Cynipidae (suborder Apocrita, super-family Cynipoidea)
Family of insects: it is divided into several subfamilies, but the great majority of its members belong to the subfamily Cynipinae
(gall wasps). Gall wasps cause galls on a variety of plants, particularly Quercus
(oak). Each species forms a characteristic gall on its host plant, the larva or larvae developing inside. Galls may be unilocular
. The life cycle is often complex and heterogynous
. In the past, adults produced from the two different generations of the same species were described as different species owing to the apparent lack of similarity. Other members of the Cynipidae are dipteran parasites, hyperparasites of aphidiine Braconidae
, and inquilines
in the galls of other gall wasps. Adults are usually shiny, black to brown, with straight antennae, and a laterally compressed abdomen. They are 2–8 mm long.