Salazar, Domingo de
SALAZAR, DOMINGO DE
First bishop of Manila; b. Labastida (Rioja), Ebro, Spain, c. 1512; d. Madrid, Spain, Dec. 4, 1594. He was professed as a Dominican at Salamanca (1546), and studied there under Francisco de vitoria. Although originally assigned to missions in Venezuela, in 1548 he was transferred to Mexico, where he did missionary work among the Guajaca people. From 1558 to 1561 he accompanied Tristan de Arellano on an ill-fated mission to Florida. After his return to Mexico (1562), Salazar served as prior at Oaxaca and Puebla. Following his return to Spain in 1576 as provincial procurator, he was nominated by Philip II as first bishop of Manila (1579). In 1581 he set out for the Philippines with 20 Augustinians, one Dominican, five Franciscans, three Jesuits, and six secular priests. There he erected a cathedral and hospital and summoned a diocesan synod (1582). He engaged in controversies with religious orders exempted from his episcopal jurisdiction, particularly the Augustinians. Salazar also fought against the greed and cruel policies of the civil authorities, especially Gov. Ronquillo of Manila. As a student of Bartolomé de las casas, Salazar condemned encomienda and other Spanish practices used to subjugate the natives. On the advice of a number of theologians, he later modified his views and opposition. Salazar also favored Spanish military action against China as the necessary means by which Christianity would overcome Chinese opposition and resistance to the Gospel. In 1587 the Dominicans entered the Philippines at his invitation. His disagreements with the civic authorities, especially Gov. Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas, led Salazar to Spain (1591), where he obtained relief for the natives, reestablished the audiencia, and secured the creation of more bishoprics, thus leading to the erection of the autonomous ecclesiastical province of the Philippines (1595).
Bibliography: h. m. ocio y viana, Reseña biográfica de los religiosos de la prov. del SSmo. Rosario de Filipinas (Manila 1891) pt. 1, 38–49. l. hanke, ed., Cuerpo de documentos del siglo XVI (Mexico City 1943). v. f. o'daniel, Dominicans in Early Florida (New York 1930).
[b. m. biermann]