ROLAND-MANUEL (Roland Alexis Manuel Levy ; 1891–1966), composer and writer. Born in Paris, Roland-Manuel studied with Roussel and Ravel, and in 1947 became professor of aesthetics at the Paris Conservatory. In 1947 he was elected vice president of the International Society for Contemporary Music, and in 1949 president of the International Music Council of unesco. His music is a blend of classicism and modernism, avoiding romantic tendencies. His writings include three books on Ravel, and the valuable popularization Plaisir de la musique (1947–55) in four volumes.