Skip to main content

Grulëv, Mikhail Vladimirovich


GRULËV, MIKHAIL VLADIMIROVICH (1857–?), Russian general, publicist, and military historian. In 1878 he volunteered for the Krasnoyarsk regiment and the following year converted to Russian Orthodoxy, after which he enrolled in the Warsaw Military Academy, from which he emerged as an officer in 1882. In 1889 he became a member of the General Staff. He served on missions to India, Egypt, China, and Japan and headed a scientific expedition to Manchuria which recommended a site for establishing the city of Harbin. During the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05) Grulëv commanded a regiment (and subsequently a division) during battles at the Shakhe River. A liberal by conviction, he refused to take part in the suppression of the revolutionary uprisings in 1905–07. From 1907 to 1909, when he had already attained the rank of general, he worked with the military-historical commission attached to the main directorate of the general staff in compiling the official history of the Russo-Japanese War (he was responsible for the two volumes on the operations at the Shakhe River). From 1910 he was commander of the Brest-Litovsk fortress. In 1912, following threats from the authorities, he was removed from his post in a disciplinary measure for the expression of radical views in the press. Grulëv handed in his resignation on grounds of "health" and retired to Nice (France), where he died.

His over 20 books and writings began with a poem written in Hebrew in the late 1870s and published in the newspaper Ha-Ẓefirah and included articles about the Dreyfus Affair, and a series of articles (1905–07) which revealed his interest in the position of the Jewish people. In the book Zapiski generalaevreya ("Notes of a Jewish General," Paris, 1930), Grulëv castigated antisemitism, and expressed his love and sympathy for the "long-suffering Jewish people." He donated the proceeds from this book to the *Jewish National Fund.

[Mark Kipnis /

The Shorter Jewish Encylopaedia in Russian]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Grulëv, Mikhail Vladimirovich." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . 20 Feb. 2019 <>.

"Grulëv, Mikhail Vladimirovich." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . (February 20, 2019).

"Grulëv, Mikhail Vladimirovich." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved February 20, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.