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Julian of Toledo, St.


Theologian, archbishop of Toledo, Jan. 29, 680 to March 690; b. c. 642; d. Toledo, 690. He was born into a converted Jewish family and educated in the cathedral school of Toledo under eugene ii (iii) and his successor St. ildefonsus. Julian presided over the 12th to 15th Councils of Toledo (681, 683, 684, and 688). His angry reaction when his first Apologeticum fidei, dealing with the recently condemned Monothelite heresy, was criticized by Roman theologians in 684 provides evidence of an increasing isolation from Rome on the part of the Spanish Church. Julian's theology was orthodox, and there was no final break with Rome. As primate of Spain, Julian increased the importance of his see and played a part in late Visigothic politics.

Only five of the 17 works mentioned by Julian's biographer survive, together with a short Elogium Ildefonsi and a poem recently recovered. They reveal an original mind and a wide range of achievement, which includes controversy (the De sextae aetatis comprobatione, to prove to the Jews the coming of Christ, and the Apologeticum de tribus capitulis, sent to Rome in 686the first Apologeticum is lost); the Prognosticum futuri saeculi, a manual on the future life, which enjoyed immense influence in the Middle Ages; and the Anti-keimena seu liber de contrariis, a forerunner of abelard's Sic et Non. The Historia Wambae and the Ars grammatica (the latter, if not by Julian, certainly by one of his disciples) display a deep knowledge of the classics.

Julian possessed a remarkable library, which may have included a few patristic texts in Greek. Julian was the author of a revision of the hispana, the Spanish collection of Canon Law, and he revised the mozarabic, or Spanish Liturgy. He received cultus in Toledo (by 858), where he was buried in the church of St. Leocadia, and was commemorated in the later calendars of Silos and Oña. Apparently there were relics of Julian at San Millán de la Cogolla and at Oviedo.

Feast: March 8.

Bibliography: Opera omnia, v.2 of SS. PP. Toletanorum quotquot extant opera, ed. f. a. lorenzana y butrÓn (Madrid 1785) 1384, repr. Patrologia Latina, ed. j. p. migne, 217 V., indexes 4 v. (Paris 187890) 96:452818. felix of toledo, Vita, ibid. xvxxii, repr. Patrologia Latina, 96:444452. m. c. dÍaz y dÍaz, Index scriptorum lationorum medii aevi Hispanorum, 2 v. (Salamanca 195859). b. bischoff, "Ein Brief Julians von Toledo über Rhythmen, metrische Dictung und Prosa," Hermes, 87 (1959) 247256. a. veiga valiÑa, La doctrina escatológica de San Julián de Toledo (Lugo 1940). f. x. murphy, in Mélanges Joseph de Ghellinck, v.1 (Gembloux 1951) 361373, Monothelitism; "J. of T. and the Fall of the Visigothic Kingdom in Spain," Speculum, 27 (1952) 127. j. madoz, Estudios eclesiásticos, 26 (1952) 3969; "Fuentes teologico-literarias de S. J. de T.," Gregorianum, 33 (1952) 399417. j. n. hillgarth, "El Prognosticum futuri saeculi de S.J. de T.," Analecta Sacra Tarraconensia, 30 (1957) 561, bibliog; "St. J. of T. in the Middle Ages," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 21 (1958) 726.

[j. n. hillgarth]

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