Pottery appears for the first time in the Neolithic period, around the middle of the sixth millennium b.c.e. For two reasons, it serves as a major tool for the archaeological study of the material culture of ancient man: first because of its extensive use in everyday life and second because of its durability; for although the vessels break easily, the material survives as potsherds. Pottery is of great value for acquiring the knowledge of the technological progress of various periods, the trends in the development of early plastic art, and international cultural and commercial relations which form the basis of the comparative chronology of different cultures in the ancient Near East. On the basis of stratigraphic finds at archaeological excavations, pottery is seen to have undergone changes in different periods as well as in different phases of the same period – changes in form, decoration, techniques of working the clay, and firing. As a result, pottery serves as a major index of the relative chronological framework of a given culture. For protohistoric cultures and periods containing no written remains or coins, which are the primary sources of absolute chronology, the relative chronology constructed on pottery sequence serves as a substitute. Once the absolute date of a potsherd is established, the stratum in which it was found can be dated, and thus it also becomes an aid in fixing the absolute chronology (see *Archaeology).
The clay from which pottery is produced is an aluminum silicate mixed with various additions such as iron oxides, alkalies, quartz, and lime. Two kinds of clay have been differentiated: clean clay, of pure aluminum silicate, which is not found in Ereẓ Israel, and a rich clay, consisting of aluminum silicate mixed with iron ozides, carbon compounds, etc. The material was prepared for use by sifting and removing foreign matter, mixing it with water and levigating it. If the clay was too rich and not sufficiently plastic, it was tempered by the addition of substances such as sand and quartz grit. The wet sifted clay was then wedged by hand or treaded; after it was well mixed it was ready for shaping. The earliest pottery was handmade. In the Neolithic period, pottery was made by joining together coils of clay, smoothing the junction line by hand. The pottery was shaped on a base or stand of wood, stone, or matting. A technical innovation was shaping pottery from a ball of clay. In the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze periods primitive potter's wheels consisting of a turning board (tournette) were used. Examples of the next stage in the development of the potter's wheel have been found in excavations in Palestine. It consists of two horizontal stone disks placed one on top of the other, the lower one with a conical depression and the upper with a conical projection which could be turned by hand. Several types of pottery were thrown on the wheel in the Early Bronze Age but it was used extensively only in the Middle Bronze Age. After the pot was shaped it was removed from its stand and set aside to dry until its water content was not more than 15%. The pot was then of a leather hard consistency and handles, base, spout, projecting decorations, etc. were applied and various types of ornamentation were added: slips and burnishing, paint, incisions, relief and impressed markings. When the pot was completely fashioned it was dried a second time until it retained only about 3% of its water content. Afterwards it was fired in an open or closed kiln at a temperature of 450°–950° C. The best wares were produced at the highest temperatures. The earliest pottery was fired in open pits, in which combustible material was laid over the pottery, leaving blistering or patches on the sides of vessels. At a later stage the pottery was separated from the fuel by a perforated clay partition built above the fuel compartment. With the invention of the closed kiln it was possible to use an oxidizing fire, which produced pottery of a red color, or a reducing fire, without oxygen, which turned the pottery black.
The invention of pottery is believed to have taken place first in the northern Levant, together with the plaster-based White Ware ("vaisselles blanches"), and slowly it began appearing in Palestine as well. Crude attempts at making pottery (sun-dried or low-fired) were found at Pre-Pottery Neolithic c levels at Ain Ghazal and Basta (c. 5800–5500 b.c.e.). At Yiftahel (Stratum iii) the White Ware and the early pottery was visually indistinguishable, and some distinctions could only be made by petrographic analysis.
The pottery of the Late Neolithic period (5500 to 4000 b.c.e.) is handmade, coarse, and badly fired. The pottery types include jars, cooking pots, bowls and storage jars decorated with a red-burnished slip or painted triangular and zigzag lines, and with incised and painted geometric designs (such as chevron and herring-bone patterns). The main finds of this period come from the Jordan Valley, Sha'ar ha-Golan, Jericho, etc. The Wadi Rabbah pottery is a more accomplished type of pottery, known particularly in the coastal region.
In the Chalcolithic period (4000–3300 b.c.e.). several new forms are added to the pottery repertoire of the previous period. The pottery is handmade, sometimes made on a tournette (particularly bowls), and decorated with a rope ornament and occasionally painted with bands of red paint. Tiny lug handles are characteristic of the period, and the shapes include cornets, v-shaped bowls, goblets, jugs, and kraters. Mat impressions are found on the bases of the storage jars. A bird-shaped pot with a lug handle at each end has been named "churn" since it apparently served for making butter, though it may have been a water container. The largest assortment of Chalcolithic pottery was found in the Ghassulian and Beer-Sheba cultures. Additional pottery types are known from the Golan. There also appears to be an earlier phase of Chalcolithic ("Middle Chalcolithic") pottery from the Jordan Valley and from the central highland regions.
early bronze age
The Early Bronze Age 3300 b.c.e. to 1200 b.c.e. may be subdivided into three or four secondary phases:
(1) Early Bronze i – the typical pottery of the period is gray burnished ware, band-slip (grain-wash) ware, and burnished red-slip ware. Gray burnished ware has a more northerly distribution. Imports of Egyptian vessels are also known, with local imitations, particularly at southern sites (e.g., En Besor).
(2) Early Bronze ii – the most distinctive pottery type is the so-called "Abydos (Egyptian) ware," a group of pitchers and storage jars with burnished red-slips on the lower half and triangles and dots painted brown-black on the upper half. This pottery is named after the site where it was first found – the royal tombs of the First Dynasty at Abydos in Upper Egypt. It is of great value for correlating the chronology of Egypt and Palestine. Another important pottery group consists of storage jars with two loop handles and surfaces decorated with pattern combing.
(3) Early Bronze iii – the characteristic pottery of this phase is called Khirbat Karak ware (named after Bet Yeraḥ (Khirbat Karak) where it was first found). The pottery types include kraters, bowls, pitchers, and stands. The ware is made of a poor-quality clay and is covered throughout with a highly burnished slip. Occasionally it has a red slip all over but often the rim and interior are red and the exterior is black. The decoration consists of incised lines or groups of lines in relief.
Intermediate Bronze Age
The Intermediate Bronze Age (also known as the Early Bronze IV, 2300–2000 b.c.e.) constitutes a transitional stage between the Early Bronze Age and the Middle Bronze ii period. Its material remains are known from villages, campsites, and tombs. The pottery of the period is globular or cylindrical in shape, with wide flat bases, and lacks shoulders and handles. The handles which do occur – enveloped ledge handles and lug handles between the neck and the body – are apparently a continuation of the Early Bronze ceramic tradition. The body of this type of vessel is handmade while the neck, which flares outward, is formed on the wheel; the line where the two are joined together is decorated with combing or with single incised grooves. A group by itself is an assortment from the Megiddo tombs, which consists of "teapots" and goblets made on the wheel of black clay decorated with yellow bands and also jugs with red slips. There are no distinctive cooking pots; hole-mouth jars were apparently used for cooking. The typical lamp of the period is a small bowl with four pinched corners.
middle bronze age
With the renewed urbanism of the Middle Bronze Age (2000–1550 b.c.e.) the pottery assemblage flourished with common wares matched by luxury vessels, and greater regionalism in ware types now becomes apparent. All the pottery is now produced on the wheel, which allowed for great artistic development. The period is subdivided generally into the Middle Bronze iia and Middle Bronze iib.
Middle Bronze ii a
In the Middle Bronze iia period a glossy red slip decoration – produced by burnishing with a shell or pebble – appears on many vessels, such as small and closed carinated bowls with disk bases (perhaps imitations of metal prototypes); open bowls with flat or disk bases; jugs and juglets with double or triple handles, often set on the shoulder, and dipper juglets. The storage jars are elliptical with a flattened base and often have two loop handles in the center of the body. The cooking pot has straight sides with a thumb-indented projecting band surrounding the body and some are perforated above the band. An interesting group are the storage jars, jugs, and juglets decorated on the upper part of the body with black and red bands, triangles, or circles on a white slip. This ware was thought to be similar in ornamentation to that found in the Khabur region and at Byblos.
Middle Bronze iib
The red burnished slip ceases to be dominant in the Middle Bronze iib period and many vessels are undecorated. The technique of manufacture is highly developed and many vessels are produced with thin walls and complicated shapes, such as open carinated bowls with disk or trumpet bags, made of a well-fired, levigated clay. The storage jars have elongated elliptical bodies with two to four loop handles. A special group consists of pear-shaped (pyriform) juglets with a button base and red, brown, or black burnished slips. In the final phase of the period, the characteristic juglet is cylindrical with a flat base. The lamps are small pinched bowls with one wick hole. The cooking pots are shallow with rounded bases and rounded flaring rims. An unusual group of pyriform juglets are known as Tell al-Yahūdiyya ware – named after the site where they were first found in the Nile Delta (many types are now known from Tell ed-Daba'). These juglets have black, gray, or red burnished slips and a white puncture-filled decoration on the surface made with a pointed tool.
late bronze age
The Late Bronze Age (1550–1200 b.c.e.) extends from the conquest of Palestine by the first pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty to the appearance of the Israelites. Palestine in this period was under Egyptian rule, and its culture was influenced both by Egypt as well as by extensive trade connections with the Aegean and East Mediterranean civilizations. It is possible to subdivide the period into three phases (according to Egyptian chronology): Late Bronze i (c. 1550–1400 b.c.e.), the beginning of the 18th Dynasty; Late Bronze iia (c. 1400–1300 b.c.e.), mainly the Tell el-Amarna period; Late Bronze iib (c. 1300–1200 b.c.e.), 19th Dynasty.
Late Bronze i
The pottery types and technique of manufacture of the Middle Bronze iib period persist partly in the Late Bronze i period. The pottery repertoire includes carinated bowls with ring bases or high ring bases; kraters with two loop handles and a ring base, often with a rope decoration as in the previous period; storage jars with elongated bodies, rounded bases, and flaring rims. The ceramic tradition of the Middle Bronze iib period is also seen in the jugs, juglets, cooking pots, and lamps. Two new groups of ware appear in this period: pilgrim flasks and the so-called "biconical" vessels. The latter have one loop handle. The upper part is decorated with metopes painted red, black, or brown. A new class of vessels first appearing in the transition period between the Middle and Late Bronze Age and continuing into the Late Bronze i is the Bichrome Ware. Made of finely levigated and well-fired clay it is slipped and burnished. The group includes jugs, kraters, and bowls decorated with metopes formed by bands painted red and black. The metopes contain animal decoration – birds, fishes, oxen – and geometric patterns. The character of the ware, which contains a number of unique forms, the decoration, and the uniform method of production indicate that this pottery may have been created by a group of artists in a single center, possibly Tell al-ʿAjūl, south of Gaza.
Late Bronze ii
In the Late Bronze ii period the previous pottery tradition continues on the whole but shows a certain degeneration in form and quality. The workmanship of the carinated bowls is cruder. The bowls are mainly simple flat vessels with flat or disk bases. The storage jar now shows a sharp shoulder and thickened button base (this type of storage jar was exported from Ereẓ Israel and has been found, together with imitations, in countries in the Aegean Sea and Egypt). The typical jug has a prominent neck with the handle from the rim to the shoulder, and the most common juglet is a dipper juglet generally with trefoil mouth. A new style of painted pottery develops in this period. The ornamented ware – biconical vessels, jugs, kraters – are painted in a single color, red, black, or brown, and a typical decoration has two gazelles facing each other with a palm tree between them. This style degenerates in the second half of the period, Late Bronze iib, and becomes more schematic and cruder. The pilgrim flasks are flattened and generally decorated with painted concentric circles. In the Late Bronze iia the neck is attached to the handles of the flask like a flower among leaves while in the second half of the period the flasks are lentoid shaped and the attachment of the neck to the handles is effaced. The lamps have an elongated sharply pinched rim; the cooking pots are shallow with a rounded base and have an ax rim and no handles
There is an abundance of imported pottery in this period, mostly of Mycenean and Cypriot origin. All the Cypriot pottery occurs in Palestine parallel with its appearance in Cyprus. The most distinctive feature of this pottery is the technique of manufacture – it is all handmade and the handles are inserted inside the body of the vessels. This pottery falls into two main groups – White Slip Ware, which includes the "milk bowls," half-globular bowls with wishbone handles and a white-slip and ladder decoration painted brown or black. The second type is called Base Ring Ware and is characterized by a high ring base. This ware is made of well-fired clay and has a metallic ring when struck; it is covered with a reddish brown slip. Its most common types are bowls with wishbone handles and jugs with high tilted necks called bilbil. Groups of Monochrome Ware are also found in Palestine as well as the knife-pared type – usually dipper juglets – and other groups. The bulk of the Mycenean pottery appears in Late Bronze ii. It is wheel-made of a light-colored, finely levigated clay, and well fired. The vessels are covered with a light slip and painted with bands of geometric patterns and floral and animal motifs. Aside from a number of shards and a cup decorated with an ivy-leaf design which are attributed to the Late Bronze i (Mycenaean ii), the entire assortment belongs to the Mycenaean iiia–b period. The vessels include cups, pear-shaped amphoriskoi, stirrup-jars, pilgrim flasks, juglets, bowls, pyxides, etc. A small amount of pottery imported from Syria and Egypt is also found in this period.
The Iron Age is divided into two main parts: the Early Iron Age (or Iron Age i, 1200–1000 b.c.e.) and the Late Iron Age (Iron Age ii a–c, 1000–586 b.c.e.). The history of this period encompasses the appearance of the Philistines, Israelites, and other peoples in the region, and subsequently, the period of the United Monarchy, the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah, and the destruction of Jerusalem in 587/586 b.c.e. The collective term for pottery in the Bible is kelei ḥeres (כְּלֵי חֶרֶשׂ, Lev. 6:21; Num. 5:17; Jer. 32:14), while pottery sherds are called ḥeres (חֶרֶשׂ, Job. 2:8). Pottery vessels were used for cooking (Lev. 6:21), as containers for liquids (Num. 5:17), and containers for scrolls (Jer. 32:14). There are references in the Bible to some of the methods that the potter used in his work – "the potter treads clay" (Isa. 41:25) and "I went down to the potter's house, and there he was working at his wheel. And the vessel he was making of clay was spoiled in the potter's hand, and he reworked it into another vessel, as it seemed good to the potter to do" (Jer. 18:3–4). Only two types of vessels in the Bible are designated as pottery. They are: "earthen pots" (nivlei ḥeres; Lam. 4:2) and "earthen flasks" (bakbuk yoẓer ḥeres; Jer. 19:1). Other vessels that presumably were made of clay are, e.g., aggan, agganot, "bowl, cup" (Song 7:3 (2); Isa. 22:24); asukh, "jar" (ii Kings 4:2); gavʿia, "pitcher" (Jer. 35:5); kad, "jar" for water (Gen. 24:14) or flour (i Kings 17:14); kos, "cup" (Jer. 35:5); sir, "pot" (Ex. 16:3); sefel, "bowl" (Judg. 6:38); pakh, "vial" (of oil; Jer. 25:28; i Sam. 10:1); zappahat, "cruse" (i Kings 17:14); kubba'at, "cup" (Isa. 51:17, 22); ke'arah, "bowl" (Num. 7:85).
In the areas not settled by the Israelites, the Late Bronze pottery tradition seems to continue in the first phase of the period. At the same time new types of pottery appear in the highlands and inland regions of the country. This pottery is associated in the central highlands with the appearance of the Israelites, but in Galilee there are pottery types that indicate Phoenician influence as well. The pottery types which continue the Late Bronze tradition include kraters with two loop handles and painted metope decoration, cooking pots which continue the ax-shaped rim and are without handles, lentoid flasks which are decorated with painted concentric circles, and lamps. The pottery attributed to the area of the appearance of the Israelites, mostly coarse in shape and carelessly made, includes simple, crude bowls, storage jars mostly with a collar rim, many-handled kraters (up to eight) with a rope or incised decoration. The cooking pot shows numerous variations of the ax-shaped rim. During this period there also appear carinated bowls, especially in the south of the country, often with a pair of degenerated horizontal handles. Toward the end of the period new pottery features develop-two loop handles are added to the cooking pot which also has a ridge beneath the rim on the outside; tiny juglets appear with a black or red burnished slip; red-slipped vessels are also common with irregular hand burnishing which is the hallmark of the period. A very distinctive pottery assortment occurs in the 12th–11th centuries b.c.e., called Philistine Ware; it is found mainly in the area inhabited by the Philistines. The shapes and decorative motifs of the pottery are derived from the Aegean pottery tradition, mainly Mycenean iiic 1. The typical Philistine shapes include kraters with two horizontal loop handles; stirrup jars; jugs with long narrow necks, loop handles, and strainer spouts, which are known as "beer jugs"; long-necked jugs influenced by Egyptian pottery; elongated pyxides; and horn-shaped vessels. Some vessels are covered with a whitewash on which metopes are painted in red and black and ornamented with geometric designs, or even with animals and birds. With the consolidation of the Philistines into the material culture of Palestine in the late 11th century b.c.e., the typical animal motifs disappear and their pottery is no longer differentiated from other pottery types of the period.
Although many differences are found in the pottery of the north and south of the country in various periods, a sharper differentiation occurs with the division of the Monarchy and recent research has been able to highlight various aspects of regionalism. The excavation of Lachish was instrumental in establishing the character and date of pottery assemblages from Level iii (destroyed in 701 b.c.e.) and Level ii (destroyed in 587/586 b.c.e.). In Judah red-slip and wheel-burnished vessels are more common; the bowls are carinated with enveloped rims toward the end of the period; the kraters have from two to four handles, are covered with a red slip, and are wheel-burnished on the inside, and on the rim of the outside; the rims of the cooking pots are ridged on the outside, and toward the end of the period a special type of cooking pot with a high ridged rim appears; the typical storage jar (in Lachish iii) has four ridged loop handles, often stamped with la-melekh ("of the king") seal impressions, an elliptical body, and a rounded base; the hole-mouth jars have a round bottom and a wide enveloped or ridged rim; the jugs have bulging bodies and thick necks; at the end of the period the lamps have high bases. In Israel not only the red-slip burnished ware is dominant but red- and black-slip pottery is also very common. The typical storage jar has an elongated globular body, prominent shoulder, and pointed base; bowls and kraters are often decorated with bar handles under the rim. A distinctive northern group is known as Samaria Ware, appearing in two groups – thick-walled and thin-walled ware. This pottery is characterized by a very high standard of workmanship. The walls of the thin ware are of eggshell thinness; it is slipped and burnished throughout in red or in alternating concentric circles of red and yellow. The thick ware, made of a creamy clay, has thick walls and either ring, high ring, or stepped bases, The bowls are covered with a red, yellow, or black burnished slip. The pottery common to both Israel and Judah includes water decanters, spouted jugs, carinated bowls, dipper juglets, etc. Several types of imported pottery also occur in this period – the most prominent is known as Cypro-Phoenician Ware which first appears in Palestine toward the end of the Iron I period and continues until the eighth century b.c.e. This pottery includes bowls with two degenerated horizontal handles and juglets with a flat base and one or two handles. The vessels are decorated with black stripes and concentric circles on a lustrous red slip ("Black on Red"). Some imports from Assyria are also found.
This period (586–330 b.c.e.) is identical with the post-Exilic period, and covers the half century of Babylonian rule after the destruction of the Temple, as well as the subsequent two centuries of Persian rule. Some scholars have suggested that the material culture of the Iron Age ii did not cease with the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 b.c.e., but that it continued during the time of Babylonian rule, at least until 530/520 b.c.e., with others suggesting lowering the terminal date well into the fifth century b.c.e.
The pottery of the Persian phase includes coarse bowls with a high ring base and ribbed sides; storage jars with an elongated stump base and two loop handles rising above the shoulders; carrot-shaped juglets; storage jars with two deformed loop handles, elongated pointed base, straight shoulders, and slightly projecting rim. Towards the end of this period kraters and holemouth jars appear with a decoration of bands of reed incisions on their shoulders. The lamps have flat bases with one elongated wick hole and a wide rim around the bowl. A number of pottery types imported from Greece are found in Palestine.
Palestine in the Hellenistic period (330–63 b.c.e.) was for most of the time part of an empire and under its cultural influence. The local pottery made for ordinary domestic use was on the whole coarse and clumsy, with regional production centers, but two groups of imported ware are found: fine luxury ware and amphorae for storing imported goods, especially wine. The most characteristic of the local ware are bowls with inverted or outward flaring rims and ring or flat bases; spindle-shaped juglets; cooking pots with two handles and a low erect neck which are reminiscent of the Iron Age pots. There is also a group of open pinched lamps with one wick hole. Both classes of imported ware are widely distributed in this period, the most widespread being the Rhodian wine amphora with stamped handles. The luxury ware included Megarian bowls which were cast in molds; various types of black-glazed bowls ("fish plates") with impressed or roulette decoration. At the end of the period appears the terra sigillata ware – fine red-glazed pottery with impressed and roulette decoration.
The pottery of the Roman period (63 b.c.e.–325 c.e.), is divided into the Early Roman period (63 b.c.e.–135 c.e.), with some types disappearing with the fall of Jerusalem in 70 c.e., and the Middle Roman and/or Late Roman (135–325 c.e.). The typical local pottery of the Herodian period (first century c.e.) includes pilgrim flasks with twisted handles; bottles with high necks and thick bodies; juglets with flaring rims; closed lamps cast in molds with pared horned nozzles. The cooking pots follow the tradition of the previous period. Changes occur in the storage jars which divide into elongated bag-shaped jars and bell-shaped jars. Of the imported ware the most common type is the terra sigillata ware, mainly platters and flat bowls with ring bases; they are covered with a red glaze and have a roulette and impressed decoration. Both eastern and western sigillata appear in Palestine. The western, Arretine style (30 b.c.e.#x2013;30 c.e.) is outstanding in workmanship and finish. Nabatean Ware also appears in this period – eggshellthin bowls decorated with red floral patterns on an orange background. A local painted variety of bowl – resembling slightly Nabatean examples – appears in Jerusalem. In the Late Roman period these shapes continue to develop – the discus lamps are round and closed, cast in a mould, with a handle or a knob. Numerous Mediterranean types of amphorae appear in the region.
the byzantine period
Pottery types of the previous period continue into the Byzantine period (325–640 c.e.). From the beginning of the period, red gloss bowls ("Late Roman Wares") make their appearance. Hayes (1972) produced a dated series of these lrw types (but changes in this dating system is now being assumed by scholars). Local examples, such as bowls with rouletted decorations on their rims, also make their appearance. Various kinds of storage jars are typical of the period, particularly the so-called "Gaza" jar which was made at kilns sites along the lower coast region, from Ashkelon towards north Sinai. Numerous imported jars are also known for this period. Closed cooking pots with two ear-like handles give way to shallow cooking pots with two horizontal handles and a lid. There are also clay pans with only one horizontal handle. The lamps are closed, cast in molds, and elongated in form. Most of them are decorated. The pottery of the Byzantine period did not change with the invasion of the Hejaz Arabs in the early seventh century c.e., but continued with very small changes until the Abbasid period, i.e., in the mid-eighth century. It is at this point that major changes in the pottery assemblages of the Islamic period first become apparent.
R. Amiran, The Ancient Pottery of Palestine (1970). add. bibliography: general (see also bibliography under *Archaeology); D. Homes-Fredericq and H.J. Franken, Pottery and Potters – Past and Present (1986); M. Peleg, A Bibliography of Roman, Byzantine and Early Arab Pottery from Israel and Neighbouring Countries (1990); L.G. Herr, Published Pottery of Palestine. (1996); S. Gitin (ed.), The Ancient Pottery of Israel and its Neighbors: from the Neolithic through the Hellenistic Period. (2006). technology and research methods: D.E. Arnold, Ceramic Theory and Cultural Process (1985); C. Orton, P. Tyers, and A. Vince, Pottery in Archaeology (1993); I. Freestone and D. Gaimster (eds.), Pottery in the Making (1997); chalcolithic to persian: Y. Garfinkel, Neolithic and Chalcolithic Pottery of the Southern Levant (1999); J.A. Callaway, Pottery from the Tombs at 'Ai (Et-Tell) (1964); M.F. Kaplan, G. Harbottle, and E.V. Sayre, "Multi-disciplinary Analysis of Tell el-Yahudiyeh Ware," in: Archaeometry, 24 (1982), 127–42; R. Bonfil, "mb ii Pithoi in Palestrine," in: Eretz-Israel, 23 (1992), 26–37 (Heb.); M. Artzy and E. Marcus, "Stratified Cypriot Pottery in mbiia Context at Tel Nami," in: G.C. Ionnides (ed.), Studies in Honour of Vassos Karageorghis (1992), 103–10; D. Ilan, "Middle Bronze Age Painted Pottery From Tel Dan," in: Levant, 28 (1996), 157–72; P. Magrill and A. Middleton, "A Canaanite Potter's Workshop in Palestine," in: I. Freestone and D. Gaimster (eds.), Pottery in the Making (1997), 68–73; J.S. Holladay, "Of Sherds and Strata: Contributions Toward an Understanding of the Archaeology of the Divided Monarchy," in: F.M. Cross (ed.), Magnalia Dei: The Mighty Acts of God (1976), 253–93; S. Bunomovitz and A. Yasur-Landau, "Philistine and Israelite Pottery: A Comparative Approach to the Question of Pots and People," in: Tel Aviv, 23 (1996); A. Mazar and N. Panitz-Cohen, Timnah (Tel Batash) ii: The Finds from the First Millennium bce (2001); D. Ussishkin (ed.), The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish (1973–1994), 5 vols. (2004). hellenistic to byzantine: A. Berlin and K.W. Slane, Tel Anafa ii, i: The Hellenistic and Roman Pottery (1997); T. Levine, "Pottery and Small Finds From the Subterranean Complexes 21 and 70," in: A. Kloner, Maresha Excavations Final Report i (2003); D. Regev, "Typology of the Persian and Hellenistic Pottery Forms at Maresha – Subterranean Complexes 70, 21, 58," in: A. Kloner, Maresha Excavations Final Report i (2003); G. Finkielsztejn, Chronologie détaillée et révisée des eponyms amphoriques rhodiens de 270 à 108 av. J.C. environ. Premier bilan (2001); P.W. Lapp, Palestinian Ceramic Chronology 200 b.c.–a.d. 70 (1961): D.P.S. Peacock and D.F. Williams, Amphorae and the Roman Economy (1991); J. Eiring and J. Lund (eds.), Transport Amphorae and Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean (2004); J.W. Hayes, Handbook of Mediterranean Roman Pottery (1997); D. Adan-Bayewitz, Common Pottery in Roman Galilee (1993); D. Barag and M. Hershkovitz, "Lamps," in: Masada iv: The Yigael Yadin Excavations 1963–1965: Final Reports (1994); S. Loffreda, Cafarnao: ii. La Ceramica (1974); S. Loffreda, La Ceramica: di Macheronte e del' Herodion (90 a.c.–135 d.c.). (1996); R. Bar-Nathan, Hasmonean and Herodian Palaces at Jericho: Vol. iii: The Pottery. (2002); J. Magness, The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls (2002); M. Hershkovitz, "Jerusalem Painted Pottery from the Late Second Temple Period," in: R. Rosenthal-Higenbottom (ed.), The Nabateans in the Negev. (2003): 45–50; M. Killick, "Nabatean Pottery," in: Artists Newsletter (Nov. 1986), 16–17; J.W. Hayes, Late Roman Pottery (1972); F. Vitto, "Pottery and Pottery Manufacture in Roman Palestine," in: Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology, 23 (1986), 47–64; U. Zevulun and Y. Olenik, Function and Design in the Talmudic Period (1979); J. Magness, Jerusalem Ceramic Chronology circa 200–800 ce (1993); later periods: G.M. Crowfoot, "Pots, Ancient and Modern," in: pefqst (1932), 179–87; A.D. Grey, "The Pottery of the Later Periods from Tel Jezreel," in: Levant, 26 (1994), 51–62; D. Whitcomb, "Khirbet al-Mafjar Reconsidered: The Ceramic Evidence," in: basor, 271 (1988), 51–67; D. Pringle, "The Medieval Pottery of Palestine and Transjordan (ad 636–1500): An Introduction, Gazetteer and Bibliography," in: Medieval Ceramics, 5 (1981), 45–60. lamps: R. Rosenthal and R. Sivan, Ancient Lamps in the Schlossinger Collection. (1978); Y. Israeli and U. Avida, Oil Lamps from Eretz Israel (1988); J. Goodnick Westenholz, Let There Be Light: Oil Lamps from the Holy Land, Bible Lands Museum (2004).
[Isaak Dov Ber Markon /
Shimon Gibson (2nd ed.)]
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