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Mousterian of, relating to, or denoting the main culture of the Middle Palaeolithic period in Europe, between the Acheulian and Aurignacian periods (chiefly 80,000–35,000 years ago). It is associated with Neanderthal peoples and is typified by flints worked on one side only.

The name comes (in the late 19th century) from Le Moustier, a cave in SW France where objects from this culture were found.