Skip to main content

elm decline

elm decline The sharp decrease in the amount of elm (Ulmus) pollen that occurs throughout north-western Europe in soil horizons radiocarbon-dated within 100–200 years of 5000bp. Associated changes in vegetation vary from one site to another, as do the elm species involved (e.g. U. glabra in northern Britain and possibly U. minor in Denmark). It has been suggested that the decline is linked to the activities of early farmers, but it may have been caused by Dutch elm disease.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"elm decline." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"elm decline." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 10, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/elm-decline

"elm decline." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved December 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/elm-decline

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.