Skip to main content
Select Source:

Duracell International Inc.

Duracell International Inc.

Berkshire Corporate Park
Bethel, Connecticut 06801
U.S.A.
Telephone: (203) 796-4000
Toll Free: (800) 551-2355
Fax: (203) 207-7145
Web site: http://www.duracell.com

Wholly Owned Subsidiary of The Gillette Company
Incorporated: 1935 as P.R. Mallory & Company
Sales: $2.02 billion (2003)
NAIC: 335911 Storage Battery Manufacturing

Duracell International Inc., owned by The Gillette Company, is the world's leading manufacturer and marketer of high-performance alkaline batteries. Known as P.R. Mallory for decades after its founding in 1935, the company took on the Duracell name in 1978 when it was acquired by Dart Industries. Subsequently, the battery maker was involved in numerous acquisitions and mergers, including one of the largest leveraged buyouts (LBOs) of the 1980s. Duracell's distinctive copper and black color scheme has been around for more than three decades. In addition to its alkaline batteries, the company sells primary lithium, zinc air, and rechargeable nickel-metal hydride batteries as well as a line of flashlights. Gilletteparent to Duracell since 1996was in line to be purchased by Procter & Gamble in 2005.

Mallory Charging Up with Duracell: 193577

P.R. Mallory and his basic business tenets of "invest in research" and "the customer is King" laid the groundwork for Duracell back in 1935. Independent inventor Samuel Ruben entered the picture in 1944 and with Mallory introduced the world's first mercury battery, forerunner of the alkaline battery. The innovation allowed the U.S. military to replace poorly performing zinc carbon batteries used in their equipment during World War II, according to Gillette.

The battery component of Mallory's business grew steadily throughout the post-World War II period, reflecting the booming economy and the rapidly growing market for consumer durables and electronic consumer goods, some of which would require battery power. The first hearing aid button cell used Ruben's mercury battery technology.

During the early 1960s, the company introduced its AA size and AAA size alkaline batteries. The Duracell brand name was adopted in 1964, and the Copper Top graphic came on the scene early in the 1970s.

Although revenues were growing, the company also closely tracked the business cycle because sales of many of its products were at the mercy of consumer buying power, itself a function of wages and earnings. From the early 1960s into the mid-1970s sales grew strongly (the average annual rate was 5 percent from 1963 to 1972); however, company profits reflected the recession of the mid- and late-1960s, with earnings per share hitting a peak of $2.34 in 1966 before falling sharply with the recession. With the beginning of the deep recession in mid-1973, company earnings began to fall sharply.

Mallory's profit margins were respectable in that price-competitive climate, but were under constant pressure. The boom of 1972 allowed the firm to boost sales of electrical and electronic items to industry, complementing consumer sales. Specifically, makers of appliances bought Mallory components to satisfy the growing retail demand for household items, such as laundry units, electric and gas ranges, and dishwashers, among other consumer durables. The company saw this expansion of consumer durables, in particular, as a basis for long-term growth.

The strong growth in consumer durables generated an expanding volume of sales and, thus, economies of scale in production, meaning lower unit costs, higher profit margins, and some insulation from price wars. Therefore, even as the U.S. economy left the fast-growth path of the 1960s and Mallory's margins fell, it was able to weather the downslide of demand that accompanied the recession of 1973. The company's debt load was small, and, although most of its market was domestic, it was well positioned to take on the foreign firms using their low production costs to make headway into the U.S. market in the late 1970s.

In 1977, Fortune magazine ranked Mallory as the 507th largest company, with $323 million in sales and profits of $10 million (which put it in the 170th position). Most of the company's sales were to individual consumers and to makers of consumer durables. Industry accounted for the rest of Duracell's sales, mostly electrical contacts, welding products, and special metals for the automotive, power generating, aerospace, and communications industries. Mallory was also a supplier of batteries of all sizes to the military, and its Duracell batteries were used in everything from hearing aids to military communications equipment. Brand building was essential during this time; the company's ad campaign focused on the use of batteries in toys, and the "copper-top" image it created would be very successful in promoting the "long life" of Duracell batteries.

The battery was essentially an undifferentiated product, and niches in the market were primarily established through advertising. To a certain extent, before the 1980s, the technology included transistor batteries and photo and watch batteries. But with the advent of the 1980s, however, Duracell and competitor Eveready began to primarily sell general purpose batteries where image was the only means to promote differentiation. Furthermore, the decade would see a shift in electronic technology. Duracell would have to adapt to the "cellular age," adjusting its products to meet the demand for smaller and smaller cells.

High Voltage Deals: 197890

P.R. Mallory was bought by Dart Industries in 1978, becoming Duracell Inc. and kicking off what would be a tumultuous two decades of mergers and acquisitions. Many deals transpired in the 1980s, including one of the largest leveraged buyouts in history.

The 1978 takeover was launched by Dart CEO and President C. Robert Kidder, who had come to Dart from Ford. Mallory fought the takeover but eventually settled on Dart's offer of $46 per share, making the total acquisition worth $215 million. At the time, Mallory was being hit hard by competition from Energizer and Panasonic. Kidder had joined Dart as vice-president of Planning and Development and made the recommendation that Dart acquire Mallory in order to add more consumer business to Dart. After gaining control over Mallory, Dart divested several of Mallory's subsidiaries but kept and promoted Duracell.

Shortly thereafter, Kidder joined Duracell as a vice-president based in Europe, where company growth was slower. Within one year, Kidder was promoted by Chairman Pete Viele to vice-president of sales and marketing for Duracell U.S.A. Kidder would be credited with the forward-looking strategy of creating the "cordless Duracell home" of cellular phones and pocket computers and, most importantly, recognizing the need to capture this market. This market shift pointed to the unique, and perennial, technological parameters of a profitable battery businesscompanies could not just invent new battery products without an established application for their use. Thus, Duracell's success would be highly dependent on energy technologies, especially in the 1980s and 1990s, built into cellular telephones, camcorders, pocket computers, and other innovations.

By 1980 the company was again on the market, this time as part of a deal between Kraft Inc. and Dart. Kraft, which was owned by Phillip Morris at the time, merged with Dart, owner of Duracell. This marriage would last until 1986, when Dart and Kraft split, with Kraft keeping Duracell.

The battery business, meanwhile, kept with its long-held tradition of introducing value-added features. Duracell began placing "freshness dating" on alkaline battery packaging in 1987the first consumer battery producer to do so.

In 1988, Duracell was taken over by the investment banking firm of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (KKR) in what would be one of the largest leveraged buyouts of the 1980s. The central players, Jerome Kohlberg, Jr., Henry R. Kravis, and George R. Roberts, raised $62 million to buy out 35 companies between 1976 and 1989, including Duracell. The purchase price for Duracell was $1.9 billion in 1988. Kidder and the management team that organized the buyout from Kraft became 30 percent owners, Kidder was named president and CEO of Duracell, and the new Kidder team devised a particular marketing and restructuring strategy for the newly independent firm.

At the time, the KKR buyout was viewed as very successful in that, compared to other LBOs, there were no assets sold and no large layoffs. Increased research and development spending, prudent debt management, and cost-cutting measures led to an increased market position for the KKR-controlled Duracell. The buyout was hailed by some as KKR's most successful LBO. Of course Duracell also benefited from the increase in battery demand in the United States as well. Duracell and its major rival, Eveready, together controlled 75 percent of the $3 billion a year market. Another key factor in the success of the LBO was the fact that most of the growth of the business had shifted to long-lasting alkalines (from zinc batteries) so that alkalines accounted for 80 percent of Duracell's revenues in 1989.

In addition, the new marketing strategy for the streamlined company emphasized marketing the Duracell brand around the world, including such new products as Lithium Manganese Dioxide batteries and the Copper Top Tester, a package that allowed consumers to test the power of batteries. These marketing commitments were part of the buyout agreement. The commitment to the fierce mass marketing campaign paid dividends as Duracell distribution became vast. "We're in mass merchandising, food, drug, jewelry, and hardware stores, catalogue showrooms, 7-Elevens, and the Price Club, to name a few," said Kidder.

Company Perspectives:

Through the Duracell Technology Center, comprised of scientists and engineers from around the globe, the company continues to invest in ways to enhance the performance of its alkaline and specialty batteries.

From its long history of innovation and its focus on best serving the needs of the consumer, Duracell continues to set the standard for portable power.

The LBO firm KKR had a reputation for piling on debt as part of its takeovers, and the future of Duracell was uncertain in spite of its strong marketing position. To maintain a healthy cash flow, and as part of the takeover agreement, they sold two plants. Further, shortly after the buyout, KKR took Duracell public in May 1989, and the share values rose from $15 to $20 in the first hour of trading. KKR made a $1.1 billion paper profit, and Kidder made a handsome paper profit as well. KKR still controlled 61 percent of the company's stock while institutions held some 36 percent. Operating profits in the second quarter of 1990 rose 13 percent over the previous year to $194 million.

Back in the battery market, Duracell was closing the gap on market leader Eveready Battery; Eveready held 60 percent of sales in 1986, but by 1989 Eveready's share had fallen to 42 percent and Duracell made a significant gain, to a 36 percent share. Duracell challenged Germany's Varta internationally and in 1988 captured almost half of Europe's alkaline market, despite aggressive advertising by European battery makers, who spent $25 million on advertising that year.

As part of its advertising strategy, Duracell hired the high-profile advertising agency Ogilvy & Mather to promote its new battery tester product. Whereas previous Duracell ads focused on the toy market, these television spots showed people, for example, at a bridal shower, unable to capture the event on film or operate any appliances because their batteries were dead. Of course, had they purchased the Duracell's Tester, they would have known beforehand that the batteries were dead. Promoted as "another Tester-monial," the spots used nonactors in everyday situations where batteries are essential. The spots were very successful.

Established As Power Player: 199195

Each year, as part of its marketing strategy, Duracell's higher spending on advertising continued to pay off. Worldwide sales in 1991 were close to $1.5 billion and netted a 43 percent share of the U.S. alkaline market. As of the early 1990s, Duracell was outsold in the U.S. market only by Ralston Purina and was challenged in Europe only by Varta, which is Europe's one major rival to the North American heavyweights.

As Duracell moved into 1993, the unbridled growth of the modern "cellular society"telephones, computers, compact disc players, and power toolsbrought double-digit growth to the battery industry and to Duracell. The consumer battery market had become one of small batteries with more power than ever, with narrow, smaller penlite-type and mini-penlites taking over two-thirds of the market, squeezing out the traditional C and D battery lines.

Duracell was also a leader in the new alkaline manganese battery, whose longer lifeup to six times that of zinc carbonmore than compensated for its higher price. Zinc-chloride batteries seemed to be ready to take over the market in the early 1980s but were overcome by the longer-lasting, lower-cost alkaline cell.

As the market for zinc and alkaline cells began to reach its limits in a global market, new challenges faced Duracell in its battle with the largest players in the battery industry. According to International Management in 1993, this intense struggle showed no sign of slowing down. One issue that surfaced was recyclability, notably in Europe, adding another dimension to the competitive struggle. The throwaway image of nonrechargeable batteries provoked concern about the environment, with the European Commission, in 1989, giving battery makers a choice: eliminate dangerous metals (notably cadmium and mercury) or collect batteries for recycling. Although some companies, such as Varta, moved to make batteries mercury-free, some argued that the costs associated with recycling outweighed the environmental benefits. In some cases, companies cooperated to deflect costs; Europile, the consumer battery makers association, included Duracell, and Duracell's Richard Leveton chaired the Europile environment committee.

The rechargeable market was also revived, with companies trying to balance the higher costs of new technology with the potential gains from new markets. Duracell, for example, began supplying nickel-metal hydride cell phone batteries to Fujitsu and launched a consumer version of the same product in the early 1990s. Although Duracell had cooperated with other industry leaders on such issues as recyclability and the environment, intensified competition continued in the core markets. In one effort to reap the benefits of new product development, Duracell entered into a joint research project with competitor Varta (Germany) and Toshiba. The company hoped to expand into new products and new geographical markets, especially in Asia. In any case, the ever present competitive warfare of the industry exerted continuing pressure on Duracell to innovate and cut costs. As International Management summed up the situation in its April 1993 issue: "The struggle for power shows no sign of running down."

Duracell International Inc., parent company of Duracell Inc., was firmly established as a power player in the early 1990s. The company controlled 79 percent of the U.S. consumer battery market. Its only real competitor was Eveready, which, with Duracell, combined for about 80 percent of the alkaline battery market worldwide. Although best known for its batteries, Duracell produced a variety of electrical components used by manufacturers of consumer durables and many related products bought by industry, various government agencies, and consumers.

Key Dates:

1935:
P.R. Mallory founds Duracell's predecessor company.
1944:
Inventor Samuel Ruben joins forces with Mallory, kicks off battery business.
1966:
Earnings per share hit $2.34 before falling off with recession related drop in consumer spending.
1972:
Sales of electrical and electronic items to industry are boosted.
1978:
P.R. Mallory is acquired by Dart Industries.
1980:
Dart merges with Kraft Inc.
1986:
Kraft retains Duracell portion of business after split with Dart.
1988:
Kohlberg Kravis Roberts takes over Duracell during leveraged buyout spree.
1989:
Duracell goes public.
1996:
The Gillette Company acquires Duracell.
2005:
Procter & Gamble is set to buy Gillette.

During 1994, Duracell moved to strengthen its international presence: establishing in India a joint venture to make and market alkaline batteries; spending in China $70 million to build factories to manufacture alkaline batteries; and striking an alliance with Toshiba Battery Co. of Japan and Varta Batterie of Germany to manufacture rechargeable batteries in the United States. In 1996, Duracell acquired Eveready South Africa. But on the European front, the company was planning a restructuring, in response to the economic slowdown which had limited growth for several years.

Sharp New Owner: 19962005

Successful international marketer Gillette entered into its biggest deal to date when it acquired Duracell in 1996 for more than $7 billion. Batteries immediately became its second leading product line, behind razors and blades. Gillette planned to funnel Duracell's products through its marketing channel which spanned more than 200 countries across the globe. According to Fortune, Gillette had been looking for a strong addition to its consumer products business during the first half of the 1990s. Gillette also sold Braun electrical appliances; Right Guard and Soft & Dri personal care products; Parker, Paper Mate, and Waterman pens; and Oral-B toothbrushes. All were strong products and Duracell appeared a good match, garnering fiscal 1996 sales of $2.3 billion, with room to grow globally. Gillette's 1995 revenues were $6.8 billion.

The Duracell Ultra was introduced in early 1998, and the company turned its attention to promoting that enhanced performance, higher priced line. Duracell revenue growth, which had averaged about 10 percent annually from 1995 to 1997, dropped off in 1998 and 1999, falling to 4 percent and 6 percent, respectively. Gillette had envisioned a world in which better, more expensive batteries would be embraced as had their shaving innovations. "Consumers [globally] are not trading up to the alkaline batteries as much as I expected," Gillette stock analyst Tony Vento of Edward Jones, told the Boston Globe in April 2000. "I think a lot of that is the result of these economic difficulties around the world in the last few years."

While Duracell's Ultra sales did grow in 1999, it was at the expense of their regular alkaline sales, resulting in a net loss of overall market share. Moreover, Duracell, unlike Gillette, had a major competitor pumping out product to match its innovations. Energizer had introduced its own high-end battery to go up against Ultra for use in "high-drain" electronic products. Duracell's cause was not helped much either when Consumer Reports concluded the added cost of Ultra batteries outweighed performance benefits.

In 2000, Duracell brought in nearly 30 percent of overall Gillette sales but the battery maker's operating profits had fallen off by 28 percent. The departure of Gillette's top executive in the fall of 2000 was due in part to Duracell's performance, according to the Boston Globe. For 2001, Gillette planned the relaunch of its mid-priced Copper Top line, complete with improved performance, new packaging, and the return of TV ads.

Other factors contributed to Duracell's woes in 2000. During 1999 batteries flew off the shelves, driven by the much publicized possibility of power blackouts related to Y2K computer glitches. In 2000 those batteries by and large were still stockpiled in the homes of consumers. During the year, competitors turned to discounting to drive up sales and gain market share.

Promotional spending continued into 2002. Duracell sponsored the World Cup tournament and launched the "Trusted Everywhere" campaign. The company also implemented price cuts in the light of intensified competition. Despite these tactics, Duracell's market share dropped to 45 percent in 2003. Energizer and value-priced Rayovac were beneficiaries.

The unprecedented hurricane season aided Duracell in 2004, as Floridians and others in the Southeast suffered with wave after wave of damaging storms. Demand for digital electronic products improved the outlook of batteries introduced for that segment of the market. The disposable Duracell CP 1 primary prismatic battery, for example, was integral to some new digital cameras. "With devices getting smaller and smaller it becomes harder for manufacturers to incorporate disposable and rechargeable power into digital cameras," Kara Salzillo, manager of grand communications, told Chain Drug Review in early January 2005. "With a flat shape and high-power chemistry our new battery fills a void in the market, so we are very optimistic about its possibilities."

In late January 2005, Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) announced plans to buy Gillette. The combined businesses would create a company with more than $60 billion in annual revenue. The sale was expected to be completed in the fall of 2005. "For Gillette, P&G's broad reach will help it sell more razors and batteries in huge developing markets like China," Jessica Wohl wrote for Reuters.

Principal Competitors

Energizer Holdings, Inc.; Varta Aktiengesellschaft; Beghelli S.p.A.; Exide Technologies.

Further Reading

"Alkaline: Duracell, Eveready Joust with AA Upgrades," Battery & EV Technology, February 2000.

Boorstin, Julia, "Razor Wars," Fortune, March 3, 2003, p. 156.

Bulkeley, William M., "Duracell Pact Gives Gillette an Added Source of Power," Wall Street Journal, September 13, 1996, pp. A3, A4.

"Duracell Bolsters Line, Raises Marketing Support," Chain Drug Review, July 30, 2001, p. 41.

"Duracell Uses Packaging to Sell Lights," Packaging, December 1983.

Erickson, Julie Liesse, "Perrin Leads Duracell's Charge," Advertising Age, June 26, 1989.

Farnham, Alan, "What's Sparking Duracell?," Fortune, July 16, 1990.

Grant, Linda, "Gillette Knows Shavingand How to Turn Out Hot New Products," Fortune, October 14, 1996, pp. 20708, 210.

Huhn, Mary, "Batteries and Boxer KO the Competition," AdWeek, November 12, 1990.

"Hurricanes, Rechargeable Batteries Big News in 2004," Chain Drug Review, January 3, 2005.

Lazo, Shirley A., "Speaking of Dividends," Barron's, March 1, 1993.

Levine, Bernard, "Dart-Mallory Accord Seen Mirroring Cap Firms' Woes," Electronic News, December 11, 1978.

"Mallory's Profits Sparkle," Financial World, November 7, 1973.

Maremont, Mark, "How Gillette Wowed Wall Street: It Structured the Duracell Buy to Juice Up Earnings Immediately," Business Week, September 30, 1996, pp. 3637.

Mendelson, Seth, "Duracell Recharges Its Batteries," Grocery Headquarters, June 2004.

Neff, Jeff, "Duracell Market Share Sags in Spite of Turnaround Effort," Advertising Age, January 5, 2004, p. 3.

Oliver, Joyce Anne, "Duracell CEO Charged Up About His Company," Marketing News, November 11, 1991.

Reidy, Chris, "Gillette Prepares Massive Marketing Campaign for Battery Division," Boston Globe, March 29, 2001.

Shipman, Alan, "Power Struggle: The World's Battery Makers Are Fighting Over an Expanding Market As Consumer Demand and Environmental Concerns Put the Combatants on Their Mettle," International Management, April 1993.

Sloan, Allan, "Battle of the Titans," Newsweek, December 9, 1996, p. 51.

Symonds, William C., "Duracell's Bunny Buster?" Business Week, March 2, 1998.

Syre, Steven, and Charles Stein, "The Boston Globe Capital Column," Boston Globe, April 26, 2000.

Tilsner, Julie, "Duracell Looks Abroad for More Juice," Business Week, December 21, 1992.

Wohl, Jessica, "P&G to Buy Gillette for $55.8 Billion," Reuters, January 28, 2005.

John A. Sarich

update: Kathleen Peippo

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Duracell International Inc.." International Directory of Company Histories. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Duracell International Inc.." International Directory of Company Histories. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 22, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/duracell-international-inc

"Duracell International Inc.." International Directory of Company Histories. . Retrieved October 22, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/duracell-international-inc

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Duracell International Inc.

Duracell International Inc.

Berkshire Industrial Park
Bethel, Connecticut 06801
U.S.A.
(203) 796-4000 or (800) 243-9540
Fax: (203) 778-9016

Public Company
Incorporated: 1935 as P.R. Mallory & Company
Employees: 7,900
Sales: $1.5 billion
Stock Exchanges: New York
SICs: 3691 Storage Batteries

Duracell International Inc. is the worlds largest manufacturer and marketer of alkaline batteries. The parent company of the United States-based Duracell Inc., Duracell International markets the brand Duracell, under the same name, around the world and controls 79 percent of the U.S. consumer battery market. Its only real competitor is Eveready, which, with Duracell, combines for about 80 percent of the alkaline battery market worldwide. Known as P.R. Mallory for decades after its founding in 1935, the companys name was changed in 1978 when it was acquired by Dart Industries. Since that time, Duracell has been involved in numerous acquisitions and mergers, including one of the largest leveraged buyouts (LBOs) of the 1980s. Best known for batteries, Duracell also makes a variety of electrical and electronic components used by manufacturers of consumer durables and many related products bought by industry, various government agencies, and consumers.

P.R. Mallory originated the Duracell brandname in 1935. The battery component of Mallorys business grew steadily throughout the post-World War II period, reflecting the booming economy and the rapidly growing market for consumer durables and electronic consumer goods, some of which would require battery power. Later, in the 1980s, as electronic technology shifted to the cellular age, Duracell would adapt its products accordingly, producing smaller cells to meet this now booming technology.

Although sales were growing, the companys business also closely tracked the business cycle because sales of many of its products were at the mercy of consumer buying poweritself a function of wages and earnings. For example, from the early 1960s into the mid-1970s sales grew strongly (the average annual rate was five percent from 1963 to 1972); however, company profits reflected the recession of the mid- and late-1960s, with earnings per share hitting a peak of $2.34 in 1966 before falling sharply with the recession. With the beginning of the deep recession in mid-1973, company earnings began to fall sharply.

Mallorys profit margins were respectable in that price-competitive climate, but were under constant pressure. The boom of 1972 allowed the firm to boost sales of electrical and electronic items to industry, complementing consumer sales. Specifically, makers of appliances bought Mallory components to satisfy the growing retail demand for household items, such as laundry units, electric and gas ranges, and dishwashers, among other consumer durables. The company saw this expansion of consumer durables, in particular, as a basis for long-term growth.

The strong growth in consumer durables generated an expanding volume of sales and, thus, economies of scale in production, meaning lower unit costs, higher profit margins, and some insulation from price wars. Therefore, even as the U.S. economy left the fast-growth path of the 1960s and Mallorys margins fell, it was able to weather the downslide of demand that accompanied the recession of 1973. The companys debt load was small, and, although most of its market was domestic, it was well positioned to take on the foreign firms using their low production costs to make headway into the U.S. market in the late 1970s.

In 1977, Fortune magazine ranked Mallory as the 507th largest company, with $323 million in sales and profits of $10 million (which put it in the 170th position). Most of the companys sales were to individual consumers and to makers of consumer durables. Industry accounted for the rest of Duracells sales, mostly electrical contacts, welding products, and special metals for the automotive, power generating, aerospace, and communications industries. Mallory was also a supplier of batteries of all sizes to the military, and its Duracell batteries were used in everything from hearing aids to military communications equipment. Brand building was essential during this time; the companys ad campaign focused on the use of batteries in toys, and the copper-top image it created would be very successful in promoting the long life of Duracell batteries.

The battery is essentially an undifferentiated product, and niches in the market were primarily established through advertising. To a certain extent, before the 1980s, the technology included transistor batteries and photo and watch batteries. Since the early 1980s, however, Duracell and Eveready have been primarily selling general purpose batteries where image is the only means to promote differentiation.

The company was bought by Dart Industries in 1978, becoming Duracell Inc. and kicking off what would be a tumultuous two decades of mergers and acquisitions. Many deals transpired in the 1980s, including one of the largest leveraged buyouts in history.

The 1978 takeover was launched by Dart CEO and president C. Robert Kidder, who had come to Dart from Ford. Mallory fought the takeover but eventually settled on Darts offer of $46 per share, making the total acquisition worth $215 million. At the time, Mallory was being hit hard by competition from Energizer and Panasonic. Kidder had joined Dart as vice-president of Planning and Development and made the recommendation that Dart acquire Mallory in order to add more consumer business to Dart. After gaining control over Mallory, Dart divested several of Mallorys subsidiaries but kept and promoted Duracell.

Shortly thereafter, Kidder joined Duracell as a vice-president based in Europe, where company growth was slower. Within one year, Kidder was promoted by Chairman Pete Viele to vice-president of sales and marketing for Duracell U.S.A. Kidder would be credited with the forward-looking strategy of creating the cordless Duracell home of cellular phones and pocket computers and, most importantly, recognizing the need to capture this market. This market shift points to the unique, and perennial, technological parameters of a profitable battery businesscompanies cant just invent new battery products without an established application for their use. Thus, Duracells success has been highly dependent on energy technologies, especially in the 1980s and 1990s, built into cellular telephones, camcorders, pocket computers, and other innovations.

By 1980 the company was again on the market, this time as part of a deal between Kraft Inc. and Dart. Kraft, which was owned by Phillip Morris at the time, merged with Dart, owner of Duracell. This marriage would last until 1986, when Dart and Kraft split, with Kraft keeping Duracell.

Two years later Duracell was taken over by the investment banking firm of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (KKR) in what would be one of the largest leveraged buyouts of the 1980s. The central players, Jerome Kohlberg Jr., Henry R. Kravis, and George R. Roberts, raised $62 million to buy out 35 companies between 1976 and 1989, including Duracell. The purchase price for Duracell was $1.9 billion in 1988. Kidder and the management team that organized the buyout from Kraft became 30 percent owners, Kidder was named president and CEO of Duracell, Inc., and the new Kidder team devised a particular marketing and restructuring strategy for the newly independent firm.

At the time, the KKR buyout was viewed as very successful in that, compared to other LBOs, there were no assets sold and no large layoffs. Increased research and development spending, prudent debt management, and cost cutting measures led to an increased market position for the KKR-controlled Duracell. The buyout was hailed by some as KKRs most successful LBO. Of course Duracell also benefited from the increase in battery demand in the United States as well. Duracell and its major rival, Eveready, together controlled 75 percent of the $3 billion a year market. Another key factor in the success of the LBO was the fact that most of the growth of the business had shifted to long-lasting alkalines (from zinc batteries) so that alkalines accounted for 80 percent of Duracells revenues in 1989.

In addition, the new marketing strategy for the streamlined company emphasized marketing the Duracell brand around the world, including such new products as Lithium Manganese Dioxide batteries and the Copper Top Tester, a package that allowed consumers to test the power of batteries. These marketing commitments were part of the buyout agreement. The commitment to the fierce mass marketing campaign paid dividends as Duracell distribution became vastWere in mass merchandising, food, drug, jewelry, and hardware stores, catalogue showrooms, 7-Elevens, and the Price Club, to name a few, said Kidder.

The LBO firm KKR had a reputation for piling on debt as part of its takeovers, and the future of Duracell was uncertain in spite of its strong marketing position. To maintain a healthy cash flow, and as part of the takeover agreement, they sold two plants. Further, shortly after the buyout, KKR took Duracell public in May 1989, and the share values rose from $15 to $20 in the first hour of trading. KKR made a $1.1 billion paper profit, and Kidder made a handsome paper profit as well. KKR still controlled 61 percent of the companys stock while institutions held some 36 percent. Operating profits in the second quarter of 1990 rose 13 percent over the previous year to $194 million.

Back in the battery market, Duracell was closing the gap on market leader Eveready Battery; Eveready held 60 percent of sales in 1986, but by 1989 Evereadys share had fallen to 42 percent and Duracell made a significant gain, to a 36 percent share. Duracell challenged Germanys Varta internationally and in 1988 captured almost half of Europes alkaline market, despite aggressive advertising by European battery makers, who spent $25 million on advertising that year.

As part of its advertising strategy, Duracell hired the high-profile advertising agency Ogilvy & Mather to promote its new battery tester product. Whereas previous Duracell ads focused on the toy market, these television spots showed people, for example, at a bridal shower, unable to capture the event on film or operate any appliances because their batteries were dead. Of course, had they purchased the Duracells Tester, they would have known beforehand that the batteries were dead. Promoted as another Tester-monial, the spots used nonactors in everyday situations where batteries are essential. The spots were very successful.

Each year, as part of its marketing strategy, Duracells higher spending on advertising has continued to pay off. Worldwide sales in 1991 were close to $1.5 billion and netted a 43 percent share of the U.S. alkaline market. As of the early 1990s, Dura-cell was outsold in the U.S. market only by Ralston Purina and was challenged in Europe only by Varta, which is Europes one major rival to the North American heavyweights.

As Duracell moved into 1993, the unbridled growth of the modern cellular societytelephones, computers, compact disc players, and power toolsbrought double-digit growth to the battery industry and to Duracell. Today the consumer battery market is one of small batteries with more power than ever, with narrow, smaller penlite-type and mini-penlites taking over two-thirds of the market, squeezing out the traditional C and D battery lines. Duracell is also a leader in the new alkaline manganese battery, whose longer lifeup to six times that of zinc carbonmore than compensates for its higher price. Zinc-chloride batteries seemed to be ready to take over the market in the early 1980s but were overcome by the longer-lasting, lower-cost alkaline cell.

As the market for zinc and alkaline cells began to reach its limits in a global market, new challenges faced Duracell in its battle with the largest players in the battery industry. According to International Management in 1993, this intense struggle showed no sign of slowing down. One issue that surfaced is recyclability, notably in Europe, adding another dimension to the competitive struggle. For example, the throwaway image of nonrechargeable batteries has provoked concern about the environment, with the European Commission, in 1989, giving battery makers a choiceeliminate dangerous metals (notably cadmium and mercury) or collect batteries for recycling. Although some companies, such as Varta, moved to make batteries mercury-free, some made the case that the costs associated with recycling outweighed the environmental benefits. In some cases, companies have cooperated to deflect costsEuropile, the consumer battery makers association, includes Duracell, and Duracells Richard Leveton chairs the Europile environment committee.

The rechargeable market was also revived, with companies trying to balance the higher costs of new technology with the potential gains from new markets. Duracell, for example, began supplying nickel-metal hydride cell phone batteries to Fujitsu and launched a consumer version of the same product in the early 1990s. Although Duracell has cooperated with other industry leaders on such issues as recyclability and the environment, intensified competition continued in the core markets. In one effort to reap the benefits of new product development, Duracell entered into a joint research project with competitor Varta (Germany) and Toshiba. The company hoped to expand into new products and new geographical markets, especially in Asia. In any case, the ever-present competitive warfare of the industry exerts continuing pressure on Duracell to innovate and cut costs. As International Management summed up in its April 1993 issue: The struggle for power shows no sign of running down.

Principal Subsidiaries

Duracell Canada Inc.; Duraname Corp. USA; Duracell Danmark A/S (Denmark); Duracell Finland OY; Duracell Holdings (UK) Limited; Duracell Overseas Trading Limited (United Kingdom); Duracell SARL (France); Duracell Batteries Limited (United Kingdom); Duracell Italia Holdings SpA (Italy); Pile Superpila SRL (Italy); Tudor Hellensens Svenska AB (Sweden); Duracell SpA (Italy); Duracell Technologies A.G. (Switzerland); E.P.C.I. SA (Switzerland); NV Dura-cell Belgium SA (Belgium); NV Duracell Batteries SA (Belgium); Duracell Batteries Sucursal en España (Spain); NV Duracell Benelux SA (Belgium); Duracell Inc.; Duracell Argentina SA; Duracell Australia Pty. Ltd.; Duracell International GmbH (Austria); Duracell do Brazil Industria E Comercia Ltda. (Brazil); Duracell Chile Sociedad Comercio Ltda. (Chile); Duracell Colombia Ltda.; Daimon-Duracell Gmbh (Germany); Duracell Asia Ltd. (Hong Kong); Duracell International Trading KFT (Hungary); Duracell Batery Japan Ltd.; Duracell SA de CV (Mexico); Duracell Nederland BV (Netherlands); Dura-cell New Zealand Ltd.; Duracell Norge A/S (Norway); Daimon-Duracell (Pilhas) Ltda. (Portugal); Duracell Caribbean, Inc. (Puerto Rico); Duracell (SEA) Pte. Ltd. (Singapore); Duracell Svenska AB (Sweden); Duracell-Hellesens Inc. (Switzerland); Duracell ven CA (Venezuela).

Further Reading

Duracell Uses Packaging to Sell Lights, Packaging, December 1983.

Erickson, Julie Liesse, Perrin Leads Duracells Charge, Advertising Age, June 26, 1989.

Farnham, Alan, Whats Sparking Duracell? Fortune, July 16, 1990.

Huhn, Mary, Batteries and Boxer KO the Competition, AdWeek, November 12, 1990.

Lazo, Shirley A., Speaking of Dividends, Barrons, March 1, 1993.

Levine, Bernard, Dart-Mallory Accord Seen Mirroring Cap Firms Woes, Electronic News, December 11, 1978.

Mallorys Profits Sparkle, Financial World, November 7, 1973.

Oliver, Joyce Anne, Duracell CEO Charged Up About His Company, Marketing News, November 11, 1991.

Shipman, Alan, Power Struggle: The Worlds Battery Makers Are Fighting Over an Expanding Market as Consumer Demand and Environmental Concerns Put the Combatants on Their Mettle, International Management, April 1993.

Tilsner, Julie, Duracell Looks Abroad for More Juice, Business Week, December 21, 1992.

John A. Sarich

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Duracell International Inc.." International Directory of Company Histories. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Duracell International Inc.." International Directory of Company Histories. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 22, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/duracell-international-inc-0

"Duracell International Inc.." International Directory of Company Histories. . Retrieved October 22, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/duracell-international-inc-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Duracell International Inc.

Duracell International Inc.

founded: 1935



Contact Information:

headquarters: berkshire corporate pk. bethel, ct 06801 phone: (203)796-4000 fax: (203)796-4187 url: http://www.duracellusa.com

OVERVIEW

Duracell is the leader in the battery market, continuing to dominate its chief competitor, Eveready—the maker of Energizer batteries. The company, famous for its "Copper Top" products with their distinctive gold-and-black coloring, manufactures batteries for ordinary consumer use, as well as ones made especially for cameras, hearing aids, and other items. In 1997 Duracell had sales of $2.5 billion worldwide, and its stocks performed well. The company was purchased by Gillette in early 1997 for $7.0 billion. This move was seen by many analysts as an "ideal marriage" that would boost the performance of both companies. With approximately 70 percent of Gillette's sales coming from overseas, compared to about 50 percent for Duracell, the merger was expected to make Duracell even more of a presence in world markets.



COMPANY FINANCES

From 1992 to 1997 Duracell recorded an annual average growth rate in profits of 12.2 percent, rising from $296 million in 1992 to $526 million in 1997. Revenues performed almost as well, rising at an average annual rate of 9.3 percent over the same period, from $1.6 billion in 1992 to $2.5 billion in 1997. Total sales for parent company Gillette amounted to $10.1 billion in 1997. The Duracell acquisition played a major role in boosting Gillette's quarterly dividends which, as of June 1998, stood at 12.75 cents per common share, representing a 19-percent increase from the previous rate of 10.75 cents and establishing a new annual rate of 51 cents per share, compared with the former rate of 43 cents.

ANALYSTS' OPINIONS

When Gillette announced its plans to acquire Duracell, Wall Street reacted positively. According to Business Week, the effect of the announcement was an increase in the value of both companies' stock. Even before the buyout, Fortune had judged Duracell (along with Gillette) a company with outstanding growth prospects in the global market. Following the merger, sales and profits for both companies jumped. Though some analysts felt that Gillette stocks were overpriced, others were betting that Gillette would continue to perform above expectations now that Duracell was in the fold. Goldman Sachs Inc., for example, added Gillette to its recommended list, while PNC Institutional Investments Inc. raised its rating from "market perform" to "outperform."



HISTORY

In 1935 Philip Rogers Mallory established P.R. Mallory & Co., which produced a number of items for industry, including batteries. One of his leading technicians was Samuel Ruben. The two are generally credited as the minds behind Duracell as a business, and a product. The company entered the consumer products market in 1947 with the production of a hearing-aid battery. The trademark name Duracell did not appear until 1964. In 1971 the company became the first to sell alkaline cell batteries to consumers, beginning with a 9-volt model. (An alkaline battery has less tendency to corrode than an ordinary zinc battery, giving it a longer life.)

In 1978 P.R. Mallory became Duracell Inc., and was purchased by Dart Industries. Two years later, food marketing giant Kraft merged with Dart. When the two split in 1986, Kraft took Duracell with it. The changes in Duracell's ownership, however, were not over. In 1988 Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (KKR), famous for their leveraged buyouts, or LBOs, purchased the corporation. Duracell was clearly on the rise: the $1.9 billion paid by KKR (one of the biggest LBOs in Wall Street history) was more than nine times what Dart had paid for it only a decade earlier.

In 1991 KKR took the company public. With new products introduced, as well as a strong marketing campaign, Duracell's fortunes grew—from $1.25 billion in sales in 1989 to $2.08 billion in 1995. In the latter year, KKR sold a large portion of its shares, reducing its ownership to one-third. Then, on September 12, 1996, the Gillette Company announced plans to purchase Duracell for $7.00 billion, a transaction completed in early 1997.

The merger proved a boon to both companies, with the combination of the two marketing and distribution organizations helping boost sales of both batteries and razor blades. "You frequently see the Sensor Excel (razor) right next to the Duracell batteries at the checkout counter," said analyst Tony Vento, in a Business Wire article. "The merchandising possibilities are tremendous."




STRATEGY

As a maker of consumer products, Duracell has naturally pursued a strategy of widespread exposure to the public through advertising, particularly on television. In 1974 it became the first consumer battery advertised on television. In the mid-1990s Duracell launched a clever marketing campaign, with television commercials featuring the Copper Top family. They resembled the typical family of a television sitcom, except that they all happened to be battery-powered, which resulted in some predictably funny situations. The company sent out buses resembling enormous batteries in the summer of 1996, to promote its then-newly introduced PowerCheck line.

Equally unsurprising, given its product and its consumer-driven market, is Duracell's emphasis on product innovation. Such innovation is itself almost another form of marketing. It involves a strategy of "creating" a need in the consumer, then filling it. Hence the introduction of what parent company Gillette calls "consumer-perceptible advantages" such as freshness dating, or the visible gauge on the PowerCheck batteries. Duracell pioneered the development of environmentally friendly alkaline batteries in 1992. In 1996, the company announced plans to extend its research into new alkaline technologies that could revolutionize the battery by extending its capabilities.




INFLUENCES

In the late 1990s, the two leading influences on Duracell were its famous rivalry with Eveready, makers of Energizer, and its purchase by Gillette. As successful as Duracell's marketing campaign with the Copper Top family was, the Copper Tops were hardly a match for the sometimes bitingly satirical Energizer Bunny ads. Still, Dura-cell remained ahead in this competition, with a 42-percent market share of the worldwide battery market and 45 percent of the U.S. market, as opposed to 24 percent for Energizer and Eveready combined. According to Financial World, Duracell was worth more as a brand than its competitor, due to its lowered costs, themselves a product of its overseas strategy. If anything, Duracell's competition with Energizer has helped to keep the company's leadership on its toes, always forging ahead into new markets.

Duracell's public relationship with Gillette began in September 1996, when the latter announced plans to purchase the battery maker. Although Gillette refers to the buyout as a "merger," it is clear which company has the upper hand. Both entities were pursuing an aggressive overseas growth strategy even before the sale of Dura-cell. These common goals played a part in Gillette's decision to purchase the smaller company. As USA Today pointed out, Gillette offered Duracell an opportunity to widen the scope of its overseas marketing, and Duracell, in turn, gave Gillette a broadened product line.




CURRENT TRENDS

A leading trend with Duracell as an independent company, and one which continued following its purchase by Gillette, was overseas expansion. In its 1996 annual report, Gillette marked this as an outstanding trend at Duracell, citing its establishment of operations in Brazil, China, and eastern Europe. The establishment of facilities in China and India, and acquisitions of battery makers in South Africa and South Korea, were moves considered particularly promising. China and India, which together contain half the world's population, consume some 5 billion household batteries—one-quarter of the global total—per year.

Another trend that will continue to have a significant impact on the Duracell product line is the proliferation of new electronic items that require more and different types of batteries. Among appliances that have already led to growth for Duracell are digital pagers, an increasingly popular item in the 1990s, as well as cellular phones and portable CD players.

FAST FACTS: About Duracell International Inc.


Ownership: Duracell is a publicly owned company traded on the New York Stock Exchange.

Ticker symbol: DUR

Officers: Edward F. DeGraan, Exec. VP; Edward A. Battocchio, Sr. VP, Manufacturing & Technical; Robert C. Giacolone, Sr. VP, Management; Ronald V. Waters, VP, Finance

Employees: 7,900

Principal Subsidiary Companies: Duracell is a subsidiary of the Gillette Company.

Chief Competitors: Duracell's largest competitor is Eveready, a Ralston Purina subsidiary and maker of Energizer batteries. Other competitors include: Matsushita; Rayovac; Sanyo; Toshiba; and Utralite Batteries.




PRODUCTS

Duracell makes alkaline batteries in several major sizes, including AAA, AA, C, and D. AA is the largest and most popular category. In 1996 the company introduced Duracell PowerCheck AA Batteries, which include a heat-sensitive strip that shows how much energy is remaining in the battery. In its 1996 annual report, Gillette announced plans to introduce similar AAA, C, and D batteries in 1997. According to Forbes, the company planned to introduce a standard portable computer battery into a market swelled with some 200 different varieties. The response from computer manufacturers, however, was not strong. In 1998 the company introduced DURACELL Ultra, the first alkaline battery specifically designed for "high-drain" devices.

Besides alkaline batteries, the company produces photo batteries, alkaline lantern batteries, watch batteries, special application batteries, hearing aid batteries, and Mallory super heavy duty plus batteries.



CORPORATE CITIZENSHIP

In 1982 Duracell USA initiated the Duracell/NSTA Scholarship Competition, a nationwide program to promote science education in American schools. It was administered under the auspices of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). The company has also made enormous efforts to reduce the harmful impact of its products on the environment and to promote recycling. Steady improvements to the service life of DURACELL AE alkaline batteries have helped reduce the production of solid waste due to consumers throwing away batteries less often. The company has also promoted the use of longer-lasting zinc air batteries for hearing instruments and discontinued the sale of mercury cells in the United States.

From 1993 to 1997, Duracell's manufacturing facilities around the world reduced their generation of hazardous waste by more than 59 percent, and increased the amount of materials recycled by approximately 45 percent. The company also uses recycled material in its packaging, and is leading an international battery industry effort to develop an environmentally beneficial and economically feasible recycling process for its other batteries.



GLOBAL PRESENCE

In the five years between 1992 and 1997, Duracell spread to almost 20 countries, including some of the largest markets in the world: India, China, and Russia. Two of its most notable purchases were the South African facilities of its competitor, Eveready, and the South Korean Sun-power Company, which gave Duracell a 45-percent share in that country's battery market.

Prior to its purchase by Gillette, Duracell conducted 80 percent of its business in North America and Europe. Then, with the wide geographic spread of Gillette, makers of various manual and electric shaving instruments as well as the Oral-B toothbrush, Duracell had an opportunity to experience rapid global expansion. This was particularly true in Third World markets, where the company expected to "upgrade" consumers from lower-value zinc carbon batteries to the Duracell alkaline brand. As expected, Duracell performed exceptionally well in international markets following its acquisition by Gillette.

Duracell's regional brand names include: Superpila, Italy; Daimon, Germany; and Sunpower, South Korea. The Hellesens and Tudor lines are both sold in Scandinavia. Duracell opened factories in China in 1994, and in India in 1995. The company has subsidiaries in Canada, Denmark, Italy, France, and Belgium. It also has operations in Poland, Russia, Morocco, Turkey, and South Africa.

CHRONOLOGY: Key Dates for Duracell International Inc.


1935:

Philip Rogers Mallory establishes P.R. Mallory & Co. to produce industrial items including batteries

1947:

Mallory enters the consumer market by producing a hearing-aid battery

1964:

The trademark name Duracell appears for the first time

1971:

Mallory becomes the first company to sell alkaline cell batteries to consumers

1978:

P.R. Mallory becomes Duracell Inc. and is purchased by Dart Industries

1980:

Kraft merges with Dart

1986:

Kraft and Dart part ways and Kraft keeps Duracell

1988:

Kohlberg Kravis Roberts buys Duracell in a leveraged buyout

1991:

Duracell goes public

1997:

Gillette Company purchases Duracell




EMPLOYMENT

Duracell has pension and savings plans for its employees. When the company was bought out by Gillette, employees experienced a windfall from their stock options. Additionally, Gillette invests approximately $125 million annually in worldwide employee training and development programs.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Bibliography

capell, kerry. "at duracell, an early christmas." business week, 30 september 1996.

"duracell." hoover's online, may 1998. available at http://www.hoovers.com

"duracell corporate information," may 1998. available at http://www.duracell.com/news/.

"duracell energizes gillette." financial post, 18 september 1996.

"duracell merger pays off for gillette." financial post, 3 february 1997.

gillette company 1996 annual report. boston, ma: gillette company, 1997.

gillette company 1997 annual report. boston, ma: gillette company, 1998.

"gillette-duracell union seen as ideal marriage." financial post, 16 september 1996.

lamonica, paul. "battling batteries: why duracell and eveready are neck and neck in market share, but not in brand value." financial world, 30 january 1996.

maremont, mark. "how gillette wowed wall street." business week, 30 september 1996.

oliver, suzanne. "batteries not included." forbes, 11 march 1996.


For an annual report:

on the internet at: http://www.gillette.com/financials/gar.pdf


For additional industry research:

investigate companies by their standard industrial classification codes, also known as sics. duracell's primary sics are:

3691 storage batteries

3692 primary batteries—dry and wet

5063 electrical apparatus & equipment

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Duracell International Inc.." Company Profiles for Students. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Duracell International Inc.." Company Profiles for Students. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 22, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/economics/economics-magazines/duracell-international-inc

"Duracell International Inc.." Company Profiles for Students. . Retrieved October 22, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/economics/economics-magazines/duracell-international-inc

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.