IZYASLAV (formerly Zaslavl ), city in Khmelnitski district (former Kamenets-Podolski), Ukraine. The first information about the Jewish community there dates from the first half of the 16th century. Most of the Jews fled to neighboring cities during the *Chmielnicki massacres of 1648; approximately 200 who had remained behind were killed. After the massacres, the community was rebuilt. With the beginning of the *Haidamack movement in 1708 the community was destroyed and most of its members killed. In 1747 five Jews from a neighboring village were put to death in the city as a result of a *blood libel. The Jewish population was 2,807 in 1765 and 5,998 (47% of the total population) in 1897. Towards the end of Polish rule, Izyaslav was a center of *Ḥasidism. Due to the influence of Leib Bolekhovski (d. 1883), the rabbi, the community was culturally in advance of other settlements in the area. In 1897 Izyaslav had 6,000 Jews (almost 50% of the total population). After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Zionist movement flourished in Izyaslav. Most of the city's Jewish children were enrolled in Hebrew kindergartens and schools. With the establishment of Soviet rule in 1920, Jewish community life in the city declined. By 1926, 3,820 Jews (one third of the population) remained there, dropping to 3,208 (28% of the total) in 1939. The Germans captured Izyaslav in July 1941 and murdered 1,000 Jews on August 24. A ghetto was set up and Jews from neighboring towns were brought there. In the course of 1942, some 5,000 Jews were murdered. A group of essential workers was put into a local labor camp and executed on January 20 1943. Izyaslav was the home of Nathan Nata *Hannover, author of Yeven Meẓulah. A Hebrew printing press was active there from 1807 to 1808 and five books, three of them liturgical, were issued.
J. Kontorshchik, in: Ha-Meliz, 32 (1892), 195, 198; N.N. Hannover, Yeven Mezulah (1923), 30–33; E. Ehrenburg, Merder fun Felker (1945), 77–79; I. Vogel, in: Yalkut Vohlin, 7 (1947), 6–9; A. Yaari, in: ks, 19 (1943), 277–9. add. bibliography: pk.
[Yehuda Slutsky /
Shmuel Spector (2nd ed.)]