Patron Saints

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PATRON SAINTS

INTRODUCTION

The custom of designating patron saints arose from the practice of building churches over the tombs of martyrs. Constantine was responsible for the great Roman basilicas of St. Peter and St. Paul-Outside-the-Walls. Similarly the basilicas of St. Lawrence in Agro Verano, St. Sebastian, St. Agnes on the Via Nomentana, among others, were built on sites where their bodies were buried. The saints came to be regarded as the special advocates and intercessors for the churches and the people who assembled in them. Dedication of churches to saints and angels followed. The reference to the seven angels of the seven churches the Book of Revelation (1:20 ff) may have provided a precedent for the practice of churches seeking the patronage of angels. A church in Ravenna was dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel as early as 545.

Over time the choice of a particular patron has depended upon many factors. In summary, patrons have been chosen for one or more of the following reasons: (1) a church or chapel is the burial place of a martyr or confessor;

(2) a church or chapel is the repository of an important relic of the saint; (3) saints who were the first to bring the Gospel message to a region or a people as, for example, St. Patrick in Ireland, St. Ansgar in Scandinavia; (4) the cult of a saint fostered by national pride and tradition; (5) the popularity of a saint at a given time, e.g. St. Thérèse of Lisieux in the 20th century; (6) the personal devotion and priorities of a pastor or important benefactor; (7) the identification of a saint with a particular situation or condition in his lifetime or heritage.

The 1917 Code of Canon Law spoke of titles, that is, the permanent names assigned to churches to distinguish one from another. If the title was the name of a saint, the person was called a patron, an advocate (1917 CIC c. 1168), and the titular feast was to be celebrated annually in the church. Blessed were able to be named patrons only with permission of the Holy See, generally granted to places and groups associated with the individual. The 1983 code is silent on the matter of titular patrons.

Patrons found their greatest popularity in the high Middle Ages. Towns were named after saints and nearly every institution and circumstance of life had its heavenly protector. The choice of heavenly patrons by guilds of artisans and craftsmen was dictated by some attribute or legend associated with the name of saint that linked their members to him or her. St. Vitus who was said to have been martyred in a caldron appealed to kettle-makers. Archers venerated St. Sebastian. Wagon-makers chose St. Catherine of Alexandria because a wheel was the means of her martyrdom. Tailors sought the patronage of St. Martin of Tours because he was said to have cut his mantle in half, giving one part to a beggar who turned out to be Christ. The intercession of other saints was implored for particular illnesses because they themselves had suffered from a particular malady or they ministered to those who had.

The practice of giving a child a Christian name at baptism is of medieval origin. As late as the ninth century, children in Germany were customarily given old Teutonic names, but gradually the sentiments of the people led to the custom of conferring the name of saints at baptism. The name of John the Baptist was very widely invoked in the 11th century, then the names of the apostles, and eventually the names were taken from litanies of the saints and the liturgical calendar. The importance given in medieval times to patron saints is reflected a decree of the Council of Benevento in 1374 that forbade the practice of repeating the baptismal rite in a case where a name had been omitted in the original administration. The Catechism of the Council of Trent strongly urged that the name given at baptism be from the catalogue of saints.

The saint after whom one is named is held up as a model for imitation as well as being one's guardian and advocate (II, s.v., Baptism, n. 76). The 1917 Code of Canon Law encouraged parents to choose a saint's name and, if they refused, the pastor was to enter both the given name and the name of a saint in the baptismal register (c. 761). The 1983 Code states that "parents, sponsors, and the pastor are to see that a name is not given which is foreign to Christian sentiment" (CIC c. 855).

The patron serves as a model of holiness and charity for the neophyte. The Catechism of the Catholic Church explains at baptism that people are sanctified by the Lord's name, and Christians receive their name in the Church. "This can be the name of a saint, that is, of a disciple who has lived a life of exemplary fidelity to the Lord. The patron saint provides a model of charity; we are assured of his intercession" (no. 2156).

Dates in parentheses represent the date that an individual was declared to be patron; most patronages have developed in a less formal manner.

PATRONS

Academics: Thomas Aquinas
Actors: Genesius
Adopted children: Clotilde, Thomas More
Advertisers: Bernardine of Siena (May 20, 1960)
Alpinists: Bernard of Montjoux (or Menthon) (August 20, 1923)
Altar servers: John Berchmans
Anesthetists: René Goupil
Animals: Francis of Assisi
Archaeologists: Damasus
Archers: Sebastian
Architects: Thomas Apostle
Art: Catherine de Virgi of Bologna
Artists: Luke, Catherine of Bologna, Bl. Fra Angelico (February 21, 1984)
Astronomers: Dominic
Athletes: Sebastian
Authors/Writers: Francis de Sales (April 26, 1923), Lucy
Aviators: Our Lady of Loreto (1920), Joseph of Cupertino

Bachelors: Giuseppe Mario Carolo Alphonse Moscati
Bakers: Elizabeth of Hungary, Nicholas
Bankers: Matthew, Bl. Joseph Tardini
Barbers: Cosmas and Damian, Louis
Basket-makers: Anthony, Abbot
Bees: Ambrose
Beggars: Martin of Tours
Blacksmiths: Dunstan
Blood banks: Januarius
Bookbinders: Peter Celestine
Bookkeepers: Matthew
Booksellers: John of God
Boy Scouts: George
Brewers: Luke, Nicholas of Myra
Bricklayers: Stephen
Brides: Nicholas of Myra
Bridges: John Nepomucene, Bénézet
Broadcasters: Gabriel
Builders: Vincent Ferrer
Butlers: Adelelm

Cabdrivers: Fiacre of Breuil
Canonists: Raymond of Peñafort
Carpenters: Joseph
Catechists: Angela Merici, Charles Borromeo, Peter
Canisius, Robert Bellarmine
Catechumens: Ambrose of Milan, Augustine of Hippo
Catholic Action: Francis of Assisi (1916)
Catholic Press: Francis de Sales
Charitable societies: Vincent de Paul (May 12, 1885)
Chastity: Thomas Aquinas
Chefs (Italian): Francis Caracciolo (1996)
Chefs (Pastry): Honoratus
Childbirth: Felicity, Raymond Nonnatus, Gerard Majella, Margaret of Antioch, Bl. Marie d'Oignies
Children: Nicholas of Myra
Choirboys: Dominic Savio (June 8, 1956)
Church Universal: Joseph (December 8, 1870)
Circus people: Julian the Hospitaller
Civil Disorder/Riots: Andrew Corsini
Colleges and Universities: Thomas Aquinas, Bl. Contardo Ferrini
Comedians: Vitus
Communications personnel: Gabriel
Computer Users: Isidore of Seville
Confessors: Alphonsus Liguori (April 26, 1950)
Converts: Justin, Elizabeth Seton
Cooks: Martha
Coppersmiths: Maurus

Dairy workers: Brigid of Ireland
Dancers: Vitus
Dentists: Apollonia
Desperate situations: Gregory Thaumaturgist, Jude Thaddeus, Rita of Cascia
Difficulties: Eustace
Divorce: Helena
Dyers: Maurice, Lydia

Ecologists, Environmentalists: Francis of Assisi (November 29, 1979)
Ecumenists: Cyril and Methodius, Bl. Elizabeth Hesselblad, Bl. María Gabriella Sagheddu
Editors: John Bosco
Educators, Catholic: Bl. Karolina Gerhardinger
Emigrants: Frances Xavier Cabrini (September 8, 1950)
Engineers: Ferdinand III
Epidemics and Pestilence: Christopher and Giles
Epilepsy: Vitus, Willibrord
Eucharistic Devotion: Pierre Julien Eymard, Paschal Baylon (November 28, 1897)
Expectant mothers: Raymond Nonnatus, Gerard Majella

Falsely accused: Raymond Nonnatus
Families: Bl. Gianna Beretta Molla, Bl. Giuseppina Bonino, Bl. Giovanni Piamarta
Farmers: George, Isidore
Fathers: Joseph (1899)
Firemen: Florian
Fire prevention: Catherine of Siena
First communicants: Tarcisius
Fishermen: Andrew
Flight Attendants: Bona of Pisa (March 2, 1962)
Florists: Thérèse of Lisieux
Forest workers: John Gualbert
Foundlings: Holy Innocents
Friendship: John the Divine, Aelred of Rievaulx
Funeral directors: Joseph of Arimathea, Dismas

Gardeners: Adelard, Tryphon, Fiacre, Phocas
Glassworkers: Luke
Goldsmiths: Dunstan, Anastasius
Gravediggers: Anthony, Abbot
Gypsies: Bl. Zeferino Jimenez

Hagiographers: Athanasius, Gregory the Great
Hairdressers: Martin de Porres
Homeless: Margaret of Cortona, Benedict Joseph Labré
Home Missions: Katharine Drexel
Horses: Giles
Hospital administrators: Basil the Great, Frances X Cabrini
Hospitality/Lodgings: Gertrude of Nivelles, Julian the Hospitaller
Hospitals: Camillus de Lellis and John of God (June 22, 1886)
Housekeepers: Zita
Hunters: Hubert, Eustachius

Infantrymen: Maurice
Innkeepers: Amand, Julian the Hospitaller

Janitors: Theobald
Jewelers: Eligius, Dunstan
Journalists: Francis de Sales (April 26, 1923), Bl. Titus Brandsma
Jurists: John Capistrano

Laborers: Isidore, James, John Bosco
Lawyers: Ivo (Yves Helory), Genesius, Thomas More
Librarians: Jerome
Lighthouse Keepers: Venerius of Milan (March 10, 1961)
Linguists: Gottschalk
Locksmiths: Dunstan
Lost Articles: Anthony of Padua, Arnulf of Metz, Daniel of Padua
Lovers: Raphael, Valentine

Maids: Zita
Mariners: Michael, Nicholas of Tolentino
Marriage: John Francis Regis, Bl. Otto Neururer, Ursula of Cologne, Bl. Benedetta Frassinello, Bl. Elizabeth Canori-Mora, Bl. Giuseppe Tovini
Married Couples: Joachim and Anne, Bl. Luchesius and Buona of Poggibonsi
Merchants: Francis of Assisi, Nicholas of Myra
Messengers: Gabriel
Metal workers: Eligius of Noyon
Military chaplains: John Capistrano (February 10, 1984)
Millers: Arnulph, Victor
Missionaries: Francis Xavier (March 25, 1904), Thérèse of Lisieux (December 14, 1927), Peter Claver (1896, Leo XIII), Benedict the Moor
Missions, parish: Leonard of Port Maurice (March 17, 1923)
Mothers: Monica
Motorists: Frances of Rome
Music: Arnulf of Metz, Cecilia of Rome, Dunstan of Canterbury, Philip Neri
Musicians: Gregory the Great, Cecilia, Dunstan
Mystics: John of the Cross, Teresa of Avila, Bl. Rafqa

Native Americans: Bl. Kateri Tekakwitha
Notaries: Luke, Mark
Nurses and Nursing: Agatha, Catherine of Siena, Elizabeth of Hungary, John of God (1930, Pius XI), Camillus de Lellis, Raphael

Orators: John Chrysostom (July 8, 1908)
Organ builders: Cecilia
Orphans, Abandoned Children: Jerome Emiliani (1928), Bl. Daniel Brottier

Painters: Bl. Fra Angelico
Parenthood: Adelaide of Burgundy, Rita of Cascia
Pharmacists: Cosmas and Damian, Gemma Galgani
Philosophers: Justin, Edith Stein
Physicians: Pantaleon, Cosmas and Damian
Pilgrims: James the Greater
Poets: Brigid of Ireland, John of the Cross
Poor: Lawrence, Anthony of Padua, Bl. Giacomo Cusmano, Bl. Maria Bernardina Jablonska
Poor souls: Nicholas of Tolentino
Possessed: Bruno, Denis
Postal employees: Gabriel
Priests: Jean-Baptiste Vianney (April 23, 1929)
Printers: John of God
Prisoners: Dismas, Joseph Cafasso
Public relations: Bernardine of Siena (May 20, 1960)
Publishers: Bl. Timothy Giaccardo, Bl. Joseph Tardini

Race relations: Martin de Porres
Radiologists: Michael (January 15, 1941)
Refugees: Bl. Angela Truszkowska, Bl. Kateri Tekakwitha
Retreats: Ignatius Loyola (July 25, 1922)

Sailors: Cuthbert, Brendan, Eulalia, Christopher, Peter González, Erasmus, Nicholas
Scholars: Bede the Venerable
Schools, Catholic: Thomas Aquinas (August 4, 1880), Joseph Calasanz (August 13, 1948)
Scientists: Albert the Great (August 13, 1948), Bl. Niels Stensen
Sculptors: Four Crowned Martyrs
Seamen: Francis of Paola
Searchers of lost articles: Anthony of Padua
Secretaries: Genesius Secular Franciscans: Louis of France, Elizabeth of Hungary
Seminarians: Charles Borromeo
Senior Citizens: Polycarp, Marie Poussepin
Shepherds: Drogo Shoemakers: Crispin and Crispinian Sick: John of God and Camillus de Lellis (June 22, 1886)
Silversmiths: Andronicus
Single mothers: Margaret of Cortona
Skaters: Lydwina
Skiers: Bernard of Montjoux (or Menthon)
Social workers: Louise de Marillac (February 12, 1960), John Francis Regis
Soldiers: Hadrian, George, Ignatius, Sebastian, Martin of Tours, Joan of Arc
Spelunkers: Benedict
Stenographers: Genesius, Cassian
Stonecutters: Clement
Stonemasons: Stephen
Students: Thomas Aquinas
Surgeons: Cosmas and Damian, Luke
Swordsmiths: Maurice

Tax collectors: Matthew
Teachers: John Baptist de la Salle (May 15, 1950)
Telecommunications workers: Gabriel (January 12, 1951)
Television: Clare of Assisi (February 14, 1958)
Theologians: Augustine, Alphonsus Liguori, Thomas Aquinas
Thieves, Repentant: Dismas
Tour Guides: Bona of Pisa
Toymakers: Claude
Translators: Jerome
Travelers: Nicholas of Myra, Christopher, Raphael, Julian the Hospitaller

Unborn Children: Bl. Gianna Beretta Molla

Vocations: Alphonsus Liguori, Bl. Annibale Francia

Watchmen: Peter of Alcántara
Weavers: Paul the Hermit, Anastasius the Fuller
Wine merchants and Bar Keepers: Amand of Maestricht
Workers: Joseph

Youth: Aloysius Gonzaga (1729, 1926), John Berchmans, Bl. Pier Giorgio Frassati

INTERCESSORS IN TIMES OF PERIL AND ILLNESS

Abdominal pain: Erasmus
Abuse, Child: Bl. Laura Vicuña, Bl. Maríam Baouardy
Abuse, Wife: Bl. Elisabetta Canori-Mora, Bl. Victoria Rasoamanarivo
AIDS and Incurable Diseases: Bl. Damian de Veuster, Thérèse of Lisieux
Alcoholism: John of God, Monica, Venerable Matthew Talbot
Barren women: Elizabeth
Blindness: Odilia, Raphael, Bl. Rafqa al-Rayes
Cancer: Peregrine, Ezequiel Moreno y Díaz
Deafness: Francis de Sales, Bl. Pierre-François Jamet
Disabled: Bl. Kateri Tekawitha, Bl. Maria Bernardina Jablonska
Dying: Joseph
Earthquakes: Eustochia Calafato
Epilepsy: Albanus of Mainz, Vincent Ferrer, Vitus of Sicily
Eye disease: Lucy, Raphael, Leodogar of Autun
Fever: Antoninus of Florence, Albert of Trapani, Barbara
Glandular conditions: Cadoc of Llancarfan
Gout: Bl. Emilia Bicchieri, Erconwald of London, Gerebernus of Sonsbeck, Gregory the Great, Idesbald of Flanders
Headaches: Teresa of Jesus (Avila), Denis
Heart disease: John of God
Imprisonment: Maximilian Kolbe, Bl. Jacinta Marto, Bl. Maríam Baouardy
Insomnia: Modestus and Crescentia MM, Vitus of Sicily
Invalids: Roch
Liver Disease: Albert of Trapani, Gerard of Brogne, Odilo of Cluny
Lung disease: Bernardino of Siena
Mental Illness: Dymphna of Gheel, Christina Mirabilis
Nervous Disorders: Bartholomew the Apostle
Paralysis: Osmund of Salisbury
Rheumatism: James the Greater
Stomach problems: Brice of Tours, Emeritiana of Rome, Timothy the Apostle
Stress: Walter of Pontoise
Strokes: Andrew Avellino
Throat ailments: Blase
Tuberculosis: Gemma Galgani, Thérèse of Lisieux
Ulcers: Martin of Tours
Wounds: Adelgondes of Maubeuge, Marciana of Mauritania

PLACES

Africa: Moses the African, Our Lady Queen of Africa (declared by Cardinal Lavigerie, 1876)
Algeria: Cyprian of Carthage
Angola: Immaculate Heart of Mary (November 21, 1984)
Central Africa: Most Pure Heart of Mary
Congo, Democratic Republic of: Immaculate Conception
Equatorial Guinea: Immaculate Conception of Mary (May 25, 1986)
Ethiopia: Frumentius
Lesotho: Immaculate Heart of Mary
Madagascar: Vincent de Paul
Nigeria: Our Lady Queen of Nigeria
North Africa: Cyprian of Carthage
South Africa: Our Lady of the Assumption (March 15, 1952)
Tanzania: Immaculate Conception (December 8, 1964)
Tunisia: Immaculate Conception

Central, North and South America

Argentina: Bl. Laura Vicuña, Francis Solano, Immaculate Conception, Our Lady of Lujan
Bolivia: Francis Solano, Our Lady of Candelaria, Our Lady of Copacabana, Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Brazil: Immaculate Conception, Nossa Senhora de Aparecida, Peter of Alcántara
Canada: Anne, John de Brébeuf, Isaac Jogues & Companions, Joseph Québec, John the Baptist
CentralAmerica: Our Lady of Guadalupe, Rose of Lima
Chile: Francis Solano, James the Greater, Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Colombia: Louis Bertrand, Peter Claver, Our Lady of Chiquinquira, Our Lady of the Rosary
Costa Rica: Our Lady of the Angels
Cuba: Our Lady of Charity (1605), Virgen de Regla
Dominican Republic: Dominic de Guzmán, Our Lady of High Grace
Ecuador: Sacred Heart of Jesus, Most Pure Heart of Mary
El Salvador: Our Lady of Peace (October 10, 1966)
Guatemala: James the Greater
Haiti: Our Lady of Perpetual Help
Honduras: Our Lady of Suyapa
Jamaica: Mary of the Assumption
Latin America: Rose of Lima
Mexico: Bl. Elías Nieves, Joseph, Our Lady of Guadalupe Cuautitlán, Bonaventure Mexico City: Philip de las Casas (first native-born saint)
Nicaragua: James the Greater
North America: Isaac Jogues & Companions, Our Lady of Guadalupe
Paraguay: Francis Solano, Our Lady of the Assumption (July 13, 1951), Our Lady of Lujan
Peru: Francis Solano, Joseph (March 19, 1957), Rose of Lima, Turibius of Mongrovejo
Puerto Rico: Our Lady of Divine Providence
Santo Domingo: Our Lady of Ransom
South America: Rose of Lima
United States: Immaculate Conception (1846), Our Lady of Guadalupe
Uruguay: James the Greater, Our Lady of Lujan, Philip the Apostle, Virgen de los Treinte y Tres (November 21, 1963)
Venezuela: Our Lady of Comotomo
West Indies: Gertrude of Helfta

Asia

Borneo: Francis Xavier
China: Joseph, Mary, Queen of China
East Indies: Francis Xavier, Thomas the Apostle
India: Francis Xavier, Our Lady of the Assumption, Rose of Lima, Thomas Didymus, Goa, Bl. Joseph Vaz
Indonesia: Bl. Virgin Mary
Japan: Francis Xavier, Peter Baptist
Korea: Joseph, Bl. Virgin Mary
Mongolia (Inner): Immaculate Conception of Mary
Mongolia (Outer): Francis Xavier
Pakistan: Francis Xavier, Thomas Didymus
Philippines: Pudentiana, Our Lady of the Immaculate
Conception, Rose of Lima, Sacred Heart of Mary
Sri Lanka: Lawrence the Deacon, Our Lady of Lanka
Thailand: Bl. Nicholas Bunkerd Kitbamrung
Vietnam: Joseph
Asia Minor : John the Evangelist
Alexandria: Cyril of Alexandria
Arabia: Mary, Our Lady of Arabia
Egypt: Mark the Evangelist
Iran: Addai and Mari, Maruthas
Jordan: John the Baptist
Palestine: Mary, Queen of Palestine
Syria: Addai, Mari
Turkey: John Chrysostom, John the Evangelist
Europe : Benedict of Nursia (declared 1964 by Paul VI), Pope Benedict III, Cyril and Methodius (declared December 31, 1981, by John Paul II), Bridget of Sweden (declared October 1, 1999 by John Paul II), Catherine of Siena (declared October 1, 1999 by John Paul II), Edith Stein (declared October 1, 1999 by John Paul II)
Albania: Our Lady of Good Counsel
Alps: Bernard of Menthon
Armenia: Bartholomew the Apostle, Gregory the Illuminator (apostle)
Austria: Colman of Stockerau, Florian of Noricum, Joseph,
Leopold the Good, Maurice of the Theban Legion,
Our Lady of Mariazell, Severino
Belgium: Columbanus of Ghent, Joseph, Our Lady of
Banneux, Our Lady of Baeuraing
Bosnia: (Banja Luka) Bonaventure
Bulgaria: Cyril and Methodius, Demetrius
Croatia: (Dubrovnik) Blaise of Sebaste
Cyprus: Barnabas the Apostle
Czech Republic: Adalbert, Cyril and Methodius, John of Nepomuk, Ludmilla, Procopius, Wenceslaus of Bohemia
Denmark: Ansgar (apostle of Denmark), King Canute
England: Augustine of Canterbury, George the Great, Gregory the Great, Michael the Archangel
Finland: Henry of Uppsala (apostle)
France: Denis, Joan of Arc, Laurent, Martin of Tours, Our Lady of the Assumption, Remigius, Therese of Lisieux (May 3, 1944), Vincent the Deacon
Georgia: Nino
Germany: Boniface
Gibraltar: Bernard of Clairvaux, Our Lady of Europe (May 31, 1979)
Greece: Andrew the Apostle, Nicholas of Myra, Paul of Tarsus
Hungary: Bl. Astericus (Anastasius), Gerard, Stephen of
Hungary, Bl. Virgin Mary
Iceland: Ansgar, Thorlac Thorhallsson (January 14, 1984)
Ireland: Brigid of Kildare, Columbanus of Bangor, Patrick of Ireland, Our Lady of Knock, Our Lady of Limerick
Italy: Bernardino of Siena, Catherine of Siena, Francis of Assisi, Our Lady of Loreto, Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Our Lady of Pompeii, Our Lady of Tears, Our Lady of the Snow
Lithuania: Casimir, Cunegund (Kinga, 1695), Hyacinth, John Cantius, John of Dukla, John of Kanty (1737)
Luxembourg: Cunegund, Our Lady of Comfort, Willibrord
Malta: Agatha of Catania, Devota of Corsica, Our Lady of the Assumption, Paul of Tarsus
Monaco: Devota of Corsica
Netherlands: Plechelm, Willibrord
Norway: Olaf of Norway, Magnus of Orkney
Poland: Adalbert of Prague, Casimir, Cunegund (Kinga, 1695), Florian of Noricum, Hedwig of Anjou, Hyacinth, John Cantius (1737), John of Dukla, Our Lady of Częstochowa, Our Lady of Jasna Gora, Stanislaus of Krakow, Stanislaus Kostka
Portugal: Antony of Padua, Francis Borgia, George the Great, Immaculate Conception, Vincent
Romania: Cyril and Methodius, Nicetas
Russia: Andrew the Apostle, Basil the Great, Boris, Casimir, Joseph, Nicholas of Myra, Thérèse of Lisieux, Sergius of Radonez, Vladimir I of Kiev
Scandinavia: Ansgar
Scotland: Andrew the Apostle, Columba, Margaret of Scotland (1673), Palladius
Serbia: Sava
Slovakia: John of Nepomuk, Our Lady of the Assumption, Our Lady of Sorrows
Slovenia: George the Great
Spain: Euphrasius, Felix, Immaculate Conception, James the Greater, John of Avila, John of Nepomuk, Raymond Nonnato, Teresa of Avila, Vincent the Deacon
Sweden: Ansgar, Birgitta of Sweden, Eric, Gall, Sigfrid
Switzerland: Gall, Bl. Nicholas of Fluë
Ukraine: Josaphat, Vladimir
Wales: David (Dewi) of Wales
Oceania : Peter Mary Chanel
Australia: Our Lady Help of Christians (1964), Bl. Mary MacKillop
New Caledonia: Our Lady of the Assumption
New Zealand: Our Lady Help of Christians (1964)
Papua New Guinea: Michael the Archangel (May 31, 1979)
Solomon Islands: Michael the Archangel, Most Holy Name of Mary (September 4, 1991)

Bibliography: d. attwater, A New Dictionary of Saints, ed. j. cummings (rev. ed. Collegeville, Minn. 1993). Catholic Almanac, ed. our sunday visitor (Indiana 1999). Penguin Dictionary of Saints (3d ed. London 1995). Butler's Lives of the Saints, ed. m. walsh (San Francisco 1991). h. delehaye, Sanctus (Brussels 1954). d. farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (4th ed. New York 1997). s. kelly and r. rogers, Saints Preserve Us (New York 1993). j. c. j. metford, Dictionary of Christian Lore and Legend (London 1983). h. roeder, Saints and Their Attributes (Chicago 1955). a. sandoval, The Directory of Saints (New York 1996).

[k. i. rabenstein/eds.]

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Patron Saints

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