STARK, EDWARD (1863–1918), U.S. ḥazzan and composer. Stark was the son of a ḥazzan and became ḥazzan of Temple Emanu-El in San Francisco in 1893 and remained there for 20 years. He was one of the most influential musicians in the service of the American Reform Synagogue. His compositions evince the influence of *Sulzer and *Lewandowski and the style of the classical oratorio, but are based for the most part on traditional Jewish thematic material. He insisted on the use of the ḥazzan as soloist, thus reversing previous trends in the Reform synagogue. Under the title Anim Zemiroth, he published compositions for the Sabbath and the High Holidays (1909–13). In Day of God (1898) he arranged the *Kol Nidrei melody for soprano solo, choir, and small orchestra.