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Korea, Martyrs of, Ss.

KOREA, MARTYRS OF, SS.

Also known as Andrew Kim Tae-gon and Companions, and Paul Chong Hasang and Companions; d. in Korea, 1839, 1846, 1866, and 1867. During his 21st international pastoral visit, Pope John Paul II canonized 103 of the estimated 8,00010,000 martyrs of Korea on May 6, 1984, in its capital Seoul. This marked the bicentennial of Christianity in Korea and the first canonization ceremony held outside the Vatican. After noting the uniqueness of the Korean Catholic community in the history of the Church, he said: "The death of the martyrs is similar to the death of Christ on the Cross, because, like his, theirs has become the beginning of new life."

The canonized Korean Martyrs are 103 Catholics first beatified in two groups: 79 martyrs who died during the Choson dynasty (183946) were beatified in 1925; 24 martyred in 186667 were raised to the altar in 1968.

Among the group were 10 French missionaries (3 bishops and 7 Paris Society of Foreign Missions [MEP]), 46 Korean men (1 priest, 1 seminarian, 25 lay catechists, and 19 other laymen), and 47 Korean women (15 virgins, 11 married women, 18 widows, and 3 of unknown marital status; 3 of them were catechists). They ranged in age from 13 to 78. Most of the canonized saints were beheaded, but 17 were hanged or strangled, 10 expired in prison, and 7 died under torture. Their common feast is September 20 on the General Roman Liturgical Calendar.

The names of the two martyrs listed in the liturgical calendar are Andrew Kim Tae-gon, the first Korean priest, and Paul Chong Hasang, a renowned lay leader.

Andrew Kim Tae-gon, b. Tchoung-tcheng Province, Korea, Aug. 21, 1821; d. near Seoul, Korea, Sept. 16, 1846, was born into Korean nobility. Kim's father Ignatius Kim, and grandfather, In-He Kim (d. 1814) died for the faith. After his baptism (1836) Andrew went with two other Korean youths to seminary in Macau, China, where he remained until 1842. He then set out for his native land, but not until his third attempt and after many difficulties did he succeed in entering the closely guarded Hermit Kingdom, as Korea was known, by way of Manchuria (1845). In 1844 he was ordained a deacon, and in 1845 he crossed the Yellow Sea and was ordained a priest in Shanghai, becoming the first native Korean priest. He returned to Korea in company with Bp. Jean Ferréol, the vicar apostolic, and Fr. A. Daveluy. In 1846 Kim was assigned to arrange for the entrance of more missionaries by some water routes that would elude the border patrol. During this process he was arrested, imprisoned, tortured, and finally beheaded at the Han River near Seoul, the capital. The body was exposed publicly for three days, according to the custom, before burial at the site of execution. After 40 days the Catholics were able to obtain the remains and bury them on Mi-ri nai Mountain about 35 miles distant. In 1949 the holy see designated him the principal patron of the clergy of Korea.

Paul Chong Hasang (Cheong), seminarian, lay catechist, d. Sept. 22, 1839 (age 45), hanged outside the small west gate in Seoul. Paul was one of the lay leaders of the early Korean Church. His father, leader of the confraternity of Christian doctrine, and his uncle were martyred in the Shin-Yu persecution of 1801. Following in their footsteps, Paul gathered the scattered Christians and labored to strengthen the infant Korean Church. He traveled nine times to Beijing as a servant to the Korean diplomatic mission in order to petition the bishop of Beijing to send priests to Korea. Because his plea fell on deaf ears, he appealed directly to Rome in 1925, which led to the dispatch of French missionaries. He also wrote to the prime minister a short apologetic (Sang-Je-Sang-Su) on Christian doctrine and its harmony with national values in the hope of ending the persecution of Christians. Paul was one of the three men sent by Maubant to Macau for seminary training; he was martyred, however, prior to ordination. His mother, Cecilia, and sister died for their faith shortly thereafter.

The earliest missionaries to Korea are also included among the martyrs canonized: Laurent Joseph Marius Imbert, bishop; b. 1786, Marignane (Bouches-du-Rhône), France; Pierre Philibert Maubant, b.1803 in Vaussy (Calvados); Jacques Honoré Chastan, b. 1803 in Marcoux (Basses-Alpes). Imbert entered the MEP in 1818, was ordained in 1819, and went to China (1820) after ordination, where he labored as a missionary until he became the second vicar apostolic of Korea (1837) and the first one to enter the country. Preceding him were two French confreres, Maubant and Chastan. Maubant was ordained in 1829, joined the MEP in 1831, and set out for Korea in 1832. He entered the country in 1836, the same year as Chastan, who was ordained in 1826, joined the MEP in 1827, and went to Thailand before his assignment to Korea (1832). Since the Hermit Kingdom did not admit foreigners and did not tolerate Christians, the three men, the only priests then in the country, could not engage openly in their apostolate. An edict, issued in April 1839 was followed by fierce persecution. Bishop Imbert (whose Korean name was Bom) found it necessary to flee from Seoul, the capital, in June. He remained in hiding until betrayed by a renegade Christian and seized by the authorities (August 11). From his prison in Seoul he sent to his two priests a controversial letter that directed them to come forward. Maubant (Ra in Korean) and Chastan (Cheong) came as directed. The three were tried, tortured, and sentenced to military execution. After they had been beheaded at state expense at a public and solemn ceremony in Sae Nam Do near Seoul (Sept. 21, 1839), their heads were suspended in public to terrify Christians. Their mortal remains are enshrined at Samsong-san, near Seoul.

Besides these men, the following other martyrs were canonized. They are listed by their given name together with their date of death and age at the time of death.

Agatha Chon Kyong-hyob (Kyung-Hyun Jeon, Tiyen), virgin; d. Sept. 26, 1839 (52), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Agatha Kim A-gi (Up-Yi Kim), widow; d. May 24, 1839 (65); beatified 1925.

Agatha Kwon Chin-i (Jin-Yi Kwon), housewife; d. Jan. 31, 1840 (21), beheaded at Dang-Gogae.

Agatha Yi (Lee), virgin; d. Jan. 9, 1840 (17), hanged at Po Chung Ok.

Agatha Yi Kan-nan (Gan-Nan Lee), widow; d. Sept. 20, 1846 (32), hanged at Po Chung Ok.

Agatha Yi Kyong-i (Kyung-Yi Lee), virgin; d. Jan. 31, 1840 (27), beheaded at Dang-Gogae.

Agatha So-Sa Lee, widow; d. May 24, 1839 (55), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Agnes Kim Hyo-ju (Hyo-Joo Kim), virgin; d. Sept. 3, 1839 (23), beheaded outside the small west gate. She was imprisoned with her sister Columba Kim.

Alexius U Se-yong (Se-Young Woo); d. March 21, 1866 (21), beheaded at Saenam-To, then was displayed.

Andrew Chong Hwa-gyong (Hwa-Kyung Jung; Cheong; Tjyeng), lay catechist; d. Jan. 23, 1840 (33), hanged at Po Chung Ok.

Anna Kim Chang-gum (Jang-Keum Kim), widow; d. July 20, 1839 (50), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Anna Pak A-gi (Ah-Ki Park), housewife, May 24, 1839 (56), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Antoine Daveluy, French bishop; d. March 30, 1866 (49) beheaded at Kalmaemot, then the head was displayed as a warning to other Christians. He entered Korea with Andrew Kim Tae-gon and Bp. Ferréol in 1845. In 1862 he baptized 40 catechumens in the Christian refuge now called Han-Ti (meaning "mass grave") in the Palgong Mountains. Later all the Christians of the village were massacred in a surprise attack and buried together. Daveluy was responsible for establishing a press to print catechisms and for collecting and preserving information on those martyred. He edited the first Korean-French dictionary, which authorities burned together with other Christian books. In an attempt to spare other Christians, Daveluy turned himself in. From jail he wrote to Aumaitre and Martin Huin suggesting the same course of action. He was consecrated auxiliary to Bp. Berneux (1856) and martyred with Aumaitre, Huin, and Joseph Chang Chu-gi just three weeks after becoming the 5th apostolic vicar of Korea.

Anthony Kim Song-u (Sung-Woo Kim), lay catechist, d. April 29, 1841 (46), strangled in prison at Dang-Gogae for harboring foreign priests in his home. Two of his brothers were also martyred.

Augustine Pak Chong-won (Jong-Won Park), lay catechist; d. Jan. 31, 1840 (48), beheaded at Dang-Gogae.

Augustine Yi Kwang-hon (Kwang-Hun Lee, Ni), lay catechist; d. May 24, 1839 (52), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Augustine Yu Chin-kil (Jin-Kil Yoo, Ryou, Nyou);d. Sept. 22, 1839 (48), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Barbara Cho Chung-i (Zung-Yi Cho), housewife; d. Dec. 29, 1839 (57), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Barbara Ch'oe Yong-i (Young-Yi Choi), housewife;d. Feb. 1, 1840 (22), hanged at Dang-Gogae.

Barbara Han A-gi (Ah-Ki Han), widow; d. May 24, 1839 (47), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Barbara Kim, widow; d. May 27, 1839 (34) in prison.

Barbara Ko Sun-i (Soon-Yi Ko), housewife; d. Dec. 29, 1839 (41), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Barbara Kwon Hui (Hee Kwon), housewife; d. Sept. 3,1839 (45), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Barbara Yi (Jung-Hee Lee, Yong-h'ui), widow; d. Sept. 3, 1839 (40), beheaded outside the small west gate. She is the aunt of Barbara Yi Chong-hui (infra) and sister of Magdalene Yi Yong-h'ui.

Barbara Yi Chong-hui (Jung-Hee Lee), virgin; d. May 27, 1839 (14) in prison. Her aunts Barbara Jung-Hee Lee and Magdalene Yi Yong-h'ui were martyred several months later.

Bartholomew Chong Mun-ho (Moon-Ho Jung), county governor; d. Dec. 23, 1866 (65), beheaded at Jun Joo (Chon Ho), where he is buried.

Benedicta Hyon Kyong-nyon (Kyung-Ryung Han; Hyen), lay catechist; d. Dec. 29, 1839 (45), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Catherine Chong Ch'ol-yom (Chul-Yom Jung; Cheong), housewife; d. Sept. 20, 1846 (29), hanged at Po Chung Ok.

Catherine Yi (Lee), widow; d. Sept. 26, 1839 (56) in prison.

Charles Cho Shin-chol (Shin-Chul Cho, Tjyo); d. Sept. 26, 1839 (46), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Charles Hyon Sok-mun (Seok-Moon Hyun, Hyen), lay catechist; d. Sept. 19, 1846 (49), decapitated and head displayed at Seoul. Bishop Imbert entrusted the care of the Korean Christians to Charles before the deaths of the three priests.

Cecilia Yu So-sa (Ryou), widow and mother of Paul Chong Hasang and Elizabeth Chong Ch'ong-hye; d. Nov. 23, 1839 (78) in prison.

Columba Kim Hyo-im, virgin; d. Sept. 26, 1839 (25), imprisoned, pierced with red hot awls, scorched with burning coals, then beheaded outside the small west gate.

Damian Nam Myong-hyok, lay catechist; d. May 24, 1839 (37) beheaded outside the small west gate. He was a model husband and father.

Elizabeth Chong Ch'ong-hye (Jung-Hye Jung; Cheong), virgin, younger sister of Paul Chong Hasang;d. Dec. 29, 1839 (42), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Francis Ch'oe Kyong-hwan (Kyung-Hwan Choi, Tchoi), lay catechist; d. Sept. 12, 1839 (34) in prison. Francis is the father of Korea's second native priest, Thomas Yang-Up Choi. During the Gihae persecution his family was arrested. His youngest son starved to death in his mother's arms in prison; four of his sons, however, survived to witness the beheading of Francis's wife, Maria Song-Rye Yi, the year following his death (1840). Although his sons did not die for the faith, they suffered becoming exiled beggars. In 1849 Fr. Yang-Up Choi returned to his homeland to pray at his father's grave near An Yang in the village of DamBae-Gol.

Ignatius Kim Che-jun (Je-Joon Kim), father of Andrew Kim and lay catechist; d. Sept. 26, 1839 (43), beheaded outside the small west gate.

John Baptist Chon Chang-un (Jang-Woon Jeon), vendor and publisher; d. March 9, 1866 (55), beheaded outside the small west gate.

John Baptist Nam Chong-sam (Jong-Sam Nam), regional governor; d. March 7, 1866 (49), beheaded outside the small west gate of Seoul. Chong-sam was renowned as a just government official. Before his arrest and martyrdom he resigned his position and retired to Myojae because he could not offer sacrifice to his ancestors in good conscience. He is remembered as a model of chastity, charity, and poverty.

John Baptist Yi Kwang-nyol (Kwang-Ryul Lee), technician; d. July 20, 1839 (44), beheaded outside the small west gate.

John Pak Hu-jae (Hoo-Jae Park), merchant; d. Sept. 3, 1839 (40), beheaded outside the small west gate.

John Ri Mun-u (Moon-Woo Lee), lay catechist; d. Feb. 1, 1839 (31), hanged at Dang-Gogae. He was a Korean layman who wrote a still extant letter from prison; beatified 1925.

John Yi Yun-il (Yoon-Il Lee), lay catechist; d. Jan. 21, 1867 (43), beheaded at Kwan-Duk Jung in Tae Ku. In 1987 his body was translated to the Lourdes Grotto at TaeKu, where Pope John Paul II stopped to pray in 1984.

Joseph Chang Chu-gi (Joo-Ki Jang), lay catechist and teacher of Chinese literature; d. March 30, 1866 (63). The first Korean seminary was established in his home in 1856. One room was used as a classroom and dormitory; the other as a rectory. He was decapitated and his head displayed at Kalmaemot for trying to protect the Christians hidden in his pottery kiln, which had been used by the Christians as a place of worship and to support themselves once they were dispossessed of family and property for their religion.

Joseph Chang Song-jib (Sung-Jip Jang, Tjyang), brother of Anthony Sung-Woo Kim; d. May 26, 1839 (53) strangled in prison at Po Chung Ok.

Joseph Cho Yun-ho (Yoon-Ho Cho), farmer; d. Dec. 23, 1866 (18) died at Jun Joo.

Joseph Im Ch'i-baek (Chi-Baek Im, Rim), Seoul boatman; d. Sept. 20, 1846 (42) hanged at Po Chung Ok.

Julietta Kim, virgin; d. Sept. 26, 1839 (55), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Just Ranfer de Bretennières, French priest; d. March 7, 1866 (28), decapitated, head displayed at Seoul.

Lawrence Han I-hyong (Yi-Hyung Han), lay catechist; d. Sept. 20, 1846 (47), hanged Po Chung Ok.

Lucy Kim, virgin; d. July 20, 1839 (21) outside the small west gate. on.

Lucy Kim (II), widow; d. Sept. 26, 1839 (70) in pris-Lucy Pak Hui-sun (Hee-Soon Park), virgin; d. May 5, 1839 (38), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Louis Beaulieu, French priest; d. March 7, 1866 (26), decapitated and head displayed at Seoul.

Luke Hwang Sok-tu (Seok-Du Hwang), lay catechist; d. March 30, 1866 (53), beheaded then displayed at Kalmaemot. Luke was the brilliant coworker of Bishop Daveluy. He translated the Bible into Korean and wrote catechetical material for publication.

Magdalena Cho, virgin; d. Sept. 26, 1839 (32) in prison.

Magdalena Han Yong-i (Young-Yi Han), widow; d. Dec. 29, 1839 (55), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Magdalena Ho Kye-im (Gye-Im Her; He Kye-im, Ho), housewife; d. Sept. 26, 1839 (66), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Magdalena Kim Ob-i (Ah-Ki Lee), widow; d. May 24, 1839 (52), hanged outside the small west gate.

Magdalena Pak Pong-son (Bong-Son Park), widow;d. Sept. 26, 1839 (43), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Magdalena Son So-byok (So-Byuk Son), housewife;d. Jan. 31, 1840 (39), hanged at Dang-Gogae.

Magdalena Yi Yong-dok (Young-Duk Lee), virgin;d. Dec. 29, 1839 (27), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Magdalena Yi Yong-h'ui (Young-Hee Lee), virgin;d. July 20, 1839 (30) outside the small west gate. She is the sister of Barbara Yi.

Maria Pak K'un-agi (Keum-Ah Ki Park), housewife;d. Sept. 3, 1839 (53), beheaded outside the small west gate. Her husband, Philip Kim, was also martyred but is not numbered among these saints.

Maria Won Kwi-im (Gui-Im Won, Ouen), virgin; d. July 20, 1839 (21), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Maria Yi In-dok (In-Duk Lee), virgin; d. Jan. 31, 1840 (22), hanged at Dang-Gogae.

Maria Yi Yon-hui (Yeon-Hee Lee), wife, mother, member of a simple form of religious sisterhood; d. Sept. 3, 1839 (35), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Mark Chong Ui-bae (Eui-Bae Jung), lay catechist; d. March 11, 1866 (71), decapitated and head displayed at Seoul.

Martha Kim Song-im (Sung-Im Kim), widow; d. July 20, 1839 (49), outside the small west gate.

Martin Luc (Luke) Huin, French priest; d. March 30, 1866 (30), beheaded and head displayed at Kalmaemot.

Paul Ho Hyop (Im Her, He, Heo), soldier; d. Jan. 30, 1840 (45), hanged at Po Chung Ok.

Paul Hong Yong-ju (Young-Joo Hong), lay catechist; d. Feb. 1, 1840 (39), beheaded at Dang-Gogae.

Perpetua Hong Kum-ju (Keum-Joo Hong), widow;d. Sept. 29, 1839 (35), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Pierre Aumaitre, French priest of MEP; d. March 30, 1866 (29), beheaded at Kalmaemot.

Peter Cho Hwa-so (Hwa-Seo Cho), farmer; d. Dec. 13, 1866 (51), beheaded at Jun Joo.

Peter Ch'oe Ch'ang-hup (Chang-Hoop Choi), lay catechist; d. Dec. 29, 1839 (52), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Peter Ch'oe Hyong (Hyung Choi), lay catechist; d. March 9, 1866 (52), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Peter Chong Won-ji (Won-Ji Jung), farmer; d. Dec. 13, 1866 (20), beheaded at Jun Joo.

Peter Hong Pyong-ju (Byung-Joo Hong, Kong), lay catechist; d. Jan. 31, 1840 (42), hanged at Dang-Gogae.

Peter Kwon Tug-in (Deuk-In Kwon, Kouen), producer of religious goods; d. May 24, 1839 (34) in prison outside the small west gate.

Peter Nam Kyong-mun (Kyung-Moon Nam), soldier, lay catechist; d. Sept. 20, 1846 (50), hanged at Po Chung Ok.

Peter Son Son-ji (Seon-Ji Son), lay catechist; d. Dec. 13, 1866 (46), beheaded at Sup JungYi with Bartholomew Chong Mun-ho. Their bodies rest at Chon Ho in the north Cholla province.

Peter Ho-Young Lee, lay catechist; d. Nov. 25, 1838 (35) in prison.

Peter Won-Seo Han, lay catechist; d. Dec. 13, 1866 (20), beheaded at Jun Joo.

Peter Yi Myong-so (Myung-Seo Lee), farmer; d. Dec. 13, 1866 (45), beheaded at Jun Joo.

Peter Yi Tae-chol (Dae-Chul Yoo, Ryou, Ryau), youth; d. Oct. 31, 1839 (13) at Po Chung Ok. Little Peter had presented himself to the magistrates, proclaiming that he was a Christian. The judges were horrified at his tortures. Fearing the popular opinion would turn again the authorities, his executioners strangled him after his return to prison.

Peter Yu Chong-nyul (Jung-Ryung Yoo), lay catechist; d. Feb. 17, 1866 (29) at Pyung Yang (now in North Korea).

Pierre-Henri Dorie, French priest; d. March 7, 1866 (27), beheaded at SaeNam To and head displayed.

Protasius Chong Kuk-bo (Kook-Bo Jung, Cheong), noble and maker of musical instruments; d. May 20, 1839 (40) in prison at Po Chung Ok. He apostatized under torture and was released. Later he regretted his weakness, gave himself up to the authorities, and died from his torments.

Rosa Kim, widow; d. July 20, 1839 (55), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Sebastian Nam I-gwan (Yi-Kwan Nam), lay catechist; d. Sept. 26, 1839 (59), beheaded outside the small west gate.

Simeon Berneux, French bishop; d. March 7, 1866 (52), beheaded.

Stephen Min Kuk-ka (Geuk-Ga Min), lay catechist;d. Jan. 30, 1840 (53), hanged at Po Chung Ok.

Susanna U Sul-im (Sul-Im Woo), widow; d. Sept. 20, 1846 (43), hanged at Po Chung Ok.

Teresa Kim, widow; d. Jan. 9, 1940 (44) hanged at Po Chung Ok.

Teresa Kim Im-i (Yim-Yi Kim), virgin; d. Sept. 20, 1846 (35), hanged at Po Chung Ok.

Teresa Yi Mae-im (Mae-Im Lee), housewife; d. July 20, 1839 (51), outside the small west gate.

Thomas Son Cha-son (Ja-Sun Son), farmer; d. March 30, 1866 (22), hanged at Gong Joo.

Bibliography: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 17 (1925) 36669. L'Osservatore Romano, English ed., no. 20 (1984) 56, 20. c. dallet, L'Histoire de l'Eglise de Corée (1874) 118185. Documents relatifs au martyrs de Corée, 2 v. (Hong Kong 1924). c. a. herbst, "Unless the Grain of Wheat First Die ," American Ecclesiastical Revue 139 (1958) 331337; "The Bishop Dies," ibid. 138 (1958) 149157; "Korea's Martyr-Patron," ibid. 137 (1957) 330341. k. d. kim, Life of Kim Dae Kun (Seoul 1960), in Korean. a. launay, Martyrs français et coréens (1925). s. a. moffett, The Christians of Korea (New York 1962). m. w. noble, Victorious Lives of Early Christians (Seoul 1933).

[c. a. herbst/

k. rabenstein]

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