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Sutri, Councils of


Two early councils of the gregorian reform era, held at Sutri, a diocesan seat north of Rome. (1) When Emperor henry iii went to Italy in 1046, he was met at Piacenza by gregory vi, who had become pope by bribing benedict ix to resign. At Henry's instance, Gregory convoked a council at Sutri (December 20), to which he explained that he had purchased the office in order to reform it. Nonetheless the bishops in council declared that such action constituted simony, and Gregory accordingly was deposed, with their approval. At the same time, Gregory's rival, the antipope Sylvester III, was deposed also, lest he still have some claims on the papal office. Finally, the unworthy Benedict IX himself was deposed at Rome on December 2324, and clement ii was made pope. (2) Pope nicholas ii, after election in Siena, opened his pontificate by attempting to expel his rival, the antipope benedict x, from Rome. He held a council at Sutri (January 1059), attended by his lay protectors and the bishops of Lombardy and Tuscany. They discussed the antipope, but no decisions are recorded; having thus assembled forces, however, their army advanced on Rome, and Benedict fled.

Bibliography: c. j. von hefele, Histoire des conciles d'après les documents originaux, tr. and continued by h. leclercq, 10 v. in 19 (Paris 190738) 4.2:986991 (year 1046),113338 (year 1059). a. fliche, La Réforme grégorienne, 3 v. (Louvain 192437) 1:107110. g. b. borino, "L'elezione e la deposizione di Gregorio VI," Archivio della Società Romana di Storia Patria 39 (1916) 142252, 295410; "Invitus ultra montes cum domno Papa Gregorio abii," Studi Gregoriani, ed. g. b. borino 1 (1947) 346.

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