Contemporanea (São Paulo, Brazil), 1989.
(Author of preface) Paulo Renato Souza, Quem paga a conta?: dívida, déficit e inflação nos anos 80, Editora Brasiliense (São Paulo, Brazil), 1989.
A construção da democracia: estudos sobre política, Editora Siciliano (São Paulo, Brasil), 1993.
Mãos à obra, Brasil: Proposta de governo, (Brasilia, Brazil), 1994.
Política externa em tempos de mudança: discursos, artigos e entrevistas: a gestão do ministro Fernando Henrique Cardoso no Itamaraty, 5 de Outubro de 1992 a 21 de Maio de 1993, Ministério das Relações Exteriores (Brasilia, Brazil), 1994.
A utopia viável, Presidencia da Republica (Brasilia, Brazil), 1995.
Debate com Fernando Henrique Cardoso, 19-07-1994, ANABB (Brasilia, Brazil), 1995.
The Impact of Globalization on Developing Countries: Risks and Opportunities, Presidencia da Republica (Brasilia, Brazil), 1996.
Globalização e outros temas contemporâneos, Presidencia da Republica (Brasilia, Brazil), 1997.
Trechos de pronunciamentos do presidente da republica: 1997, Presidencia da Republica (Brasilia, Brazil), 1998.
Avança Brasil: mais 4 anos de desenvolvimento para todos: proposta de governo, Fernando Henrique, presidente, (Brasilia, Brazil), 1998.
(With Maírio Soares) O mundo em portugues: um diálogo, Paz e Terra (São Paulo, Brazil), 1998.
(With Roberto Pompeu de Toledo) O presidente segundo o sociólogo: entrevista de Fernando Henrique Cardoso a Roberto Pompeu De Toledo, Companhia das Letras (São Paulo, Brazil), 1998.
Negros em Florianópolis: relações sociais e econômicas, Editora Insular (Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil), 2000.
Charting a New Course: The Politics of Globalization and Social Transformation, edited and introduced by Mauricio A. Font, Rowman & Littlefield (Lanham, MD), 2001.
(With Francisco C. Weffort and José Alvaro Moises) Cinema Brasileiro, Edições Fundo Nacional de Cultura (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 2001.
Palavra do presidente, Presidencia da Republica (Brasilia, Brazil), 2002.
Capitalismo e escravidão no Brasil meridional: o negro na sociedade escravocrata do Rio Grande do Sul, Civilização Brasileira (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 2003.
(With Brian Winter) The Accidental President of Brazil: A Memoir, PublicAffairs (New York, NY), 2006.
A arte da política: A história que vivi, Civilização Brasileira (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 2006.
Cartas a um jovem político: Para construir um país melhor, Alegro (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 2006.
The Need for Global Governance: A Perspective from Latin America, Library of Congress (Washington, DC), 2006.
Also author of the sound recording Latin America and Iberia: Yesterday and Tomorrow, Library of Congress, 2004. Contributor to books, including The New Authoritarianism in Latin America, Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ), 1979; Album memória de São Bernardo, Prefeitura do Município de São Bernardo do Campo (São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil), 1981; Medina Echavarría y la sociología Latinoamericana, Ediciones Cultura Hispánica del Instituto de Cooperación Iberoamericana (Madrid, Spain), 1982; Social democracia hoje: [A alternativa social-democrata], Fundação Teotônio Vilela (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 1990; Economia e política da crise Brasileira: O pensamento da equipe Fernando Henrique, Rio Fundo Editora (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 1995; O Brasil e a economia global, Editora Campus (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 1996; O Brasil e o mundo no limiar do novo século, J. Olympio Editora (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 1998; Realizações e desafios de um programa social democrata, Instituto Teotônio Vilela (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 2000; Brasil 500 anos: Futuro, presente, passado, J. Olympio Editora (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 2000; Para nunca esquecer: Negras memórias, memórias de negros, Museu Histórico Nacional (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 2001. Monthly world-affairs columnist for the New York Times Syndicate, beginning 2003.
Fernando Cardoso is the former president of Brazil and a noted sociologist and academic writer who has taught in universities internationally. According to Journal of International Affairs contributor Sara Regine Haggett, Cardoso "emerged … [in] the late 1960s as one of the most influential figures in the analysis of large-scale social change, international development, dependency, democracy, and state reform." In the 1980s, Cardoso helped establish the left-wing organization called the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB). The author went on to become involved in establishing a democracy in Brazil and ridding the country of military rule. He eventually became Brazil's third elected civilian president after twenty years of military rule. However, his predecessors had accomplished little, with one dying before his inauguration, another impeached for embezzlement, and a third who almost resigned in frustration over the inability to bring about further reforms.
Writing about Cardoso's time as president of Brazil, a contributor to the Economist noted: "As president for eight years, Mr. Cardoso waged endless political battles to modernise the Brazilian state in the teeth of opposition from special interests. His great achievement was to bring political and economic stability and some social reforms to a country which had rarely enjoyed any." A contributor to Contemporary Hispanic Biography wrote: "During his terms, he emphasized economic reform, privatization, foreign investment, and funding for social services and education, and did so without a hint of the corruption that had plagued Brazil's former leaders. He is best known for his economic policies that succeeded in halting the chronic hyperinflation that plagued the country."
Over the course of his long career in politics and academia, Cardoso also authored numerous books, includ- ing a memoir. His most prestigious publication stemmed from his work as a sociologist and is titled Dependency and Development in Latin America. The book was written with Enzo Faletto and published in English translation in 1979. "In this work, Cardoso and Faletto examine the tendency of developing postwar Latin American countries to throw off political and economic dependency on foreign powers only to reestablish a new economic dependency on international capitalists and multinational corporations," wrote a contributor to the Encyclopedia of World Biography Supplement. "This academic analysis proved a valuable backdrop for Cardoso's eventual political career, which grew from an intimate understanding of the vagaries of international business and their effects on Brazil's domestic economy."
In their book, the authors examine dependency theory in sociology, which argues that underdevelopment in a country (typically third-world countries) is not necessarily an early stage of a country's development but rather results from exploitation by more prosperous countries and regions. Writing in Foreign Policy, Andres Velasco called Dependency and Development in Latin America the "magnum opus of dependency theory." Velasco went on to note that Cardoso and Faletto fostered a less radical approach to dependency theory that did not call for separation from the overall world economy as the more radical approach proposed. Velasco wrote: "The milder version of dependency, pioneered by Cardoso and his coauthor Enzo Faletto, and by others … was more useful. It maintained that under capitalism both rich and poor could grow but would not benefit equally." In a review of the revised edition of the book, Foreign Affairs contributor Kenneth Maxwell referred to the book as a "classic work" that "had an enormous influence on a generation of American scholars."
Cardoso reflected on his life in The Accidental President of Brazil: A Memoir, written with Brian Winter. The memoir does not focus on Cardoso's presidency, although three chapters are dedicated to his leadership of Brazil, but rather emphasizes the many people Cardoso met during his career, including numerous government leaders, such as former U.S. President Bill Clinton, who became a close friend. The book begins with Cardoso's youth growing up in a military family and under the watchful gaze of his father, who was a general. The authors then describe how Cardoso did not follow in his father's footsteps but rather chose academia and became a sociologist with an interest in the country's social problems. Cardoso and Winter also present many insights into Brazilian politics as they discuss Cardoso's political career and especially his tenure as president. In addition, they explore why Brazilians are lured to communism as a possible relief from the inequalities that they suffer.
The former Brazilian president's memoirs received numerous favorable reviews, especially for its depiction of Brazilian politics. Library Journal contributor Kristin Whitehair referred to The Accidental President of Brazil as an "engaging work" and noted: "This memoir … provides rare insight into political developments in Brazil in the last half of the 20th century." Commenting on the Spanish version of the memoir in a review in Foreign Policy, Paulo Sotero wrote that the book is "a fascinating inside story of his rise to power and the nine and a half years in which he tried, first as finance minister and later as president, to transform Brazil into a stable democracy willing to face the inequities of its society and the inefficiencies of its economy." The reviewer added that the memoir "is far from a self-glorifying political memoir. It's a detailed and reasoned analysis about reforms made or postponed under severe pressure and the rationale behind them. It reveals a leader guided by a clear sense of purpose and a deep knowledge of the society" of Brazil and South America.
Other reviewers noted that the memoir provides an excellent general history of Brazil. "This book should be translated back into Portuguese and read by every high school student in Brazil, not just for its coverage of recent times, but for the way it makes the whole sweep of Brazilian history come alive," wrote Ted Goertzel on InfoBrazil.com. Goertzel also appreciated that "Cardoso has not forgotten his sociology. He covers all the issues, from slavery to dependency to globalization, pension reform and neo-liberalism. But he puts them in a human context with anecdotes and personal vignettes accumulated over a lifetime in the whirlwind of Brazilian politics." Vanessa Bush concluded in Booklist: "Readers interested in the political history of this fascinating nation, of huge importance on the American continent, will enjoy this book."
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique, and Brian Winter, The Accidental President of Brazil: A Memoir, Public Affairs (New York, NY), 2006.
Contemporary Hispanic Biography Volume 1, Gale (Detroit, MI), 2002.
Current Leaders of Nations, Volume 18, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1999.
Encyclopedia of World Biography Supplement, Volume 18, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1998.
Newsmakers 1996, Issue 4, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1998.
American Metal Market, October 24, 1994, "Cardoso Favors Selling CRVD," p. 3; October 6, 1995, "Cardoso Urges Participation in Brazilian Steel Ventures," p. 3; May 15, 1996, "Brazil May Nix Steel Gambit: Cardoso Fears Return of State Influence in Asecita Deal," p. 9.
America's Insider, November 24, 2000, "Campaign Finance Scandal Involving Cardoso Could Get Worse," p. 7; July 12, 2001, "Cardoso Pessimistic on Tax Reform," p. 8.
Booklist, March 1, 2006, Vanessa Bush, review of The Accidental President of Brazil, p. 58.
Business Week, December 7, 1998, "Scandal Rocks Brazil," p. 114; June 7, 1999, "Brazilian Scandal," p. 55; July 3, 2000, "Cardoso Cracks Down," p. 64; March 19, 2001, "And Cardoso Thought the Hard Part Was Over," p. 31; May 21, 2001, "Brazil: Will Corruption Probes Cripple Cardoso?," p. 29.
Economist, July 30, 1994, "Two in the Loft," p. 38; September 13, 1997, "Electoral Bargains: Brazil," p. 34; November 29, 1997, "Underperforming the Opposition," p. 34; December 6, 1997, "Slowly, Slowly," p. 34; February 14, 1998, "Fernando Henrique Stability," p. 34; March 14, 1998, "Odds-on: Brazil," p. 36; May 30, 1998, "A Real Fight: Brazil," p. 34; June 13, 1998, "Left, Then Right? Brazil," p. 37; September 19, 1998, "Why the Left Isn't Winning: Brazil," p. 44; January 2, 1999, "Cardoso Tries Again," p. 32; July 24, 1999, "Cardoso's Last Chance for Reforms," p. 33; February 12, 2000, "A Cautious Comeback for Brazil's Cardoso," p. 33; July 29, 2000, "A Paradox for Cardoso," p. 35; May 12, 2001, "Cracks Open Up beneath Cardoso; Brazilian Politics; Political Turbulence in Brazil," p. 1; June 2, 2001, "The Mighty, Fallen; Brazilian Politics; a Political Boss Departs," p. 3; September 15, 2001, "Middle Men; Politics in Brazil"; April 8, 2006, "Brazil for Beginners; Latin America," p. 81.
Editor & Publisher, August 25, 2003, "NYTS Inks Prez, Author," p. 25.
EFE World News Service, May 2, 2001, "Cardoso to Reshuffle Cabinet after Losing Closest Ally," p. 1008055; May 4, 2001, "Brazil's Cardoso Voices about Senators' Testimony," p. 1008124; May 19, 2001, "New Scandal Spoils Efforts to Improve Brazilian President's Image, Government," p. 1008139; June 17, 2001, "Somber 70th Birthday for Cardoso, President," p. 1008168; December 23, 2001, "Cardoso's Popularity at the Same Level as a Year Ago, Poll Shows," p. 1008357; December 23, 2001, "Pres. Cardoso Praises Brazil's Growth despite Worldwide Slowdown," p. 1008357; March 7, 2002, "Cardoso's Coalition Breaks Up in Brazil," p. 1008066; March 23, 2002, "Brazilian Peasants Threaten to Burn Farm of President's Family," p. 1008082; April 3, 2002, "Brazil's Cardoso Reshuffles Cabinet for His Term's Home Stretch," p. 1008093; May 21, 2002, "Pope Receives Brazil's Cardoso, Calls Himself ‘a Gaucho’," p. 1008140; May 23, 2002, "Brazilian President Cardoso to Head Newly Founded Madrid Club," p. 1008133; June 21, 2002, "Brazil's Cardoso: Street Crime out of Hand," p. 1008172; September 24, 2002, "Outgoing President Lambasts Economic Changes Urged by Candidates," p. 1008267; October 1, 2002, "Cardoso Rides to the Rescue as Candidate Lags in the Polls," p. 1008274.
Environment Bulletin, July 5, 2000, "Environment-Brazil: Activists Bash Decree on Genetic Resources."
Financial Times, January 13, 1999, Geoff Dyer, "Brazil's Tough Year: The President's Austerity Plan Is under Attack from an Unlikely Quarter—a Tempestuous State Governor Who Was Once Mr. Cardoso's Boss, Say Geoff Dyer and Stephen Fidler," p. 23; January 15, 1999, Geoff Dyer, "Latest Act in Long and Bitter Dispute over Real," p. 3; January 20, 1999, Geoff Dyer, "Cardoso Pledges to Keep Brazil's Inflation Down after Devaluation," p. 20; March 1, 1999, Geoff Dyer, "Cardoso Mends Bridges with States," p. 4; March 19, 1999, John Barham, "Cardoso Wins a Tax Boost from Brazil Congress," p. 3; April 6, 1999, Geoff Dyer, "Cardoso Returns to the Public Eye," p. 6; May 26, 1999, Geoff Dyer, "Cardoso Furore Unsettles Markets," p. 04; June 24, 1999, Geoff Dyer, "Cardoso Sacks Bank Chiefs to Quash Rebellion over Tax," p. 04; July 20, 1999, John Barham, "Cardoso Swears in New Team," p. 4; July 22, 1999, "Cardoso Battles to Regain His Authority," p. 5; August 24, 1999, Geoff Dyer, "Cardoso Hits Back at Protesters," p. 5; September 1, 1999, "Cardoso Hits Back with Big Spending Plan," p. 6; November 3, 1999, Richard Lapper, "Strains on Alliance Grow: Politics by Richard Lapper: President Cardoso Finds That Support Is Faltering within His Own Party as Well as among Allies," p. 3; December 23, 1999, Geoff Dyer, "The Americas: Cardoso Risks Anger of Congress," p. 9; May 12, 2001, "Cardoso Fends Off Corruption Probe Brazil's President Congress Persuaded to Shelve Inquiry," p. 7; May 30, 2001, "Energy Crisis Hits Cardoso's Popularity," p. 5; March 8, 2002, "Brazil Coalition Splits over Police Probe Elections Largest Party Says Investigation of Its Presidential Candidate Is Politically Motivated," p. 10; April 19, 2002, "Cardoso Keeps a Cool Head: Brazil's President Remains Unworried by the Rise of the Left and Latin American Instability, He Assures Richard Lapper and Raymond Colitt," p. 19.
Forbes, June 17, 1996, "Brazil: A Country in Transition," p. 37.
Foreign Affairs, September 1, 1997, Kenneth Maxwell, review of Dependency and Development in Latin America, p. 229; May 1, 2000, "Brazil's New Capitalism," p. 107; May 1, 2006, Richard Feinberg, review of The Accidental President of Brazil, p. 164.
Foreign Policy, November 1, 2002, various authors, "The Dustbin of History," p. 34; September 1, 2006, Paulo Sotero, "Brazil's Man of Action," p. 78.
Futures World News, December 29, 1999, "Brazilian Ex-Military Heads Call for Cardoso's ‘Substitution,’" p. 1008362.
Inter Press Service, July 1, 1999, "Rio Summit: Cardoso Calls for a More Just World Order," p. 1008181; September 3, 1999, "Politics-Brazil: Ambitious Social Plan Meets with Skepticism," p. 1008245; November 22, 1999, "Politics-Brazil: Army Defends Pres. Cardoso's Ranch," p. 1008324.
IPR Strategic Business Information Database, May 14, 2002, "Brazil: President Says Country Must Fight Digital Illiteracy."
ITAR/TASS News Agency, January 14, 2002, "Brazil President Becomes Moscow University Honorary Doctor," p. 1008014.
Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, winter, 1997, "The Brazilian State in the New Democracy"; winter, 1998, "Brazilian Politicians and Neoliberalism: Mapping Support for the Cardoso Reforms, 1995-1997"; winter, 1998, "The Cardoso Government's Reform Agenda: A View from the National Congress, 1995-1998"; fall, 2000, "The Brazilian Military under Cardoso: Overcoming the Identity Crisis."
Journal of International Affairs, spring, 2005, Sara Regine Haggett, "An Interview with Fernando Henrique Cardoso."
Journal of Latin American Studies, August, 2003, "Fiscal Straitjacket: The Politics of Macroeconomic Reform in Brazil, 1995-2002," p. 545; November, 2006, "From Fome Zero to Bolsa Familia: Social Policies and Poverty Alleviation under Lula," p. 689.
Latin American Politics and Society, summer, 2003, "Brazil's Agrarian Reform: Democratic Innovation or Oligarchic Exclusion Redux?"
Latin Finance, May, 1995, "From Scholar to Statesman," p. 20; May, 1995, "Man of the Year Fernando Henrique Cardoso on the Real Plan and Brazil's Future," p. 22; May, 1995, "The Challenge Ahead," p. 24; March, 2003, "Cardoso Goes to College," p. 10; July 2003, "Partners Fernando Henrique Cardoso & Pedro Malan," p. 36.
Latin Trade, April, 2000, "President Fernando Henrique Cardoso," p. 11.
Library Journal, March 15, 2006, Kristin Whitehair, review of The Accidental President of Brazil, p. 78.
Miami Herald, April 16, 2007, "Former President Cardoso: Brazil Is ‘More International’"; April 16, 2007, Jane Bussey, "The Future Is Closer Than Ever for Brazil: Former Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso Discusses Brazil's Role in Latin America, His Terms as President and Petrobras."
NACLA Report on the Americas, March 1, 1999, "The Brazil Meltdown," p. 5; July, 2001, "Energy Crisis and Corruption Spark Protests in Brazil," p. 2.
Newsweek International, December 15, 2003, "Brazil's Wise Old Man," p. 62.
New York Times, January 2, 2000, Larry Rohter, "Brazil Is Shaken by Air Force's Challenge to Plans for Military," p. 5; March 12, 2001, "Political Turmoil Threatens Brazil's President," p. 6; May 19, 2001, "Brazil, Fearful of Blackouts, Orders 20 Percent Cut in Electricity; a Power Rationing Plan, with Both Carrots and Sticks," p. 4; December 29, 2002, "Departing President Leaves a Stable Brazil," p. 10; May 31, 2003, "Brazil's Leader Steps Gingerly onto World Stage," p. 3.
Oil Daily, May 31, 1995, "Cardoso Sticks to Plan," p. 5; October 6, 1998, Peter Eisen, "Cardoso Win Offers Hope for Brazilian Recovery"; May 11, 1999, Peter Eisen, "President Cardoso Predicts Robust Foreign Investment in Brazil"; February 20, 2002, "Cardoso Halts Gas Price Hike, Rationing as Brazil Enters Political Campaigning."
Petroleum Economist, June, 2002, "Brazil's President Accepts Invitation for Opening Ceremony," p. 3.
Political Science Quarterly, winter, 2001, "Blairism Brazilian Style? Cardoso and the ‘Third Way’ in Brazil."
Time International, November 13, 2000, "Cleaning Up City Hall: Brazilians Send a Powerful Message in Nationwide Municipal Elections: Straighten Up or Get Out!," p. 31.
United Press International, March 12, 2001, "Interview of the Week: President Fernando Henrique Cardoso," p. 1008071; May 23, 2002, "Brazil's President Supports Gay Marriage," p. 1008133; July 12, 2002, "Brazil Plans to Fight Human Rights Abuses," p. 1008193; November 12, 2002, "Brazil's Cardoso Voices Support for Lula," p. 1008315; June 17, 2003, "Brazil's Lula Lashes Out at Predecessor," p. 1008168.
UPI NewsTrack, April 16, 2004, "Brazil's Former President Denies He'll Run"; June 3, 2005, "Brazil: Gov. Lauds Cardoso as Successor."
UPI Perspectives, November 30, 2004, "Cardoso: Administration Is ‘Incompetent.’"
USA Today, March 13, 2006, "Path of Brazil's ‘Accidental President’ Parallels Nation," p. 5.
Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, October 20, 1997, "The President's News Conference with President Cardoso in Brasilia," p. 1568.
Xinhua News Agency, October 11, 1999, "Colombian, Brazilian Presidents Discuss Colombian Peace Process," p. 1008281; June 8, 2000, "Brazilian President Grants Interview On-Line," p. 1008159; October 8, 2003, "Brazilian Former President Favors FTAA, but without Sacrifices."
Club de Madrid,http://www.clubmadrid.org/ (October 18, 2007), biography of Fernando Henrique Cardoso.
Harry Walker Agency,http://www.harrywalker.com/ (October 18, 2007), profile of Fernando Henrique Cardoso.
InfoBrazil.com,http://www.infobrazil.com/ (October 18, 2007), Ted Goertzel, "Cardoso according to Cardoso: Brazil's Recent History Revisited"; brief profile of Fernando Henrique Cardoso.
"Cardoso, Fernando 1931- (Fernando Henrique Cardoso)." Contemporary Authors. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"Cardoso, Fernando 1931- (Fernando Henrique Cardoso)." Contemporary Authors. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/educational-magazines/cardoso-fernando-1931-fernando-henrique-cardoso
"Cardoso, Fernando 1931- (Fernando Henrique Cardoso)." Contemporary Authors. . Retrieved December 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/educational-magazines/cardoso-fernando-1931-fernando-henrique-cardoso
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