Joannes de Lignano
JOANNES DE LIGNANO
Jurist and canonist, son of Count Giacomo degli Oldrendi; b. Milan, c. 1320; d. Feb. 16, 1383. He studied law at the University of Bologna and by 1350 had earned his doctorate in utroque iure. Intensely devoted to the Church and a leading political figure in Bologna, he played an important role in settling the disputes between the papacy and Bologna that broke out during the last 30 years of his life. Peace was finally achieved in 1377, and in 1378 Joannes was appointed the first vicar-general of the pope at Bologna. As a sign of gratitude, Bologna conferred honorary citizenship upon him. During the Western Schism he defended the election of Urban VI, particularly by means of his tract De Fletu Ecclesiae (1378–79).
His writings embrace canon and civil law, philosophy, theology, astronomy, and astrology. His principal canonical works are: Commentaria in Decretales, Commentaria in Decretum, Commentaria in Clementinas, De beneficiorum ecclesiasticorum pluralitate and De interdicto ecclesiastico. His most important works, De bello (on war) and De pace (on peace), are a systematic exposition and a synthesis of all the problems regarding war and peace, taking into consideration canon, civil, and feudal law. Because of these two works, Joannes is considered the creator of the juridic doctrine on war and the precursor of public international law.
Bibliography: s. stelling-michaud, Dictionnaire de droit canonique, ed. r. naz, 7 v. (Paris 1935–65) 6:111–112. j. f. v. schulte, Die Geschichte der Quellen und der Literatur des kanonischen Rechts, 3 v. in 4 pts. (Stuttgart 1975–80) 2:257–261. g. ermini, "I trattati della guerra e della pace di Giovanni da Legnano, " Studi e memorie per la storia dell'Università di Bologna, 8 (1924) 1–154.
[c. m. rosen]