Skip to main content


Gruidae (cranes; class Aves, order Gruiformes) A family of large, long-legged, long-necked, white, grey, or brown birds in which the head has areas of bare red skin or plumes, the bill is straight, and medium to long, secondaries are elongated for display, the tail is short, and the wings are broad for soaring and gliding, the birds flying with the neck extended. Cranes inhabit plains and marshes, feed on animals and vegetable matter, and nest on the ground. There are four genera, with 14–15 species, many of which are endangered. They are found in N. America, Europe, Asia, and Australasia. The northern species are migratory. Grus grus (common crane), one of 10 Grus species, is found across Europe to eastern Asia, wintering in Africa and southern Asia.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Gruidae." A Dictionary of Zoology. . 24 Mar. 2019 <>.

"Gruidae." A Dictionary of Zoology. . (March 24, 2019).

"Gruidae." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Retrieved March 24, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.