Skip to main content

Miller, Shannon

Shannon Miller

1977-

American gymnast

Shannon Miller is the most decorated American gymnast. Over the course of her thirteen-year career as a

gymnast, Miller won fifty-nine international medals and forty-nine national medals. Over half of these medals were gold. She competed in two Olympics, in 1992 and 1996, and won a total of seven Olympic medalstwo gold, two silver, and three bronze. She was a member of the "Magnificent Seven" women's gymnastics team that won the first team gold in gymnastics for the United States in 1996. Miller is also the only American to win the World Championships for two consecutive years, in 1993 and 1994. Miller retired from gymnastics in 2001 and has become an author and a motivational speaker.

An Energetic Child

Shannon Lee Miller was born on March 10, 1977 in Rolla, Missouri. She was the second of three children born to Ron Miller, a college physics professor, and Claudia Miller, a bank executive. When Miller was four months old, her family moved to Edmond, Oklahoma where her father accepted a job at the University of Central Oklahoma. Around the same time Miller's pediatrician noticed a problem with the development of her legs - they seemed to be turning in rather than growing straight. To correct the problem, an orthopedic surgeon recommended that Miller wear leg braces for a year. Her parents and doctors thought that this problem might delay her learning how to crawl and walk, but Miller developed normally.

As a young child Miller looked up to her older sister, Tessa, and wanted to do everything that she did. At age four Miller started taking ballet lessons because her sister had. Within a year both girls had become bored with dancing and they set their sights on gymnastics. In 1982 they asked for a trampoline for Christmas. Their parents reluctantly bought them one, and the girls were thrilled. Their parents, however, were frightened by some of the flips the girls were doing. They suggested that the girls take gymnastics lessons so that they would not hurt themselves on the trampoline at home. The sisters started taking lessons once a week. The instructor, Jerry Clavier, noticed potential in the girls and asked them to come for lessons one hour a day, five days a week. Older sister, Tessa, was not interested in the extra commitment and she decided to take art lessons instead. However, Shannon was up to the challenge.

Chronology

1977 Born March 10, 1977 in Rolla, Missouri
1977 Moves with family to Edmond, Oklahoma
1977 Wears braces to straighten legs
1981 Begins ballet lessons
1982 Begins gymnastics lessons
1984 Passes United States Association of Independent Gymnastics Clubs tests
1985 Travels to Houston to Bela Karolyi's gymnastics camp
1986 Travels to Soviet Union for gymnastics camp
1986 Begins training with Steve Nunno
1988 Begins competing internationally
1989 Wins first place for uneven bars and third place for all-around at Junior National Championships
1990 Begins competing at senior level
1992 Wins five medals at Olympic Games
1993-94 Wins all-around gold at World Championships
1994 Graduated with honors from Edmond North High School
1995 Begins college at the University of Oklahoma
1996 Wins team and individual gold at the Olympic Games
1998 Writes motivational book
1999 Marries Chris Phillips
2000 Fails to make U.S. Olympic team
2001 Retires from gymnastics
2002 Works as a gymnastics instructor and motivational speaker

Miller steadily increased her time at the gym and she progressed through the higher levels of gymnastics classes, despite her young age and small size. By the time she was seven years old, Coach Clavier had her preparing for the United States Association of Independent Gymnastics Clubs (USAIGC) testing program. Miller and five other girls from the gym passed the rigorous tests. As a reward, the team traveled to Houston to attend a training camp held by the legendary gymnastics coach, Bela Karolyi . When Miller was barely nine years old she had an opportunity to travel with an American and Canadian delegation to the Soviet Union for a gymnastics camp. Miller was often frustrated by her inability to complete the difficult tasks set forth by the Soviet coaches, but at the same time she was impressed by the skills of their gymnasts and she was determined to became as good as they were.

Competitive Spirit

When Miller returned to Oklahoma she realized that she would have to change coaches in order to compete against the elite gymnasts. She started training with Steve Nunno, who had also been part of the delegation that traveled to the Soviet Union, at his Dynamo Gymnastics program in Norman, Oklahoma. Nunno was frustrated by how easily Miller cried when she was not performing her best, but he also recognized that she was extremely talented and dedicated. "The most important characteristic that she has is her work ethic," Nunno told Krista Quiner in Shannon Miller America's Most Decorated Gymnast. "I mean, she is just a meticulous worker, that everything that she does, she does to perfection and she does over and over and over to get it prefect without any qualms about it."

At the age of ten Miller started competing in meets and only a year later she was winning medals. In 1988 she finished second in the all-around and third in the balance beam at the Junior Pan American Games in Ponce, Puerto Rico. A year later she finished sixth in the all-around competition at the International Junior Gymnastics Competition in Yokohama, Japan. That same year she won first place for the uneven bars and third place for the all-around competition at the United States Olympic Festival held in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

In 1990 Miller qualified for the senior United States National Team at the age of only thirteen. In her first United States Gymnastics Championship she finished eighth in the all-around. In 1991 she was part of the United States team that competed in the World Gymnastics Championships in Indianapolis, Indiana. She finished fourth in the all-around, while teammate Kim Zmeskal became the first American to win an all-around world championship. Miller also helped the United States win a silver medal for the team competition and she tied for second place on the uneven bars.

Awards and Accomplishments

1989 First place uneven bars and third place all-around, Junior National Championships
1990 First place all-around, vault, balance beam, and floor exercise, and second place uneven bars, Catania Cup
1991 First place balance beam and third place vault, United States Gymnastics Championships
1991 Second place team and uneven bars, World Gymnastics Championships
1992 First place all-around, United States Olympic Trials
1992 Second place all-around and balance beam, third place team, uneven bars, and floor exercise, Olympic Games
1992 Named Oklahoma Ambassador of Goodwill
1992 Named Edmond Citizen of the Year
1992 First female recipient of the Steve Reeves Award by the New York Downtown Athletic Club
1992 Received Jim Thorpe Award by the Oklahoma Amateur Athletic Union
1992 James E. Sullivan Award nominee by the Amateur Athletic Union
1993 First place team, all-around, vault, balance beam, and floor exercise, and second place uneven bars, United States Olympic Festival
1993 First place all-around, vault, uneven bars, and floor exercise, McDonald's American Cup
1993 First place all-around, uneven bars, and floor exercise, World Gymnastics Championships
1993 James E. Sullivan Award nominee by the Amateur Athletic Union
1993 Received Governor's Youth Award by the State of Oklahoma
1993 Named Female Athlete of the Year by the National March of Dimes
1993 Received Presidential medallion by USA Gymnastics
1994 First place all-around and balance beam, World Gymnastics Championships
1994 First place balance beam and floor exercise, second place all-around, vault and uneven bars, Goodwill Games
1994 James E. Sullivan Award nominee by the Amateur Athletic Union
1994 Received Dial Award for National High School Athlete/Scholar
1994 Named Athlete of the Year by the USA Gymnastics Congress
1994 Received Henry P. Iba Citizen Athlete Award
1994 Team Xerox Olympian
1994 Received Master of Sport Award
1994 Received Jim Thorpe Award by the Oklahoma Amateur Athletic Union
1995 James E. Sullivan Award nominee by the Amateur Athletic Union
1996 First place team and balance beam, Olympic Games
1996 James E. Sullivan Award nominee by the Amateur Athletic Union
1997 Co-Grand Marshal of the Rose Bowl Parade with Carl Lewis
1997 First place all-around, second place team, World University Games
2000 First place vault, Mississauga Gymnastics Challenge
2000 Second place uneven bars, John Hancock United States Gymnastics Championships
2002 Inducted into the Oklahoma Sports Hall of Fame

Where Is She Now?

Although Miller retired from gymnastics in 2001, she still remains involved in the sport. She works with children of all ages at summer gymnastics camps and also teaches specialized balance beam clinics. She has toured in exhibition performances and has served as a television sports analyst for gymnastics competitions. Miller also travels extensively as a motivational speaker, lecturing about how to set goals in life and how to overcome obstacles. In 1998 she also wrote a book with Nancy Ann Richardson called Winning Every Day: Gold Medal Advice for a Happy, Healthy Life! Miller is also finishing her Bachelor's degree in marketing and entrepreneurship. Additionally, she dedicates considerable time to charity work, particularly as a spokesperson for the Children's Miracle Network and the Special Olympics, as well as for muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer's disease, Drug Free Youth, the Make-A-Wish Foundation, and the Pediatric AIDS Foundation.

Olympic Champion

Miller's accomplishments as a gymnast are even more amazing given the numerous injuries she has battled throughout her career. In 1992 when she was preparing for the Olympics, Miller dislocated her elbow. She underwent surgery and returned to competition within a month. She finished first in the all-around competition at the Olympic trials. At the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona, Spain, Miller captured five medals. She won a bronze medal for the team competition, uneven bars, and floor exercise, and a silver medal for the balance beam and the uneven bars. During much of her early competitions Miller was in the shadow of America's best gymnast, Kim Zmeskal. The 1992 Olympics, however, were a turning point for Miller. She finished second in the all-around competition, while Zmeskal only finished tenth because of a fall on the uneven bars. It was finally Shannon's time for the spotlight. Miller had the best finish for an American woman gymnast in a non-boycotted Olympics. Although American Mary Lou Retton won gold for the all-around in 1984, the Soviets did not participate in those games and they were usually the toughest competition.

Miller continued to dominate women's gymnastics after the Olympics. In 1993 she won the United States championships for the all-around, uneven bars, and floor exercise. She also won gold medals for the all-around, uneven bars, and floor exercise and the World Gymnastics Championships. She became only the second American to become a World Champion. In 1994 Miller repeated her gold medal for the all-around and also won a gold for the balance beam at the World Championships. She became the only American to win consecutive World Championships.

In 1995 Miller was eighteen years old and she was already the most decorated American gymnast. She faced a difficult decision of whether to retire from gymnastics or continue training for the next Olympics. She had graduated from Edmond North High School in 1994 and she was attending college at the University of Oklahoma. She not only had trouble finding the motivation to train, but she also had to adjust to her more mature body. She also had more injuries to overcome, particularly an ankle injury that hampered her performance at the World Championships.

Member of the "Magnificent Seven"

Miller decided to stick with gymnastics for another try at the Olympics. She won first place in the all-around at the United States National Championships, but she injured her wrist in the competition. She had to sit out of the Olympic trials, but her scores at the national championships were enough to earn her a spot on the Olympic team. The Olympic team consisted of Miller, Amanda Borden, Amy Chow, Dominique Dawes , Dominique Moceanu, Jaycie Phelps, and Kerri Strug . They were nicknamed the "Magnificent Seven" because they were the first American women's team that stood a real chance of capturing the team gold medal for the first time in history. The team lived up to this expectation and won the team gold in dramatic fashion. Miller also became the first American gymnast to win a gold medal for the balance beam, bringing her total number of Olympic medals to seven.

Miller competed occasionally after the 1996 Olympics. In 1997 she won first place in the all-around at the World University Games. She then took a few years off from competitive gymnastics to focus on her education and her personal life. In 1999 she married Chris Phillips, an ophthalmology student from Oklahoma. In 2000 Miller tried to make a comeback in gymnastics to compete at the 2000 Olympics at the age of 23. She finished second on the uneven bars at the United States Gymnastics Championships. However, she did not qualify for the Olympic team. Miller officially retired from the sport in December of 2001. She remains the most accomplished American gymnast of all time with seven Olympic medals, eight World Championships medals, and numerous other national and international medals. Even more surprisingly, Miller excelled in her sport while also earning an "A" average in school and maintaining a healthy and balanced family life.

CONTACT INFORMATION

Address: Shade Global, 250 West 57th Street, New York, New York 10019. Phone: (212) 307-5128.

SELECTED WRITINGS BY MILLER:

(With Nancy Ann Richardson) Winning Every Day: Gold Medal Advice for a Happy, Healthy Life!, Bantam Doubleday Dell, 1998.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Books

Cohen, Joel. Superstars of Women's Gymnastics. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1997.

Great Women in Sports. Detroit: Visible Ink Press, 1996.

Green, Septima. Top 10 Women Gymnasts. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, Inc., 1999.

Kleinbaum, Nancy H. The Magnificent Seven. New York: Bantam Books, 1996.

Miller, Claudia. Shannon Miller, My Child, My Hero. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.

Quiner, Krista. Shannon Miller America's Most Decorated Gymnast. NJ: Bradford Book Company, 1997.

Sports Stars, Series 1-4. UXL, 1194-1998.

Periodicals

Gillis, Stephanie. "Diary of a Champion." Teen Magazine (September 2000): 48.

Parrish, Paula. "Two of Magnificent Seven are Sydney Bound." Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service (August 20, 2000).

"Shannon Miller: All-Star Attitude." Teen Magazine (April 1993): 78-79.

"Shannon Miller & Chris Phillips." People (July 5, 1999): 80.

Starr, Mark. "Hands Together, Feet Apart: Not Bubbly, Just Incredibly Focused." Newsweek (June 10, 1996): 80.

Swift, E.M. "Growing Pains." Sports Illustrated (March >13, 1995): 40-41.

Other

Shannon Miller. http://shannonmiller.com (January 24, 2003).

"Shannon Miller." Distinguished Women of Past and Present. http://www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/millersh.html (January 24, 2003).

The Shannon Miller-Phillips Dedication Page. http://webinspiring.net/shannon/smaddy.htm (January 24, 2003).

USA Gymnastics Official Biography: Shannon Miller. http://www.usa-gymnastics.org/athletes/bios/m/smiller.html (January 14, 2003).

Sketch by Janet P. Stamatel

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Miller, Shannon." Notable Sports Figures. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Miller, Shannon." Notable Sports Figures. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/sports/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/miller-shannon

"Miller, Shannon." Notable Sports Figures. . Retrieved September 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/sports/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/miller-shannon

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.