Skip to main content

flexible work

flexible work, flexible production, flexible specialization These terms are part of a widespread debate about changing industrial structure and work organization. It is argued that increasing national and international competition is forcing greater flexibility on firms in order to respond more quickly to changes in the product-market. This includes greater flexibility in employment levels (numerical flexibility), job tasks and skills (functional flexibility), and payment systems (financial flexibility). Flexible specialization implies small, decentralized firms oriented towards niche markets, rather than (as in fordism) large, centralized, mass-production firms. Much of the debate has been prompted by studies of Japanese manufacturing and corporations (see R. Dore , Flexible Rigidities, 1986
). For a case-study of the international automobile industry see Rebecca Morales , Flexible Production (1994

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"flexible work." A Dictionary of Sociology. . 20 Mar. 2019 <>.

"flexible work." A Dictionary of Sociology. . (March 20, 2019).

"flexible work." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Retrieved March 20, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.