Marie de Médicis 1573–1642 French Queen
Marie de Médicis
Marie de Médicis was the second member of the powerful Medici family of Italy to become queen and regent* of France. A skillful politician, Marie shrewdly maneuvered for power at the highest level in France. She also exerted her influence as a patron* of the arts, commissioning works that expressed her belief in strong female rule.
Born in Florence in the Tuscan region of Italy, Marie was the daughter of Francesco de' Medici, grand duke of Tuscany. In 1600 she married the French king Henry IV. By 1608 she had borne five children. One son later became king of France, and two daughters became queens of European countries.
Henry IV was assassinated in 1610. The day after his death, Marie boldly called an assembly of the French parliament to put her young son on the throne as Louis XIII and to recognize Marie as queen regent. Despite efforts to undermine her authority on the grounds that women could not rule, she exercised the office of regent publicly and carried out many of Henry IV's policies. Among her major concerns as regent were pursuing peace in Europe and arranging royal marriages for her children. For a while, Marie managed to hold out against rebellious nobles. However, in 1617 her son, influenced by her enemies, seized power and banished her from court. Marie led a revolt that ended with a peace treaty in 1620, after which she returned to Paris and served on the Royal Council. Her return to court lasted until 1631, when political differences forced her to flee again. She eventually settled in Cologne, Germany, where she died.
Marie de Médicis provided work for many French and European artists. She donated major artworks to numerous Paris churches and completed work on the Luxembourg palace. For the palace, she commissioned the Life of Marie de Médicis, a set of 24 large paintings by Peter Paul Rubens that portrayed her as a heroic ruler, the embodiment of France and of justice.
- * regent
person who acts on behalf of a monarch who is too young or unable to rule
- * patron
supporter or financial sponsor of an artist or writer
"Marie de Médicis 1573–1642 French Queen." Renaissance: An Encyclopedia for Students. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 19, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marie-de-medicis-1573-1642-french-queen
"Marie de Médicis 1573–1642 French Queen." Renaissance: An Encyclopedia for Students. . Retrieved March 19, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marie-de-medicis-1573-1642-french-queen
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.