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substitutionashen, fashion, passion, ration •abstraction, action, attraction, benefaction, compaction, contraction, counteraction, diffraction, enaction, exaction, extraction, faction, fraction, interaction, liquefaction, malefaction, petrifaction, proaction, protraction, putrefaction, redaction, retroaction, satisfaction, stupefaction, subtraction, traction, transaction, tumefaction, vitrifaction •expansion, mansion, scansion, stanchion •sanction •caption, contraption •harshen, Martian •cession, discretion, freshen, session •abjection, affection, circumspection, collection, complexion, confection, connection, convection, correction, defection, deflection, dejection, detection, direction, ejection, election, erection, genuflection, imperfection, infection, inflection, injection, inspection, insurrection, interconnection, interjection, intersection, introspection, lection, misdirection, objection, perfection, predilection, projection, protection, refection, reflection, rejection, resurrection, retrospection, section, selection, subjection, transection, vivisection •exemption, pre-emption, redemption •abstention, apprehension, ascension, attention, circumvention, comprehension, condescension, contention, contravention, convention, declension, detention, dimension, dissension, extension, gentian, hypertension, hypotension, intention, intervention, invention, mention, misapprehension, obtention, pension, prehension, prevention, recension, retention, subvention, supervention, suspension, tension •conception, contraception, deception, exception, inception, interception, misconception, perception, reception •Übermenschen • subsection •ablation, aeration, agnation, Alsatian, Amerasian, Asian, aviation, cetacean, citation, conation, creation, Croatian, crustacean, curation, Dalmatian, delation, dilation, donation, duration, elation, fixation, Galatian, gyration, Haitian, halation, Horatian, ideation, illation, lavation, legation, libation, location, lunation, mutation, natation, nation, negation, notation, nutation, oblation, oration, ovation, potation, relation, rogation, rotation, Sarmatian, sedation, Serbo-Croatian, station, taxation, Thracian, vacation, vexation, vocation, zonation •accretion, Capetian, completion, concretion, deletion, depletion, Diocletian, excretion, Grecian, Helvetian, repletion, Rhodesian, secretion, suppletion, Tahitian, venetian •academician, addition, aesthetician (US esthetician), ambition, audition, beautician, clinician, coition, cosmetician, diagnostician, dialectician, dietitian, Domitian, edition, electrician, emission, fission, fruition, Hermitian, ignition, linguistician, logician, magician, mathematician, Mauritian, mechanician, metaphysician, mission, monition, mortician, munition, musician, obstetrician, omission, optician, paediatrician (US pediatrician), patrician, petition, Phoenician, physician, politician, position, rhetorician, sedition, statistician, suspicion, tactician, technician, theoretician, Titian, tuition, volition •addiction, affliction, benediction, constriction, conviction, crucifixion, depiction, dereliction, diction, eviction, fiction, friction, infliction, interdiction, jurisdiction, malediction, restriction, transfixion, valediction •distinction, extinction, intinction •ascription, circumscription, conscription, decryption, description, Egyptian, encryption, inscription, misdescription, prescription, subscription, superscription, transcription •proscription •concoction, decoction •adoption, option •abortion, apportion, caution, contortion, distortion, extortion, portion, proportion, retortion, torsion •auction •absorption, sorption •commotion, devotion, emotion, groschen, Laotian, locomotion, lotion, motion, notion, Nova Scotian, ocean, potion, promotion •ablution, absolution, allocution, attribution, circumlocution, circumvolution, Confucian, constitution, contribution, convolution, counter-revolution, destitution, dilution, diminution, distribution, electrocution, elocution, evolution, execution, institution, interlocution, irresolution, Lilliputian, locution, perlocution, persecution, pollution, prosecution, prostitution, restitution, retribution, Rosicrucian, solution, substitution, volution •cushion • resumption • München •pincushion •Belorussian, Prussian, Russian •abduction, conduction, construction, deduction, destruction, eduction, effluxion, induction, instruction, introduction, misconstruction, obstruction, production, reduction, ruction, seduction, suction, underproduction •avulsion, compulsion, convulsion, emulsion, expulsion, impulsion, propulsion, repulsion, revulsion •assumption, consumption, gumption, presumption •luncheon, scuncheon, truncheon •compunction, conjunction, dysfunction, expunction, function, junction, malfunction, multifunction, unction •abruption, corruption, disruption, eruption, interruption •T-junction • liposuction •animadversion, aspersion, assertion, aversion, Cistercian, coercion, conversion, desertion, disconcertion, dispersion, diversion, emersion, excursion, exertion, extroversion, immersion, incursion, insertion, interspersion, introversion, Persian, perversion, submersion, subversion, tertian, version •excerption

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1. A particular kind of mapping on formal languages. Let Σ1 and Σ2 be alphabets. For each symbol a in Σ1 let s(a) be a Σ2-language. The function s is a substitution. A homomorphism occurs where each s(a) is a single word. s is Λ-free if no s(a) contains the empty word.

The function s can be extended to map Σ1-words to Σ2-languages: s(a1an) = s(a1)…s(an)

i.e. the concatenation of the languages s(a1),…,s(an). s can then be further extended to map Σ1-languages to Σ2-languages: s(L) = {s(w) | wL}

s(L) is called the substitution image of L under s.

2. See substitution cipher.

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616. Substitution

  1. Arsinoë put her own son in place of Orestes; her son was killed and Orestes was saved. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 32]
  2. Barabbas robber freed in Christs stead. [N.T.: Matthew 27:1518; Swed. Lit.: Barabbas ]
  3. Canty, Tom young beggar takes to throne in princes stead. [Am. Lit.: The Prince and the Pauper ]
  4. Edward, Prince of Wales kingling becomes urchin in clothing exchange. [Am. Lit.: The Prince and the Pauper ]
  5. George, Tobey after Marcuss death, replaces him in his family. [Am. Lit.: The Human Comedy ]
  6. Hagar thinking herself barren, Sarah offers slave to Abraham. [O.T.: Genesis 16:14]
  7. Leah deceptively substituted for Rachel in Jacobs bed. [O.T.: Genesis 29:2225]
  8. whipping boy surrogate sufferer for delinquent prince. [Eur. Hist.: Brewer Note-Book, 942]
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substitution (in genetics) A point mutation in which one base pair in the DNA sequence is replaced by another. There are two types of substitution mutation: transition mutations, in which a pyrimidine base (i.e. thymine or cytosine) is replaced by another pyrimidine base or a purine base (adenine or guanine) is replaced by another purine base; and transversion mutations, in which a pyrimidine base is replaced by a purine base, or vice versa. Most substitutions tend to alter one amino acid in a protein chain, which may or may not affect the functioning of that protein. Sickle-cell anaemia is an example of a substitution mutation in which thymine is replaced by adenine in the triplet coding for the sixth amino acid in the β-chain of haemoglobin.

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substitution The replacement of one nucleotide in a DNA sequence by another as a result of a mutation event. See also nonsynonymous substitution, silent substitution, and synonymous substitution.

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substitution (sub-sti-tew-shŏn) n. (in psychoanalysis) the replacement of one idea by another: a form of defence mechanism.