Ehrenreich, Barbara 1941–
Ehrenreich, Barbara 1941–
PERSONAL: Born August 26, 1941, in Butte, MT; daughter of Ben Howes and Isabelle Oxley (Isely) Alexander; married John Ehrenreich, August 6, 1966 (marriage ended); married Gary Stevenson, December 10, 1983; children: (first marriage) Rosa, Benjamin. Education: Reed College, B.A., 1963; Rockefeller University, Ph.D., 1968. Politics: "Socialist and feminist."
CAREER: Health Policy Advisory Center, New York, NY, staff member, 1969–71; State University of New York College at Old Westbury, assistant professor of health sciences, 1971–74; writer, 1974–; Seven Days magazine, editor, 1974–; Mother Jones magazine, columnist, 1986–89; Time magazine, essayist, 1990; Guardian, London, England, columnist, 1992–. New York Institute for the Humanities, associate fellow, 1980–; Institute for Policy Studies, fellow, 1982–. Co-chair, Democratic Socialists of America, 1983–.
AWARDS, HONORS: National Magazine award, 1980; Ford Foundation award for Humanistic Perspectives on Contemporary Issues, 1981; Guggenheim fellowship, 1987; Christopher Award and Los Angeles Times Book Award in current-interest category, both 2002, both for Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting by in America.
(With husband, John Ehrenreich) Long March, Short Spring: The Student Uprising at Home and Abroad, Monthly Review Press (New York, NY), 1969.
(With John Ehrenreich) The American Health Empire: Power, Profits, and Politics: A Report from the Health Policy Advisory Center, Random House (New York, NY), 1970.
(With Deirdre English) Witches, Midwives, and Nurses: A History of Women Healers, Feminist Press (Old Westbury, NY), 1972.
(With Deirdre English) Complaints and Disorders: The Sexual Politics of Sickness, Feminist Press, 1973.
(With Deirdre English) For Her Own Good: One Hundred-fifty Years of the Experts' Advice to Women, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1978.
The Hearts of Men: American Dreams and the Flight from Commitment, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1983.
(With Annette Fuentes) Women in the Global Factory (pamphlet), South End Press (Boston, MA), 1983.
(Coauthor) Poverty in the American Dream: Women and Children First, Institute for New Communications, South End Press (Boston, MA), 1983.
(With Elizabeth Hess and Gloria Jacobs) Re-making Love: The Feminization of Sex, Anchor Press/Doubleday (New York, NY), 1986.
(With Fred Block, Richard Cloward, and Frances Fox Piven) The Mean Season: An Attack on the Welfare State, Pantheon (New York, NY), 1987.
Fear of Falling: The Inner Life of the Middle Class, Pantheon (New York, NY), 1989.
The Worst Years of Our Lives: Irreverent Notes from a Decade of Greed, Pantheon, 1990.
Kipper's Game, Farrar, Straus (New York, NY), 1993.
The Snarling Citizen: Essays, Farrar, Straus (New York, NY), 1995.
Blood Rites: Origins and History of the Passions of War, Metropolitan Books (New York, NY), 1997.
Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting by in America, Holt (New York, NY), 2001.
(Editor with Arlie Russell Hochschild) Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy, Metropolitan Books (New York, NY), 2003.
Contributor to magazines, including Radical America, Nation, Esquire, Vogue, New Republic, and New York Times Magazine. Contributing editor, Ms., 1981–, and Mother Jones, 1988–. Guest columnist, New York Times.
ADAPTATIONS: "Wage Slaves: Not Getting by in America," a segment of the A&E series Investigative Reports, was based in part on Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting by in America and aired August 26, 2002.
SIDELIGHTS: The images circulating in 2004, during the War on Terror, of Iraqi prisoner abuse by U.S. soldiers dashed some of Barbara Ehrenreich's hope that women "would eventually change the military, making it more respectful of other people and cultures, more capable of genuine peace keeping." Ehrenreich's remarks were made during her commencement address to the 2004 graduates of Barbard College in New York City. "What we need is a tough new kind of feminism with no illusions…. We need a kind of woman who doesn't want to be one of the boys when the boys are acting like sadists or fools." An outspoken feminist and socialist party leader, Ehrenreich crusades for social justice in her books. Although many of her early works were shaped by her formal scientific training—she earned a Ph.D. in biology—her more recent works have moved beyond health care concerns to the plight of women and the poor. In addition to her numerous non-fiction books, Ehrenreich is widely known for her weekly columns published in Time and the Guardian.
Early in her career, while working for the Health Policy Advisory Center, Ehrenreich published a scathing critique of the American health "empire," exposing its inefficiency, inhumanity, and self-serving policies. Then, turning from the population in general to women in particular, Ehrenreich and her coauthor Deirdre English unveiled the male domination of the female health care system in Complaints and Disorders: The Sexual Politics of Sickness and For Her Own Good: One Hundred Fifty Years of the Experts' Advice to Women. In a controversial work, The Hearts of Men: American Dreams and the Flight from Commitment, Ehrenreich takes on the whole male establishment, challenging the assumption that feminism is at the root of America's domestic upheaval.
Describing The Hearts of Men as a study of "the ideology that shaped the breadwinner ethic," Ehrenreich surveys the three decades between the 1950s and the 1980s, showing how male commitment to home and family collapsed during this time. "The result," according to New York Times contributor Eva Hoffman, "is an original work of cultural iconography that supplements—and often stands on its head—much of the analysis of the relations between the sexes that has become the accepted wisdom of recent years." Ehrenreich's interpretation of the evidence led her to the surprising conclusion that anti-feminism evolved in response not to feminism, but to men's abdication of their breadwinner role.
The seeds of male revolt were planted as far back as the 1950s, according to Ehrenreich, when what she calls "the gray flannel dissidents" began to balk at their myriad responsibilities. "The gray flannel nightmare of the commuter train and the constant pressure to support a houseful of consumers caused many men to want to run away from it all," Carol Cleaver wrote in the New Leader. What held these men in check, says Ehrenreich, was the fear that, as bachelors, they would be associated with homosexuality. Hugh Hefner banished that stigma with the publication of Playboy, a magazine whose name alone "defied the convention of hard-won maturity," Ehrenreich maintains in her book. "The magazine's real message was not eroticism, but escape … from the bondage of breadwinning."
In the decades that followed, men's increasing "flight from commitment" was sanctioned by pop psychologists and other affiliates of the human potential movement, who banished guilt and encouraged people to "do their own thing." Unfortunately for women, Ehrenreich concludes that men abandoned the breadwinner role "without overcoming the sexist attitudes that role has perpetuated: on the one hand, the expectation of female nurturance and submissive service as a matter of right; on the other hand a misogynist contempt for women as 'parasites' and entrappers of men." In response to male abdication, women increasingly adopted one of two philosophies: they became feminists, committed to achieving economic and social parity with men, or they became anti-feminists, who tried to keep men at home by binding themselves ever more tightly to them. Despite such efforts, Ehrenreich concludes that women have not fared well, but instead have found themselves increasingly on their own "in a society that never intended to admit us as independent persons, much less as breadwinners for others."
Widely reviewed in both magazines and newspapers, The Hearts of Men was hailed for its provocative insights, even as individual sections of the study were soundly criticized. In her Village Voice review, for instance, Judith Levine was both appreciative of the work and skeptical of its conclusions: "Ehrenreich—one of the finest feminist-socialist writers around—has written a witty, intelligent book based on intriguing source material. The Hearts of Men says something that needs saying: men have not simply reacted to feminism—skulking away from women and children, hurt, humiliated, feeling cheated of their legal and emotional rights. Men, as Ehrenreich observes, have, as always, done what they want to do…. I applaud her on-the-mark readings of Playboy, medical dogma, and men's liberation; her insistence that the wage system punishes women and children when families disintegrate; her mordant yet uncynical voice." At the same time, Levine judged the central thesis of the book as "wrong": "When she claims that the glue of families is male volition and the breadwinner ideology—and that a change in that ideology caused the breakup of the family—I am doubtful," commented the critic. "The ideology supporting men's abdication of family commitment is not new. It has coexisted belligerently with the breadwinner ethic throughout American history."
In 1986's Re-making Love: The Feminization of Sex, coauthored with Elizabeth Hess and Gloria Jacobs, Ehrenreich reports and applauds the freer attitudes toward sex that women adopted in the 1970s and 1980s. The authors assert that women have gained the ability to enjoy sex just for the sake of pleasure, separating it from idealistic notions of love and romance. In her review of Re-making Love for the Chicago Tribune, Joan Beck noted that the book "is an important summing up of what has happened to women and sex in the last two decades and [that it] shows why the sex revolution requires reevaluation." Beck, however, argued that the authors ignore the "millions of walking wounded"—those affected by sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancy, or lack of lasting relationships. Washington Post Book World contributor Anthony Astrachan also expressed a wish for a deeper analysis, but never-theless found Re-making Love "full of sharp and sometimes surprising insights that come from looking mass culture full in the face."
Ehrenreich's next work to attract critical notice, Fear of Falling: The Inner Life of the Middle Class, examines the American middle class and its attitudes toward people of the working and poorer classes. Jonathan Yardley stated in the Washington Post that what Ehrenreich actually focuses on is a class "composed of articulate, influential people…. in fact what most of us think of as the upper-middle class." According to Ehrenreich this group perceives itself as threatened, is most concerned with self-preservation, and has isolated itself, feeling little obligation to work for the betterment of society. This attitude, Ehrenreich maintains, is occurring at a time when the disparity in income between classes has reached the greatest point since World War II and has become "almost as perilously skewed as that of India," as Joseph Coates quoted from Fear of Falling in Chicago's Tribune Books.
Globe and Mail contributor Maggie Helwig, while praising Fear of Falling as "witty, clever, [and] perceptive," described as unrealistic Ehrenreich's hope for a future when everyone could belong to the professional middle class and hold fulfilling jobs. Similarly, David Rieff remarked in the Los Angeles Times Book Review that Ehrenreich's proposed solutions to class polarization are overly optimistic and tend to romanticize the nature of work. "Nonetheless," Rieff concluded, "Fear of Falling is a major accomplishment, a breath of fresh thinking about a subject that very few writers have known how to think about at all." The book elicited even higher praise from Coates, who deemed it "a brilliant social analysis and intellectual history, quite possibly the best on this subject since Tocqueville's."
In The Worst Years of Our Lives: Irreverent Notes from a Decade of Greed Ehrenreich discusses in a series of reprinted articles what some consider to be one of the most self-involved and consumeristic decades in American history: the 1980s. Most of these articles first appeared in Mother Jones, but some come from such periodicals as Nation, Atlantic Monthly, the New York Times, and the New Republic. Together, they summarize "what Ms. Ehrenreich sees as the decade's salient features: blathering ignorance, smug hypocrisy, institutionalized fraud and vengeful polarization—all too dangerous to be merely absurd," according to H. Jack Geiger in the New York Times Book Review. "One of Mrs. Ehrenreich's main themes," observed New York Times reviewer Herbert Mitgang, "is that the Reagan Administration, which dominated the … [1980s], cosmeticized the country and painted over its true condition. The author writes that the poor and middle class are now suffering the results of deliberate neglect."
The Snarling Citizen: Essays collects fifty-seven previously published essays, most of which Ehrenreich contributed to Time and the London Guardian. The essays once again reveal the author's passion for social justice and feminism. Although some reviewers have taken exception to Ehrenreich's opinions in these pieces, nearly all have lavished praise on her well-honed writing style. Writing in the Chicago Tribune Books, for example, Penelope Mesic remarked that the pieces in The Snarling Citizen "startle and invigorate because those who espouse liberal causes—feminism, day care and a strong labor movement—all too often write a granola of prose: a mild, beige substance that is, in a dull way, good for us. Ehrenreich is peppery and salacious, bitter with scorn, hotly lucid." Women's Review of Books contributor Nan Levinson commended the author for her "writing, a hymn to pithiness and wit, and her ear, attuned to the ways in which language redefined becomes thought reconstructed and politics realigned." Andrew Ferguson, however, writing in the American Spectator, took issue with what he called the author's habit of building entire essays around "casual misstatements" of fact. In addition, while conceding that Ehrenreich "knows that caricature can be a verbal art," Ferguson maintains that "too often her fondness for exaggeration and hyperbole drags her into mere buffoonery." While noting that the collection's pieces are all so similar in "size,… voice and essentially … subject" that they "resemble a box of Fig Newtons," Levinson declared: "Ehrenreich is a rare thing in American public life today—a freelance thinker."
In June 1998 Ehrenreich embarked on what was to become perhaps her best-known project. "I leave behind everything that normally soothes the ego and sustains the body home, career, companion, reputation, ATM card—," as she explained in a Harper's article, "and plunge into the low-wage workforce." Following up on such previous studies as Fear of Falling, Ehrenreich spent two years living the life of the American working class, and what she discovered turned into the bestselling 2001 exposé Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting by in America.
A successful, affluent, Ph.D. candidate, the author created a new persona—Barbara Ehrenreich, divorced homemaker with some housekeeping experience—and set off on a tour of the country attempting to sustain herself at what are commonly called "entry-level" jobs. In Ehrenreich's case, that meant waiting tables and cleaning hotel rooms in Key West, Florida; working at a nursing home in Portland, Maine; and becoming a Wal-Mart "associate" in Minneapolis. As she points out, Ehrenreich herself is not too far removed from the working class: her father was a copper miner, her husband a warehouse worker, and her sister an employee in the kind of lowwage jobs the author now was sampling. Nor did she harbor any illusions about her temporary status among the working class: "My aim is nothing so mistily subjective as to 'experience poverty' or find out how it 'really feels' to be a long-term lowwage worker," she asserted in Harper's. "And with all my real-life assets—bank account, IRA, health insurance, multiroom home—waiting indulgently in the background, I am, of course, thoroughly insulated from the terrors that afflict the genuinely poor."
As the author related in the Harper's piece that was expanded into Nickel and Dimed, "My first task is to find a place to live. I figure that if I can earn $7 an hour—which, from the want ads, seems doable—I can afford to spend $500 [per month] on rent." In affluent Key West, that amount might finance "flophouses and trailer homes," the latter featuring "no air-conditioning, no screens, no fans, no television and, by way of diversion, only the challenge of evading the landlord's Doberman pinscher." But even that rent was $675 per month—out of Ehrenreich's reach. "It is a shock to realize that 'trailer trash' has become, for me, a demographic category to aspire to."
Though she equipped herself with three essentials for her study—a car, a laptop computer, and $1,300 startup funds—Ehrenreich quickly learned that earning money for the basics of life came much harder in the service sector. She discovered a booming trade in Key West's "hospitality industry" and noted that her demographic—white, female, English-speaking—gave her an advantage at hiring time. She initially dismissed such options as desk-clerking—too much standing—waitressing—too much walking—and telemarketing—wrong personality type. That left Ehrenreich to fill out applications at hotels, supermarkets, inns, and guest-houses. But her phone seldom rang. To the author's surprise, she learned that the larger chains often run continual help-wanted ads, even when no jobs are open, to build a candidate safety net against the constant turnover in the service field. Ehrenreich finally landed a job at a small chain-hotel's restaurant, as a server. She doled out drinks, made salads and desserts, and tended to "side work," which she defines as "sweeping, scrubbing, slicing, refilling, and restocking." The break room, servers were informed by management, was not a right, but a privilege. Her wage came to $5.15 per hour, not including tips that dried up with the summer heat. Ehrenreich realized she could not afford her $500 efficiency apartment and must find a second job. She took a job at "Jerry's," her alias for a large, well-known family restaurant chain. If anything, the conditions were even worse: "The break room typifies the whole situation: there is none, because there are no breaks at Jerry's. For six to eight hours in a row, you never sit except to pee." She later landed what she considered a dream job of housekeeping in a hotel: stripping beds, scrubbing bathrooms, and handling giant vacuum cleaners on four-hour, no-break shifts. A month working in Key West netted Ehrenreich approximately $1,040; after expenses she was left with $22, and had no health insurance.
"How former welfare recipients and single mothers will (and do) survive in the low-wage workforce, I cannot imagine," Ehrenreich wrote. This comment is a running theme of Nickel and Dimed, as the jobs the author described are typical of those taken by the some twelve-million women who are the objects of welfare reform, "workfare," or other such governmental policies. To Salon reviewer Laura Miller, "one of the sly pleasures of 'Nickel and Dimed' is the way it dances on the line between straightforward social protest and an edgier acknowledgment of inconvenient truths."
Other critical reaction to Ehrenreich's book ranged from skeptical to admiring. In the former camp was Julia Klein, whose question in American Prospect was, "In the end, what has [Ehrenreich] accomplished? It's no shock that the dollars don't add up; that affordable housing is hard, if not impossible, to find; and that taking a second job is a virtual necessity for many of the working poor." After labeling the author "a prickly, self-confident woman and the possessor of a righteous, ideologically informed outrage at America's class system that can turn patronizing at times," Klein went on to acknowledge that Nickel and Dimed is still "a compelling and timely book whose insights sometimes do transcend the obvious." Similarly, Humanist contributor Joni Scott mentioned an early reluctance to read the memoirs of an affluent person living temporarily as poor, but found that Ehrenreich's work is "an important literary contribution and a call to action that I hope is answered. I believe this book should be required reading for corporate executives and politicians." "This book opens one's eyes very wide indeed," declared a reviewer for M2 Best Books. And in the view of Bob Hulteen of Sojourners, "Definitional books come around about once a decade. Such books so describe the reality of the age in simple terms that the impact is felt from after-dinner conversations to federal policy discussions." Nickel and Dimed, he added, "will likely join this pantheon."
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
Ehrenreich, Barbara, and Arlie Russell Hochschild, editors, Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy, Metropolitan Books (New York, NY), 2003.
American Prospect, July 30, 2001, Julia Klein, review of Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting by in America, p. 43.
American Spectator, August, 1995, Andrew Ferguson, review of The Snarling Citizen: Essays, p. 66.
Armed Forces & Society, fall, 1999, Daniel Moran, review of Blood Rites: Origins and History of the Passions of War, p. 111.
Barron's, August 6, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 37.
Booklist, March 15, 1998, review of Blood Rites, p. 1209; April 1, 2001, George Cohen, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 43.
Business Week, May 28, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 24; December 10, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 22.
Chicago Tribune, September 25, 1986, Joan Beck, review of Re-making Love; The Feminization of Sex.
Christian Century, August 1, 2001, Lillian Daniel, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 30.
Christian Science Monitor, July 12, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 17; November 15, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 14.
Dissent, fall, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 131.
Entertainment Weekly, May 29, 1998, review of Blood Rites, p. 69; December 21, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 132.
European Intelligence Wire, May 21, 2004, "Commencement: Author Barbara Ehrenreich Calls for New Kind of Feminism to Counter Images of Prison Abuse."
Foreign Affairs, March, 1998, review of Blood Rites, p. 146.
Globe and Mail (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), August 26, 1989, Maggie Helwig, review of Fear of Falling: The Inner Life of the Middle Class.
Harper's, January, 1999, Barbara Ehrenreich, "Nickel and Dimed," p. 107.
Harvard Business Review, January, 2002, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 107.
Humanist, January-February, 1992, p. 11; November, 1998, Edd Doerr, review of Blood Rites, p. 47; September, 2001, Joni Scott, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 40.
International Journal on World Peace, December, 1998, Gordon Anderson, review of Blood Rites, p. 111.
Journal of Affordable Housing & Community Development Law, winter, 2002, Lynn Cunningham, review of Nickel and Dimed, pp. 159-161.
Journal of Peace Research, September, 1999, review of Blood Rites, p. 611.
Kirkus Reviews, April 1, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 475.
Kliatt, July, 2003, Julia Klein, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 5.
Library Journal, May 1, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 115.
Long Island Business News, July 19, 2002, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. A25.
Los Angeles Times, July 24, 1983; June 15, 2001, David Ulin, "Life at the Bottom of the Food Chain," p. E1.
Los Angeles Times Book Review, August 20, 1989, David Rieff, review of Fear of Falling; May 27, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 4; December 2, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 24.
M2 Best Books, May 2, 2002, review of Nickel and Dimed; October 22, 2003.
Marine Corps Gazette, August, 1998, review of Blood Rites, p. 73.
Ms., May-June, 1995, p. 75; April-May, 2001, Vivien Labaton, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 88.
Nation, December 24, 1983.
Naval War College Review, autumn, 1998, review of Blood Rites, p. 157.
New Leader, July 11, 1983, Carol Cleaver, review of The Hearts of Men.
New Republic, July 11, 1983.
New Statesman & Society, May 17, 1991, p. 37, May 20, 1994, Vicky Hutchings, review of Kipper's Game, p. 37.
Newsweek, June 4, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 57.
New York Review of Books, July 1, 1971.
New York Times, January 20, 1971; August 16, 1983, Eva Hoffman, review of The Hearts of Men; May 16, 1990, Herbert Mitgang, review of The Worst Years of Our Lives: Irreverent Notes from a Decade of Greed; July 13, 1993, p. C18; July 30, 2001, Bob Herbert, "Unmasking the Poor," p. A21.
New York Times Book Review, March 7, 1971; June 5, 1983; August 6, 1989; May 20, 1990, H. Jack Gei-ger, review of The Worst Years of Our Lives; August 8, 1993, p. 18; May 28, 1996, p. 12; June 14, 1998, review of Blood Rites, p. 32; May 13, 2001, Dorothy Gallagher, "Making Ends Meet," p. 10; May 20, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 67; June 3, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 30.
New York Times Magazine, June 26, 1996, p. 28.
Observer (London, England), October 11, 1998, review of Blood Rites, p. 16.
Progressive, January, 1995, p. 47; February, 1995, p. 34; January, 2002, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 42.
Public Interest, winter, 2002, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 141.
Publishers Weekly, July 26, 1993, p. 46; May 14, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 67.
Readings, September, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 33.
Reference & User Services Quarterly, spring, 1998, review of Blood Rites, p. 274.
School Library Journal, December, 2001, Barbara Genco, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 57.
Social Service Review, March, 2002, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 196.
Sojourners, January-February, 2002, Bob Hulteen, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 56.
Time, May 7, 1990.
Times Literary Supplement, July 22, 1977; April 10, 1998, review of Blood Rites, p. 3.
Tribune Books (Chicago, IL), November 8, 1987; September 24, 1989, Joseph Coates, review of Fear of Falling; May 13, 1990; May 28, 1995, Penelope Mesic, review of The Snarling Citizen, p. 3.
Utne Reader, May-June, 1995, p. 70.
Village Voice, February 5, 1979; August 23, 1983, Judith Levine, review of The Hearts of Men.
Wall Street Journal, May 18, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. W10.
Washington Post, August 23, 1989, Jonathan Yardley, review of Fear of Falling; June 10, 2001, Katherine Newman, "Desperate Hours," p. T03.
Washington Post Book World, August 19, 1979; July 24, 1983; November 9, 1986, Anthony Astrachan, review of Re-making Love; The Feminization of Sex; February 25, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 6; June 10, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 3.
Whole Earth Review, winter, 1995, p. 86.
Women's Review of Books, October, 1995, Nan Levinson, review of The Snarling Citizen, p. 25; July, 2001, Jacqueline Jones, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 5, author interview, p. 6; January, 2004, Martha Nicols, "Global Woman," p. 12.
World & I, December, 2001, review of Nickel and Dimed, p. 250.
Alter Net, http://www.alternet.org/ (May 15, 2001), Tamara Straus, review of Nickel and Dimed.
Onion A.V. Club, http://wwwtheonion.com/ (September 19, 2001), Noel Murray, author interview.
Salon.com, http://www.salon.com/ (May 9, 2001), Laura Miller, review of Nickel and Dimed.