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Japanization The introduction of human resource management practices said to be typical of Japanese workplaces, especially manufacturing plants, into equivalent workplaces in North America, Western Europe, and other industrial societies. The key features of Japanese personnel management are seen as practices that maximize or demand worker commitment to the firm, offer employees permanent employment and seniority plus merit pay increases, and demand in return job and task flexibility, teamworking, and reduced status differences between workers. The extent to which this process has occurred is much debated. see N. Oliver and and B. Wilkinson , The Japanization of British Industry (1988
). See also FLEXIBLE WORK.

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