addition
ad·di·tion / əˈdishən/ (abbr.: addn.) • n. 1. the action or process of adding something to something else: the hotel has been extended with the addition of more rooms. ∎ a person or thing added or joined, typically in order to improve something: you will find the coat a useful addition to your wardrobe. 2. (abbr.: addn.) the process or skill of calculating the total of two or more numbers or amounts. ∎ Math. the process of combining matrices, vectors, or other quantities under specific rules to obtain their sum. PHRASES: in addition as an extra person, thing, or circumstance: members of the board were paid a small allowance in addition to their salary.
Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

MLA

Chicago

APA
"addition." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"addition." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionariesthesaurusespicturesandpressreleases/addition0
"addition." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved December 12, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionariesthesaurusespicturesandpressreleases/addition0
Citation styles
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the mostrecent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
American Psychological Association
Notes:
 Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
 In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
addition
addition, fundamental operation of arithmetic, denoted by +. In counting, a+b represents the number of items in the union of two collections having no common members (disjoint sets), having respectively a and b members. In geometry a+b might, for example, represent the area of the union of two disjoint regions of areas a and b, respectively. In arithmetic addition follows the associative law, the commutative law, and, in combination with multiplication, the distributive law. Addition is also defined for other types of mathematical objects, for example, vectors and tensors. See also subtraction.
Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

MLA

Chicago

APA
"addition." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"addition." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopediasalmanacstranscriptsandmaps/addition
"addition." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 12, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopediasalmanacstranscriptsandmaps/addition
Citation styles
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the mostrecent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
American Psychological Association
Notes:
 Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
 In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
addition
addition
•ashen, fashion, passion, ration
•abstraction, action, attraction, benefaction, compaction, contraction, counteraction, diffraction, enaction, exaction, extraction, faction, fraction, interaction, liquefaction, malefaction, petrifaction, proaction, protraction, putrefaction, redaction, retroaction, satisfaction, stupefaction, subtraction, traction, transaction, tumefaction, vitrifaction
•expansion, mansion, scansion, stanchion
•sanction
•caption, contraption
•harshen, Martian
•cession, discretion, freshen, session
•abjection, affection, circumspection, collection, complexion, confection, connection, convection, correction, defection, deflection, dejection, detection, direction, ejection, election, erection, genuflection, imperfection, infection, inflection, injection, inspection, insurrection, interconnection, interjection, intersection, introspection, lection, misdirection, objection, perfection, predilection, projection, protection, refection, reflection, rejection, resurrection, retrospection, section, selection, subjection, transection, vivisection
•exemption, preemption, redemption
•abstention, apprehension, ascension, attention, circumvention, comprehension, condescension, contention, contravention, convention, declension, detention, dimension, dissension, extension, gentian, hypertension, hypotension, intention, intervention, invention, mention, misapprehension, obtention, pension, prehension, prevention, recension, retention, subvention, supervention, suspension, tension
•conception, contraception, deception, exception, inception, interception, misconception, perception, reception
•Übermenschen • subsection
•ablation, aeration, agnation, Alsatian, Amerasian, Asian, aviation, cetacean, citation, conation, creation, Croatian, crustacean, curation, Dalmatian, delation, dilation, donation, duration, elation, fixation, Galatian, gyration, Haitian, halation, Horatian, ideation, illation, lavation, legation, libation, location, lunation, mutation, natation, nation, negation, notation, nutation, oblation, oration, ovation, potation, relation, rogation, rotation, Sarmatian, sedation, SerboCroatian, station, taxation, Thracian, vacation, vexation, vocation, zonation
•accretion, Capetian, completion, concretion, deletion, depletion, Diocletian, excretion, Grecian, Helvetian, repletion, Rhodesian, secretion, suppletion, Tahitian, venetian
•academician, addition, aesthetician (US esthetician), ambition, audition, beautician, clinician, coition, cosmetician, diagnostician, dialectician, dietitian, Domitian, edition, electrician, emission, fission, fruition, Hermitian, ignition, linguistician, logician, magician, mathematician, Mauritian, mechanician, metaphysician, mission, monition, mortician, munition, musician, obstetrician, omission, optician, paediatrician (US pediatrician), patrician, petition, Phoenician, physician, politician, position, rhetorician, sedition, statistician, suspicion, tactician, technician, theoretician, Titian, tuition, volition
•addiction, affliction, benediction, constriction, conviction, crucifixion, depiction, dereliction, diction, eviction, fiction, friction, infliction, interdiction, jurisdiction, malediction, restriction, transfixion, valediction
•distinction, extinction, intinction
•ascription, circumscription, conscription, decryption, description, Egyptian, encryption, inscription, misdescription, prescription, subscription, superscription, transcription
•proscription
•concoction, decoction
•adoption, option
•abortion, apportion, caution, contortion, distortion, extortion, portion, proportion, retortion, torsion
•auction
•absorption, sorption
•commotion, devotion, emotion, groschen, Laotian, locomotion, lotion, motion, notion, Nova Scotian, ocean, potion, promotion
•ablution, absolution, allocution, attribution, circumlocution, circumvolution, Confucian, constitution, contribution, convolution, counterrevolution, destitution, dilution, diminution, distribution, electrocution, elocution, evolution, execution, institution, interlocution, irresolution, Lilliputian, locution, perlocution, persecution, pollution, prosecution, prostitution, restitution, retribution, Rosicrucian, solution, substitution, volution
•cushion • resumption • München
•pincushion
•Belorussian, Prussian, Russian
•abduction, conduction, construction, deduction, destruction, eduction, effluxion, induction, instruction, introduction, misconstruction, obstruction, production, reduction, ruction, seduction, suction, underproduction
•avulsion, compulsion, convulsion, emulsion, expulsion, impulsion, propulsion, repulsion, revulsion
•assumption, consumption, gumption, presumption
•luncheon, scuncheon, truncheon
•compunction, conjunction, dysfunction, expunction, function, junction, malfunction, multifunction, unction
•abruption, corruption, disruption, eruption, interruption
•Tjunction • liposuction
•animadversion, aspersion, assertion, aversion, Cistercian, coercion, conversion, desertion, disconcertion, dispersion, diversion, emersion, excursion, exertion, extroversion, immersion, incursion, insertion, interspersion, introversion, Persian, perversion, submersion, subversion, tertian, version
•excerption
Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

MLA

Chicago

APA
"addition." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"addition." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionariesthesaurusespicturesandpressreleases/addition
"addition." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved December 12, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionariesthesaurusespicturesandpressreleases/addition
Citation styles
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the mostrecent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
American Psychological Association
Notes:
 Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
 In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
Addition
Addition
Addition, indicated by a + sign, is a mathematical method of combining numbers; that is, of increasing one amount by another amount. The result of adding two numbers (such as a and b) is called their sum. For example, if a = 5 and b = 6, then their sum (c) is: c = a + b = 5 + 6 = 11. Addition can also include the process of adding together any of a number of objects; such as adding applies and cherries.
Adding natural numbers
Consider the natural, or counting, numbers 1, 2, 3, 4. . . . Each natural number can be defined in terms of sets. The number 1 is the name of the collection containing every conceivable set with one element, such as the set containing 0 or the set containing the Washington Monument. The number 2 is the name of the collection containing every conceivable set with two elements, and so on. The sum of two natural numbers is determined by counting the number of elements in the union of two sets chosen to represent them. For example, let the set {A, B, C} represent 3 and the set {W, X, Y, Z} represent 4. Then 3 + 4 is determined by counting the elements in {A, B, C, W, X, Y, Z}, which is the union of {A, B, C} and {W, X, Y, Z}. The result is seven, and we write 3 + 4 = 7. In this way, the operation of addition is carried out by counting.
The addition algorithm
Addition of natural numbers is independent of the numerals used to represent the numbers being added. However, some forms of notation make addition of large numbers easier than other forms. In particular, the HinduArabic positional notation (in general use today) facilitates addition of large numbers, while the use of Roman numerals, for instance, is quite cumbersome. In the HinduArabic positional notation, numerals are arranged in columns, each column corresponding to numbers that are ten times larger than those in the column to the immediate right.
For example, 724 consists of 4 ones, 2 tens, and 7 hundreds. The addition algorithm amounts to counting by ones in the right hand column, counting by tens in the next column left, counting by hundreds in the next column left, and so on. When the sum of two numbers in any column exceeds nine, the amount over 10 is retained and the rest transferred, or carried, to the next column left. Suppose it is desired to add 724 and 897. Adding each column gives 11 ones, 11 tens, and 15 hundreds. However, 11 ones is equal to 1 ten and 1 one so one has 1 one, 12 tens and 15 hundreds. Checking the tens column one finds 12 tens equals 2 tens and 1 hundred, so one actually has 1 one, 2 tens and 16 hundreds. Finally, 16 hundreds is 6 hundreds and 1 thousand, so the end result is 1 thousand, 6 hundreds, 2 tens, and 1 one, or 1, 621.
Adding common fractions
Historically, the number system expanded as it became apparent that certain problems of interest had no solution in the thencurrent system. Fractions were included to deal with the problem of dividing a whole thing into a number of parts. Common fractions are numbers expressed as a ratio, such as 2/3, 7/9, and 3/2. When both parts of the fraction are integers, the result is a rational number. Each rational number may be thought of as representing a number of pieces; the numerator (top number) tells how many pieces the fraction represents; the denominator (bottom number) tells how many pieces the whole was divided into. Suppose a cake is divided into two pieces, after which onehalf is further divided into six pieces and the other half into three pieces, making a total of nine pieces. If a person takes one piece from each half, what part of the whole cake has been taken? This amounts to a simple counting problem if both halves are cut into the same number of pieces, because then there are a total of six or 12 equal pieces, of which one takes two. One gets either 2/6, or 2/12, of the cake. The essence of adding rational numbers, then, is to turn the problem into one of counting equal size pieces. This is done by rewriting one or both of the fractions to be added so that each has the same denominator (called a common denominator). In this way, each fraction represents a number of equal size pieces. A general formula for the sum of two fractions is a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.
Adding decimal fractions
Together, the rational and irrational numbers constitute the set of real numbers. Addition of real numbers is facilitated by extending the positional notation used for integers to decimal fractions. Place a period (called a decimal point) to the right of the ones column, and let each column to its right contain numbers that are successively smaller by a factor of ten. Thus, columns to the right of the decimal point represent numbers less than one, in particular, tenths, hundredths, thousandths, and so on. Addition of real numbers, then, continues to be defined in terms of counting and carrying, in the manner described above.
Adding signed numbers
Real numbers can be positive, negative, or zero. Addition of two negative numbers always results in a negative number and is carried out in the same fashion that positive numbers are added, after which a negative sign is placed in front of the result, such as 4 + (21) = 25. Adding a positive and a negative number is the equivalent of subtraction, and, while it also proceeds by counting, the sum does not correspond to counting the members in the union of two sets, but to counting the members not in the intersection of two sets.
Addition in algebra
In algebra, which is a generalization of arithmetic, addition is also carried out by counting. For example, to sum the expressions 5x and 6x one notices that 5x means five ‘x’s and 6x means six ‘x’s, making a total of 11 ‘x’s. Thus 5x + 6x = (5 + 6)x = 11x, which is usually established on the basis of the distributive law, an important property that the real numbers obey. In general, only like variables or powers can be added algebraically. In adding two polynomial expressions, only similar terms are combined; thus, (3x^{2} + 2x + 7y + z) + (x^{3} + 3x + 4z + 2yz) = (x^{3} + 3x^{2} + 5x + 7y + 5z + 2yz).
See also Fraction, common.
Resources
BOOKS
Berinde, Vasile. Exploring, Investigating, and Discovering in Mathematics. Boston, MA: Birkhauser, 2004.
Burton, David M. The History of Mathematics: An Introduction. New York: McGrawHill, 2007.
Cooke, Roger. The History of Mathematics: A Brief Course. Hoboken, NJ: WileyInterscience, 2005.
Grahm, Alan. Teach Yourself Basic Mathematics. Chicago, IL: McGrawHill Contemporary, 2001. Lorenz, Falko. Algebra. New York: Springer, 2006.
Setek, William M. Fundamentals of Mathematics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005.
Trivieri, Lawrence. Basic Mathematics. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2006.
Weisstein, Eric W. The CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2003.
J. R. Maddocks
Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

MLA

Chicago

APA
"Addition." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"Addition." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopediasalmanacstranscriptsandmaps/addition
"Addition." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Retrieved December 12, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopediasalmanacstranscriptsandmaps/addition
Citation styles
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the mostrecent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
American Psychological Association
Notes:
 Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
 In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
Addition
Addition
Addition, indicated by a + sign, is a method of combining numbers. The result of adding two numbers is called their sum.
Adding natural numbers
Consider the natural, or counting, numbers 1, 2, 3, 4,... Each natural number can be defined in terms of sets. The number 1 is the name of the collection containing every conceivable set with one element, such as the set containing 0 or the set containing the Washington Monument. The number 2 is the name of the collection containing every conceivable set with two elements, and so on. The sum of two natural numbers is determined by counting the number of elements in the union of two sets chosen to represent them. For example, let the set {A, B, C} represent 3 and the set {W, X, Y, Z} represent 4. Then 3 + 4 is determined by counting the elements in {A, B, C, W, X, Y, Z}, which is the union of {A, B, C} and {W, X, Y, Z}. The result is seven, and we write 3 + 4 = 7. In this way, the operation of addition is carried out by counting.
The addition algorithm
Addition of natural numbers is independent of the numerals used to represent the numbers being added. However, some forms of notation make addition of large numbers easier than other forms. In particular, the HinduArabic positional notation (in general use today) facilitates addition of large numbers, while the use of Roman numerals, for instance, is quite cumbersome. In the HinduArabic positional notation, numerals are arranged in columns, each column corresponding to numbers that are 10 times larger than those in the column to the immediate right. For example, 724 consists of 4 ones, 2 tens, and 7 hundreds. The addition algorithm amounts to counting by ones in the right hand column, counting by tens in the next column left, counting by hundreds in the next column left and so on. When the sum of two numbers in any column exceeds nine, the amount over 10 is retained and the rest transferred or "carried" to the next column left. Suppose it is desired to add 724 and 897. Adding each column gives 11 ones, 11 tens, and 15 hundreds. But 11 ones is equal to 1 ten and 1 one so we have 1 one, 12 tens and 15 hundreds. Checking the tens column we find 12 tens equals 2 tens and 1 hundred, so we actually have 1 one, 2 tens and 16 hundreds. Finally, 16 hundreds is 6 hundreds and 1 thousand, so the end result is 1 thousand, 6 hundreds, 2 tens, and 1 one, or 1,621.
Adding common fractions
Historically, the number system expanded as it became apparent that certain problems of interest had no solution in the thencurrent system. Fractions were included to deal with the problem of dividing a whole thing into a number of parts. Common fractions are numbers expressed as a ratio , such as 2/3, 7/9, and 3/2. When both parts of the fraction are integers , the result is a rational number . Each rational number may be thought of as representing a number of pieces; the numerator (top number) tells how many pieces the fraction represents; the denominator (bottom number) tells us how many pieces the whole was divided into. Suppose a cake is divided into two pieces, after which one half is further divided into six pieces and the other half into three pieces, making a total of nine pieces. If you take one piece from each half, what part of the whole cake do you get? This amounts to a simple counting problem if both halves are cut into the same number of pieces, because then there are a total of six or 12 equal pieces, of which you take two. You get either 2/6 or 2/12 of the cake. The essence of adding rational numbers, then, is to turn the problem into one of counting equal size pieces. This is done by rewriting one or both of the fractions to be added so that each has the same denominator (called a common denominator). In this way, each fraction represents a number of equal size pieces. A general formula for the sum of two fractions is a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.
Adding decimal fractions
Together, the rational and irrational numbers constitute the set of real numbers . Addition of real numbers is facilitated by extending the positional notation used for integers to decimal fractions. Place a period (called a decimal point) to the right of the ones column, and let each column to its right contain numbers that are successively smaller by a factor of ten. Thus, columns to the right of the decimal point represent numbers less than one, in particular, "tenths," "hundredths," "thousandths," and so on. Addition of real numbers, then, continues to be defined in terms of counting and carrying, in the manner described above.
Adding signed numbers
Real numbers can be positive, negative , or zero . Addition of two negative numbers always results in a negative number and is carried out in the same fashion that positive numbers are added, after which a negative sign is placed in front of the result, such as 4 + (21) = 25. Adding a positive and a negative number is the equivalent of subtraction , and, while it also proceeds by counting, the sum does not correspond to counting the members in the union of two sets, but to counting the members not in the intersection of two sets.
Addition in algebra
In algebra , which is a generalization of arithmetic , addition is also carried out by counting. For example, to sum the expressions 5x and 6x we notice that 5x means we have five xs and 6x means we have six xs, making a total of 11 xs. Thus 5x + 6x = (5 + 6)x = 11x, which is usually established on the basis of the distributive law, an important property that the real numbers obey. In general, only like variables or powers can be added algebraically. In adding two polynomial expressions, only similar terms are combined; thus, (3x2 + 2x +7y + z) + (x3 + 3x + 4z + 2yz) = (x3 + 3x2 + 5x + 7y + 5z + 2yz).
See also Fraction, common.
Resources
books
Eves, Howard Whitley. Foundations and Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics. NewYork: Dover, 1997.
Grahm, Alan. Teach Yourself Basic Mathematics. Chicago,IL: McGrawHill Contemporary, 2001.
Gullberg, Jan, and Peter Hilton. Mathematics: From the Birth of Numbers. W.W. Norton & Company, 1997.
Paulos, John Allen. Beyond Numeracy, Ruminations of a Numbers Man. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991.
Tobey, John, and Jeffrey Slater. Beginning Algebra. 4th ed. NY: Prentice Hall, 1997.
Weisstein, Eric W. The CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics. New York: CRC Press, 1998.
J. R. Maddocks
Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

MLA

Chicago

APA
"Addition." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"Addition." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopediasalmanacstranscriptsandmaps/addition0
"Addition." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Retrieved December 12, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopediasalmanacstranscriptsandmaps/addition0
Citation styles
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the mostrecent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
American Psychological Association
Notes:
 Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
 In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.