Chinese Perspectives: Engineering Ethics
Chinese Perspectives: ENGINEERING ETHICS
China has age-old traditions both in the practical sciences and technology and in ethics, but few studies link the two areas of endeavor. Traditional studies were limited to morality in the practice of medicine and doctrines that promoted harmony between humans and nature. From 1978, when China opened up to the outside world and began a program of reform, scholars in China started studying engineering ethics in the contemporary sense. In China, however, scholars more often talk of science and technology ethics and seldom use the term engineering ethics. Since 1978 research on ethics in science and technology has made considerable progress, going through three stages of development: the embryonic stage, the development stage, and the stage of a deepening appreciation of the issues involved.
The Embryonic Stage
During the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976) ethics was a prohibited topic. Scholars started writing about ethics only after 1978, when China began liberalizing. First came the translation of such key works as Rachel Carson's Silent Spring (in 1979), J. D. Bernal's The Social Function of Science (in 1982), and Donella H. Meadows and colleagues' The Limits to Growth. Such specialized volumes were complemented by more general works such as the reprinting of an important anthology of classic Western texts on ethics (Zhou Fucheng 1964) together with a critical biographical study of Western ethical philosophers (Zhou Fucheng 1987). During this period, Chinese scholars focused on the moral practices of Western scientists, using them in the construction of modern science and technology in China (see Xu Shaojin 1995).
Also about this time scholars began studying ethical issues related to specific technologies. One example is interest in environmental problems and ecological ethics, stimulated by the Carson and Meadows translations. As a forum for issues in the field of medical ethics, such as those involving test-tube babies and organ transplants, two new journals were created during the 1980s: Medicine and Philosophy (on the philosophy of medicine, published by the Chinese Academy of Medicine) and Chinese Medical Ethics (on medical ethics, published by Xinghua University). Relevant monographs include a book on the fundamental principles of medical ethics (Du Zhizheng 1985) that and another on bioethics (Qiu Renzong 1987).
Finally, some general works on ethics in science and technology also appeared: The Ethics of Science and Technology (Xu Shaojin 1989), Essentials of Science and Technology Ethics (Liu Fengrui 1989), and Technological Ethics (Huang and Chen 1989).
The Development Stage
New ethical problems brought about by modern science and technology gave rise to extensive scholarship in China, including frequent academic discussions and numerous publications. Among these was a debate, in the journal Study of the Dialectics of Nature, between two opposite views of the relation between humans and the ecosystem: anthropocentrism and ecocentrism. Many works concerned with environmental ethics appeared, among which were four books titled Ecological Ethics (Liu Xiangrong 1992, Li and Chen 1993, Ye Ping 1994, Yu Mochang 1999). Other books included Environmental Ethics (Li Peichao 1998), and The Progress of Environmental Ethics (Xu Songling 1999).
Issues in biomedical ethics also continued to be pursued. Zheng Zhenlu (1992) sought to unify medical and bioethics. Du Zhizheng (2000) undertook a more detailed criticism of the foundations of medical ethics alone.
The Stage of Deepening Appreciation
The beginning of the twenty-first century saw two notable trends in the area of science and technology ethics: Science and technology philosophers turned their attention toward ethics (for example Liu Dachun 2000, Zhou Changzhong 1999), and ethicists focused on science and technology. These two trends converged to form an intellectual climate in which scholars probed more deeply the theoretical and practical problems of science and technology ethics.
The greater attention that philosophers of science and technology gave to ethics aroused concern among scientists, technologists, and the general public about issues of ethical responsibility. Heated disputes about such basic questions as the ethics of human cloning made the study of science and technology ethics ever more important. The beginning of the century also witnessed an increase in exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and foreign scholars in science and technology ethics, especially in medical ethics and bioethics.
Between 2001 and 2003 many works appeared, including two books on general science and technology ethics (Fu Jing 2002, Li Qingzhen et al. 2003), one on engineering ethics (Xiao Ping 2001), a translation on information technology ethics (Spinello 2003), four books on medical ethics or bioethics (Chen and Qiu 2003, Li and Cai 2003, Li and Liu 2003, Qiu and Zhai 2003), and four works on ecological or environmental ethics (Lei Yi 2001, Fu Hua 2002, He Huaihong 2002a, 2002b).
In conclusion, although engineering ethics as such has not become a major theme in Chinese discussions, questions of the ethics of specific types of engineering—such as practiced in relation to the environment, medicine, or the Internet—have been increasingly discussed. In general engineering is seen as simply one aspect of science and technology, and analyzed accordingly. It is worth noting that Chinese perspectives on many of the issues mentioned here have also been increasingly considered in English-language studies, as is illustrated by Ole Döring (1999), Albert R. Jonsen (2000), and Lester
J. Pourciau (2003).
SEE ALSO Engineering Ethics.
Bernal, J. D. (1982). Kexue de shehui gongneng, trans. Chen Tifang. Beijing: Shangwuyin shuguan. Originally published as The Social Function of Science (New York: Macmillan, 1939).
Carson, Rachel. (1979). Jijing de chuntian, trans. Lü Ruilan and Li Changsheng. Changchun, China: Jilin renmin chubanshe. Originally published as Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962).
Chen Yuanfang and Qiu Renzong. (2003). Shengwuyi yanjiu lunlixue [Biomedical research ethics]. Beijing: Zhongguo xiehe yike daxue chubanshe.
Döring, Ole, ed. (1999). Chinese Scientists and Responsibility: Ethical Issues of Human Genetics in Chinese and International Contexts. Hamburg, Germany: Institut für Asienkunde.
Du Zhizheng. (2000). Yixue lunlixue tanxin [Probing medical ethics]. Zhengzhou, China: Henan yike daxue chubanshe.
Fu Hua. (2002). Shengtai lunlixue tanjiu [Probing ecological ethics]. Beijing: Huaxia chubanshe.
Fu Jing. (2002). Keji lunlixue [Science and technology ethics]. Chengdu, China: Xinan caijing daxue chubanshe.
He Huaihong. (2002a). Huanjing lunlixue [Environmental ethics]. Beijing: Gaodeng jiaoyu chubanshe.
He Huaihong. (2002b). Shengtai lunlixue: Jingsheng ziyuan yu zhexue jichu [Ecological ethics: Spiritual resources and philosophical foundations]. Shijiazhuang, China: Hebei daxue chubanshe.
Huang Linchu and Chen Aijuan. (1989). Jishu lunlixue: Lilun yu xhixian [Technological ethics: Theory and practice]. Xi'an, China: Xi'an jiaotong daxue chubanshe.
Jonsen, Albert R. (2000). "Medical Ethics of India and China." Chap. 3 in A Short History of Medical Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lei Yi. (2001). Shengtai lunlixue [Ecological ethics]. Xi'an, China: Shanxi renmin jiaoyu chubanshe.
Li Chunqiu and Chen Chunhua. (1993). Shengtai lunlixue [Ecological ethics]. Beijing: Kexue chubanshe.
Li Peichao. (1998). Huanjing lunli [Environmental ethics]. Beijing: Zuojia chubanshe.
Li Qingzhen et al. (2003). Xiandai keji lunlixue [Modern science and technology ethics]. Jinan, China: Shandong renmin chubanshe.
Li Runhua and Liu Yaoguang. (2003). Yixue lunlixue [Medical ethics]. Changsha, China: Zhongnan daxue chubanshe.
Li Yuzhen and Cai Jinhua. (2003). Yixue yu shengming lunli [Medicine and bioethics]. Beijing: Kexue chubanshe.
Liu Dachun. (2000). Zai zhen yu shan zhi jian: Keji shidai de lunli wenti he daode jueze [Between truth and good: Ethical problems and moral choice in the age of science and technology]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe.
Liu Fengrui, ed. (1989). Jianming keji lunlixue [Essentials of science and technology ethics]. Beijing: Hangkong gongye chubanshe.
Liu Xiangrong. (1992). Shengtai lunlixue [Ecological ethics]. Changsha, China: Hunan shifan daxue chubanshe.
Pourciau, Lester J. (2003). "The Ethics of Electronic Information in China and in Eastern Europe." In Ethics and Electronic Information, ed. Barbara Rockenbach and Tom Mendina. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
Qiu Renzong. (1987). Shengming lunlixue [Bioethics]. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe. For an English introduction to this author's work see Bioethics: Asian Perspectives, ed. Qiu Renzong (Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 2004).
Qiu Renzong and Zhai Xiaomei. (2003). Shengming lunlixue jiaocheng [A course on bioethics]. Beijing: Zhongguo xiehe yike daxue chubanshe.
Spinello, Richard A. (2003). Xinxi he jisuanji lunli anli yanjiu, trans. Wu Hexin and Zhang De. Beijing: Kexue jishu wenxian chubanshe. Originally published as Case Studies in Information and Computer Ethics (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997).
Xiao Ping. (2001). Gongcheng lunlixue [Engineering ethics]. Beijing: Zhongguo tiedao chubanshe.
Xu Shaojin. (1989). Keji lunlixue [The ethics of science and technology]. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe.
Xu Shaojin. (1995). Xifang keji lunli xixiang shi [The history of Western science and technology ethics]. Nanjing, China: Jiangsu jiaoyu chubanshe.
Xu Songling. (1999). Huanjing lunlixue jinzhan: Pinglun yu chanshu [The progress of environmental ethics: Comment and exposition]. Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Ye Ping. (1994). Shengtai lunlixue [Ecological ethics]. Harbin, China: Dongbei linye daxue chubanshe.
Yu Mochang. (1999). Shengtai lunlixue [Ecological ethics]. Beijing: Shoudu shifan daxue chubanshe.
Zheng Zhenlu. (1992). Yixue daode yu shengming lunli [Medical morals and bioethics]. Shanghai: Huadong shifan daxue chubanshe.
Zhou Changzhong. (1999). Puluomixiusi hai shi fushide: Keji shehui de lunlixue [Prometheus or Faust: Ethics in scientific and technological society]. Wuhan, China: Hubei jiaoyu chubanshe.
Zhou Fucheng. (1964). Xifang lunlixue mingzhu xuanji [Selections of famous Western works on ethics]. Beijing: Shangwuyin shuguan. Reissued in 1987.
Zhou Fucheng. (1987). Xifang zhuming lunlixue jia ping zhuan [Critical biographies of well-known Western moralists]. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe.