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UGODA (Pol. "Compromise"), a type of arrangement between the Polish administration and the Jewish Parliamentary Club of the *Sejm known as the Koło Zydowskie. According to this agreement, certain indispensable requirements were granted to the Jews in return for a declaration of loyalty to several demands by the Polish government. The compromise came as the conclusion to prolonged talks involving a limited circle of notables including Foreign Minister Skrzynski and Minister of Religion and Education Stanislaw *Grabski on the Polish side, and the leaders of the Koło, Leon *Reich and Osias *Thon. The negotiations resulted in an official meeting on July 4, 1925, in the chambers of Premier Wladyslaw *Grabski. Among the matters discussed, which were later announced publicly, were economic questions, political rights of citizens, organization of Jewish communities, and problems of culture, religion, and education.

The agreement aroused hopes that many painful matters would be rectified, such as compulsory stoppage of work on Sundays, the *numerus clausus at the universities, and discriminatory practices in taxation and credit, and that aid would be rendered to foster a national Jewish culture and autonomous institutions. Nonetheless, of the 42 original paragraphs, only 12 were officially publicized in July 1925 with the stamp of approval of the Polish government; they were limited to reforms concerning the organization of Jewish communities, educational aid to schools, the right to use a Jewish national language, and religious considerations for soldiers and students in government schools. The more serious problems that the Ugoda was expected to alleviate were solved on paper only, a fact which led Yiẓḥak *Gruenbaum, as spokesman of the Jewish populace, to criticize the leadership of the Koło. On the other hand, the antisemitic camp criticized the government for its leniency in granting concessions to the Jews. While the Ugoda negotiations were in progress, Poland had been undergoing a financial crisis due to a tariff war with Germany. The situation caused political repercussions which resulted in the ousting of the Grabski administration in November 1925. The Ugoda was thenceforth regarded with disappointment by the Jews.


H.M. Rabinowicz, The Legacy of Polish Jewry (1965), 49–50; I. Schwarzbart, Tsvishn Beyde Milkhomes (1958), 201–6.

[Moshe Landau]

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