American naturalist, bibliographer, anatomist, historian, and surgeon. Coues was an exceptional field naturalist and the leading American ornithologist of the late nineteenth century. An eloquent and prolific author, he wrote many descriptive works on North American birds and mammals and compiled bibliographies of American and British ornithology. In addition, he edited fifteen volumes of travel journals of western explorers. He served as Assistant Surgeon, U.S. Army, from 1864-81 and traveled extensively in the American West, collecting animal specimens. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1877. In 1883 he co-founded the American Ornithologists' Union, and he later (1892-5) served as its president.