Queen of the Netherlands. Name variations: Juliana of the Netherlands, Julia van Bueren. Born Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina, princess of Orange-Nassau, duchess of Mecklenburg, in The Hague, the Netherlands, April 30, 1909; died Mar 20, 2004, in the Söstdijk Palace; only child of Wilhelmina (1880–1962), queen of the Netherlands (r. 1898–1948), and Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; studied at University of Leyden, 1927–30; m. Prince Bernard or Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, on Jan 7, 1937 (died Dec 1, 2004); children—4 daughters: Beatrix (b. 1938), queen of the Netherlands (r. 1980–); Irene Emma (b. 1939, who m. Carlos Hugo of Bourbon-Parma); Margaret or Margriet Francisca (b. 1943, who m. Pieter von Vollenhoven), and Maria Christina of Marijke (b. 1947).
Owing to illness of mother Queen Wilhelmina, temporarily assumed royal power (Oct 14, 1947), ruling as princess regent until Dec 1; became regent for 2nd time (May 14, 1948); took oath as queen of the Netherlands (Sept 6, 1948); a popular ruler, dealt with the postwar rehabilitation of the Netherlands, plight of displaced persons, granting of independence to Indonesia, and often devastating floods that threatened the economic structure of her country; jettisoning formality, discarded a great deal of the pomp and ceremony that went with monarchy, including the curtsy; ruled until 1980, then abdicated in favor of daughter Beatrix.
See also Women in World History.