Marie Clotilde (d. 1794)
Marie Clotilde (d. 1794)
Saint . Died in 1794; her feast day is October 23.
Caught in the upheaval of the French Revolution, Marie Clotilde, mother superior of an Ursuline convent at Valenciennes, became a political and religious martyr, as did the 32 sisters under her supervision. In August 1792, the Ursulines were ordered by municipal officials to vacate their convent, at which time they were also deprived of their teaching rights. By September 17 of that year, all but five of the sisters (left behind due to illness) were furnished with passports and taken to the Belgian city of Mons by carriage. They remained there until November of the following year when they returned to Valenciennes, now occupied by the Austrians. Permitted back into the convent, with their teaching rights restored, the order flourished for a short time, even taking in three dispossessed nuns—two Brigittines and a Poor Clare. However, when the French liberated Valenciennes in August 1794, the nuns were numbered among those suspected of sympathizing with the former regime and were imprisoned in their convent. While two-thirds escaped, 11 others, including Marie Clotilde and three who also became saints, Marie Claire, Marie Anne , and Marie Rose , were sentenced to die by hanging. They were executed in the marketplace in two groups, on October 17 and 23, 1794. All mounted the scaffold with the courage of the faithful, declaring that they were happy to have returned to Valenciennes "to teach the Catholic, apostolic, and Roman religion."
Barbara Morgan , Melrose, Massachusetts
"Marie Clotilde (d. 1794)." Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 19, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marie-clotilde-d-1794
"Marie Clotilde (d. 1794)." Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. . Retrieved January 19, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marie-clotilde-d-1794
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.