Hymnology is that discipline that is concerned with the historical and scientific study of the hymn, from both a textual and musical point of view. Hymns have been a part of Christian worship from its very beginnings. Originally the word seems to have been used to describe any song in praise of God—scriptural or not, stanzaic or free. Later it came to be applied in a more restrictive sense to any nonscriptural, religious poem in strophic form, usually in a regular meter, and set to a relatively simple melody. This entry restricts itself to the various forms of Christian hymnody as they evolved through the centuries to 1500, with emphasis on representative authors and texts, and points to some of the hymnographical problems in the field through the bibliography here cited.
Early Christian period. Christian worship first developed chiefly from patterns supplied by the traditions of the Temple and the Jewish synagogues. Thus the psalms and canticles of the OT (as well as the NT magnificat, nunc dimittis, benedictus) played an important role. In addition, the NT contains many passages that are regarded by scholars as echoes of early Christian hymns (among others, Phil 2.6–11; 1 Tm 3.16). In this connection reference can be made to St. Paul's words (Col 3.16) speaking of three categories of early Christian songs (among them hymns and psalms). With few exceptions, early Christian hymns did not survive because they were not written down and were often the
product of sudden inspiration. They probably resembled Jewish psalms and canticles, using parallelism in structure, long enumerations of the attributes of the Deity, etc.
The transition to Greek hymnody was made by hymns composed by the Gnostics. Many texts scattered in apocryphal literature prove that gnosticism made definite efforts to establish a new kind of hymnody, amalgamating early Christian and Hellenistic traditions; cf. the "Naassene Psalm" and the "Valentinos Psalm"; a special place is occupied by the Odes of Solomon, which belong, perhaps, to the earliest strata. As a reaction to this tendency, a new Greek hymnody gradually emerged. To this group, besides the hymn attributed to clement of alexandria and the oxyrhynchus hymn, belong also a Morning Hymn, a hymn of the apostolic constitu tions (written before 150?), an Evening Hymn, the Hymn of Grace at meals, the Candle-light Hymn (Φ[symbol omitted]ς ἱλαρòν), and others.
Syriac hymnody. This linguistic group was also affected by the propaganda of the heretics, the chief representatives of which were bardesanes (bar-daisĀn) and his son Harmonius, against whose hymns the new orthodox hymns of St. ephrem were directed. Two hymn categories are represented in Syriac hymnody: the Mêmrê, or "poetic speeches and expositions of Holy Scripture in a uniform meter, without strophic division," and the Madrashê, or songs and hymns of four to six lines and refrain. Of the latter, more than 60 are directed against the heretics; others celebrate Christian mysteries (the Incarnation), the faith, death, paradise, and similar topics. Many of these gained liturgical acceptance. By stressing apologetics, Ephrem laid the foundation of later Christian hymnody and also influenced its development in the West. He had various lesser followers: Cyrillonas (end of the 4th century), with hymns on the Crucifixion, Easter, and the Grain of Wheat; Balaeus (c. 430), creator of a new, "baleasic" form of pentasyllabic verse; and James of Sarough (d. 521), with Monophysite tendencies (see monophysitism).
Greek and Byzantine hymnography. The growing influence of Hellenistic traditions roused opposition in monastic and ecclesiastical circles, and attempts were made to suppress all but hymns of scriptural character. This led to the destruction of many ancient texts and traditions; nevertheless a new hymnody emerged. At an early stage, a nonliturgical hymn poetry in the wider sense of the word was represented by methodius of olympus or Philippoi, gregory of nazianzus, synesi us of cyrene, with anacreontic hymns. Metrophanes of Smyrna and anatolius, patriarch of Constantinople, also belong to this period. Synesius is particularly important since he attempted to insert Neoplatonic ideas into Christian hymns.
Three main poetic forms dominate Greek-Byzantine hymnody: the troparion, the kontakion, and the kanon. "The name troparion … was given to short prayers which, in the earliest stage of hymnography, were written in poetic prose and inserted after each verse of a psalm. In the 5th century, when the troparia were composed in strophic form and became longer, these … were sung only after the 3 to 6 last verses of a psalm" (Wellesz). A later development is the kontakion, associated with the names of Kyriakos and romanus melodus. "The kontakion … consists of from 18 to 30 or even more stanzas, all structurally alike. The single stanza is called troparion; its length varies from 3 to 13 lines. All the troparia are composed on the pattern of a model stanza, the hirmus …. At the beginning of the kontakion stands a shorttroparion, metrically and melodically independent of it; this is the prooemium … or kukulion " (Wellesz). From the 7th century onward, the kanon was inserted into the liturgy. The kanon is a complex poetical form, built up of nine odes, each containing six to nine troparia. The odes of the kanon have praise character, based on the nine Canticles from Sacred Scripture. The kontakion, however, is a kind of poetic homily.
Nothing has been identified from the hymn production of the first Byzantine hymnodists, who are known only by name: the Orthodox Anthimus and the Monophysite Timocles, both living in the reign of the Emperor leo i (452–474). Auxentius, poet of troparia, came from Syria to Constantinople during the reign of Theodosius II. His songs were inspired by Hebrew poetry, both in style and in form. Anastasius, Kyriakos, and Romanus Melodus were authors of kontakia and came to Byzantium during the reign of Anastasius I (491–518). Romanus learned much from St. Ephrem's Syriac hymns but followed another path in many ways. Because of their excellence, kontakia of these authors were in continuous use at the Imperial Palace in Constantinople until the 12th century.
One of the most famous Byzantine hymns is the akathistos, a Marian hymn that exercised great influence on both Western hymnody and Western theology from the 11th century onward. It, too, is attributed to Romanus as well as to Patriarch sergius i; it is a panegyrical poem, associated with the successful defense of Constantinople against the avars. Its prooemium may have served as a model for the "hymn introductions" in the Irish liber hymnorum.
Traditionally, the kanon is said to have been invented by andrew of crete; his technique owed much to that of Romanus. The monastery of St. Sabas near the Dead Sea became a center of kanon writers (Greek, Syrian, Armenian, and Coptic monks), led by john damascene and his foster-brother, cosmas the melodian, who lived during the first period of the iconoclastic controversy (see iconoclasm). The production of kanons later shifted to the monastery of studion, where Abbot theodore the studite excelled, following the tradition created by Romanus. These compositions, however, were no longer paraphrases of the Canticles. Contemporary and later hymnodists were Joseph of Thessalonica, Theodore's brother; the brothers theophanes (c. 759–842) and Theodore; methodius i, patriarch of Constantinople, mutilated by the iconoclasts; Joseph of Studion (c. 883); metrophanes of smyrna; and the nun Kasia (Ikassia), who lived during the middle of the 9th century. Emperors who wrote hymns were leo vi (d. 917) and constantine vii porphyrogenitus (d. 959).
Near Rome a new center of hymnody was created at grottaferrata, founded by nilus of rossano, himself a hymnodist, who was followed by his successor, Paulus, and a continuing line of poets: St. Bartholomew, Clement, Arsenius, Germanus, John, Joseph, Pancratius, Procopius, Sophronius, and others. The last great hymn writer of the East was John Mauropus (d. 1060), metropolitan of Euchaita, the contemporary of Nicetas Serron (d. 1075). After the 11th century, Byzantine hymnody underwent a critical change; the immense number of hymns already introduced into the liturgy necessitated a limitation that slowed down further hymn production. Later Byzantine hymnography is represented by nicephorus blemmydes (d. 1272); Theodore I Lascaris, emperor of Nicaea (1204–22); John Vatatzes (d. 1222); germanus ii of Constantinople; Giobasus Vlachus (13th century); Athanasius the Younger, patriarch of Alexandria (d. c. 1315); gregory sinaites; and Isidore Vouchiras, patriarch of Constantinople (d. 1349). The 13th and 14th centuries brought a new development in musical style, ornamented with extended coloraturas; among the masters of this period were John Glykys, Manual Chrysaphes, Theodulos Hieromonachus, John Koukouzeles, and John Lampadarius.
Armenian Hymnody. Among the Armenians hymnography flourished particularly in the period between the 12th and the 14th centuries. Representative Armenian hymnodists were nerses gratiosus (Snorhali; d. 1173); Nerses of Lambron (d. 1198), regarded as the second St. Paul; Chatshatur of Taraun (d. 1197); Wardan the Great (c. 1271); Wardan of Bardzrberd (d. c. 1310); John of Erznka or Erzingan (1250–1330); Constantine Srik; and the catholikos Constantine I (d. 1267).
Beginnings of western Latin hymnody. St. am brose (d. 397), bishop of Milan, is regarded as the father of Latin hymnody. He had several minor predecessors. The African rhetor marius victorinus (c. 360?) left three Trinitarian hymns of apologetic character, but they belong to the category of free compositions, influenced by scriptural and psalm traditions. Pope damasus i, however, wrote only epigrams; no hymns can be attributed to him with certainty. The first Latin hymnodist in the traditional sense, so styled by St. Jerome and by Isidore of Seville, was St. hilary of poitiers, who brought his inspiration to the West from his Eastern exile. His Liber hymnorum is lost, but in 1884 G. F. Gamurrini rediscovered three hymn fragments from this work. A fourth hymn, the Hymnum dicat turba fratrum, is ascribed to him by several MSS and by some recent scholars (S. Gaselee), but it may not be his. Two of Hilary's genuine hymn fragments are alphabetic poems. They contain many dogmatic elements, and the first of them can be regarded as a solemn declaration of faith against the Arians. The second is a symbolic representation of the rebirth of the soul in Baptism. The third treats of the Redemption, and there Christ is represented as the second Adam. None of Hilary's hymns had popular appeal, which may explain his failure as a hymnodist.
St. Ambrose and the Ambrosian school. Thus it fell to the lot of Ambrose of Milan to create a Western Latin hymnody. The occasion was the struggle against the Arians in 385 and 386, when Ambrose composed several hymns for the use of his congregation. They have a simple, popular form, are written in a uniform meter (the Ambrosian strophe: four-line iambic dimeters with irregular rhyme), and proclaim the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity. Nonetheless, they have an extremely high poetic value, never surpassed in the history of Western hymnody.
Only 14 pieces can be identified as genuine hymns of Ambrose. They serve partly for the Hours of the Divine Office, partly for the feasts of Christmas, Easter, and Epiphany; for the feasts of SS. Peter and Paul, St. John the Evangelist, St. Lawrence, SS. Gervase and Protase, and St. Agnes; and for the common of the martyrs. Four others, of which three are still used in revised form at Terce, Sext, and None, and one for the common of the virgins, cannot be attributed to him with certainty, but they belong to the Ambrosian (Milanese) tradition, together with some 41 other hymns recorded in relatively early MSS. In the aeterne rerum conditor, a genuine hymn of Ambrose, the cock appears as the symbol of Christ. The hymn describes the awakening of the soul from the dangerous and deadly sleep of night. There, and in the Splendor paternae gloriae, Christ is the embodiment of light, the reflection of the Father's glory, the real Sun. He is also the eternal food and drink, by whom man becomes mystically intoxicated—an image borrowed from the writings of philo judaeus. The Christmas hymn celebrates the mystery of the Incarnation, the Virgin Birth, and has a Mariological motif as well. The Epiphany hymn refers to four biblical miracles associated with the liturgy of the feast. The Peter and Paul hymn relates briefly their martyrdom and echoes the end of the Gospel of St. John. The Agnes hymn is a detailed narrative of her martyrdom, containing high praise of virginity. The aeterna christi munera recalls the memory of the cruel persecution of the Christians in terms borrowed from legend.
Some would call the Ambrosian hymns austere; but in fact they are well balanced, functional, and simple. "Dignity, directness, and evangelical fervor" prevail in them, and "the hymns of Ambrose reflect the mind of the great teacher of the Latin Church. Bred as a lawyer and man of affairs, with all the practical genius of the Roman…, Ambrose cared little for the speculations which exercised fascination over the Greek Fathers" (Raby). His hymns served well their congregational purpose and became, gems of the liturgy in the West. He was so cleverly imitated in the Milanese Church that it becomes difficult to reestablish the identity of several genuine hymns among their many imitations. In the 5th century the hymns of Ambrose spread throughout the Church, and they were accepted by the benedictine rule for the monastic liturgy. The Ambrosian hymn formed the basis for cistercian liturgical reform in the late 11th and the early 12th centuries. St. augustine and many others in successive generations bear witness to the greatness of Ambrosian hymnody.
Augustine himself did not imitate the Ambrosian hymns, but he wrote an alphabetic poem entitled the Psalm Against the Donatists, characterized by long lines with a kind of rhythmical structure, regarded by some as a precursor of later accentual poetry. It was also designed for congregational purposes and possesses a distinctly apologetic quality. Its Syriac and Punic heritage is beyond doubt; it may have been imitated by others, but the only surviving piece of its kind is a psalm by fulgentius of ruspe.
Early Middle Ages. While Ambrose composed liturgical hymns for his congregation, his younger contemporary prudentius was writing exquisite hymns for cultured Romans, who preferred the blending of classical literary taste and the Christian spirit. Prudentius created two collections of hymnological interest, the Cathemerinon and the Peristephanon, with 36 poems in all. The first shows occasional influence from Ambrose and contains hymns for the daily round as well as several for specific feasts. The second celebrates Spanish and Roman martyrs. Their inspiration is mainly literary, but one cannot ignore Prudentius's Christian fervor. Whereas Ambrose displays a striving for classical dignity, Prudentius betrays a romantic spirit and a rare literary talent. His poems are long and rich in imagery, but they are often rhetorical and dense. Although his hymns first served as literary readings, selections were later made from them and used as centos in the liturgy, mainly in Spain. A few (seven selections in all) are still in the Roman liturgy.
Little is known about 5th-century hymnody, except for a few names. paulinus of nola and Paulinus of Pella (d. c. 459), the grandson of Ausonius, were chiefly religious poets but wrote no real hymns. The greatest hymnodist of the age was Sedulius (possibly an Italian), who wrote two poems, one of which, the A solis ortus cardine, is an alphabetic hymn on the life of Christ. Two extracts from it are still in the Roman Breviary, and its influence was very great throughout the Middle Ages. In this hymn much space is devoted to various biblical events, which are narrated in Ambrosian verses. Raby identified as north Italian several hymns of nonliturgical character that had hitherto been assigned to the early Spanish tradition: the Obduxere polum nubila, Squalent arva soli, Saevus bella serit, and Tristes nunc populi, which refer to the frequent incursions of the barbarians into Italy.
Quite different in character is the first St. Patrick hymn, the Audite omnes amantes, which may be a poem by St. Sechnall (Secundinus, d. c. 447). The hymn quotes from the Old Latin and not from the Vulgate version of the Bible; it is constructed of 23 alphabetic stanzas of four long lines each, accentual in type, without rhyme. Another piece, the famous Eucharistic hymn Sancti venite, is also ascribed to Sechnall, but probably without sufficient evidence. Of the hymns of Pope gelasius i little is known, but there is more solid support for the Gallican hymns that were used in religious houses of the 6th century or earlier. caesarius of arles and his successor, au relian of arles, list nine of these, in addition to several Ambrosian hymns. The Ambrosian form survives, but makes some concessions to the accentual rhythmical principle; assonance is sparsely used, as in several other contemporary poems. All the hymns in question served the daily liturgy. The cult of the saints is more strongly reflected in the hymnody of ennodius, bishop of Pavia, a mediocre poet who wrote the first Marian hymn, the Ut virginem fetam. The attribution of the Peter and Paul hymn, the Aurea luce et decore roseo, to a certain Elpis, long assumed to be the wife of boethius, is certainly wrong; it is a fine Carolingian hymn (see decora lux, ae ternitatis; egregie doctor paule) and, in revised version, is in the Roman Breviary.
The most celebrated hymnodist of the 6th century was Venantius fortunatus, an Italian priest, a favorite of the Austrasian court, who became bishop of Poitiers. He is best known for his hymns of the Holy Cross, the pange lingua and vexilla regis (also the Crux benedicta nitet ), included in the liturgy of Passiontide. He was, moreover, the author of another hymn, the Tempore florigero, which became the model for numerous processional hymns in the Middle Ages of the type, Salve festa dies. Two further hymns, the Agnoscat omne saeculum and quem terra, pontus, sidera, were wrongly ascribed to him. King Chilperic of Neustria (d. 584) was another contemporary hymnodist (e.g. his Medard hymn). Liturgical MSS attribute the Tellus ac aethra iubilent, a hymn for the mandatum on Holy Thursday, to Bp. Flavius of Châlon-sur-Saône (d. 591). Its dramatic text recalls the biblical events on which the ceremony is based.
Seventh and Eighth Centuries. The authorship of gregory i (the great) in the field of hymnology has aroused much controversy. C. Blume ascribed 16 hymns to Gregory, but it cannot be proved that he is the author, even if most of them were written by the same hand. The Milanese poet Maximian (c. 600) composed hymns for use in the local liturgy, e.g., his Ambrose hymn, Miraculum laudabile. An Irish hymn of the same period is the famous Altus prosator, an early medieval Paradise Lost, attributed to St. columba of iona. R. J. Hesbert assumes that the hymn of praise in honor of St. columban of luxueil was written by another famous Irishman, St. gall. Another Columban hymn, the Nostris solemnis saeculis, is a poem of jonas of bobbio. Here the legend of the saint is recounted and his miracles are praised.
No definite chronology can be given for the Spanish hymns of the period, listed by C. M. Diaz y Diaz. Many of them celebrate Apostles and Spanish saints; others were written for special occasions, e.g., the consecration of a church, a burial, a marriage, a war. A hymn honoring the Holy Cross, the Ab ore verbum prolatum, written in the meter of the Pange lingua of Venantius Fortunatus, may precede them in time. A. Baumstark assumes here Byzantine liturgical patterns. Another famous hymn of the period (7th century?) is the urbs beata jerusalem, which Diaz y Diaz assigns to Spain. It is a poetic vision of the heavenly Jerusalem, often imitated by later hymns. Among Spanish hymn writers are the following: isidore of seville, braulio of Saragossa and his brother John, maximus of saragossa, ildefonsus of toledo, eu gene ii (iii) of toledo, and Quiricus of Barcelona (d.666). Among other works, there are Braulio's hymn honoring St. Aemilian (O magna rerum Christe ) and two Eulalia hymns from Quiricus; only one hymn, the Adsunt punicea floscula, can be ascribed with certainty to Isidore. From Eugene several have survived, e.g., the Inclitae parentis almae, completed by the recent discovery of J. Leclercq. The author of the Saint-Denis hymn, the Coeli cives adplaudite, however, is neither Eugene of Deuil nor Eugene of Toledo, but hilduin of saint-denis (first half of the 9th century).
The most important Irish monument of the period is the Antiphonary of Bangor (end of the 7th century), which also contains the Hymnum dicat turba fratrum, a Gallican hymn wrongly attributed to Hilary of Poitiers. It is difficult to date a peculiar Irish-Celtic hymn type called the lorica (breast-plate), displaying a mixture of Christian and pre-Christian Celtic beliefs. One of them, the Suffragare trinitatis unitas, is described as a lorica of gildas (c. 516–570), but without foundation. Another is the Sancte sator suffragator, imploring heavenly protection on the user (reciter) of the text.
Some 16 hymns represent the so-called Gallican liturgical tradition between 600 and 700 (cf. MS Vat. Reg. lat. XI, analyzed by A. wilmart). Many of them appear later in Spanish-Mozarabic and other local liturgies (cf. the Hymnarium Moissiacense ). Anglo-Saxon hymnodists of the period include aldhelm and the Venerable bede. At least 16 hymns are attributed to Bede, but many may not be his. Among his genuine compositions is a hymn in honor of St. ethelreda, the Alma Deus trinitas, a laud of virginity, which he opposes to the heroic subjects celebrated by Virgil and Homer. Fortunately for the historian, Bede mentions a number of hymns in his other works, e.g., the St. Lupus hymn, Trecassinorum antistitem. He also refers to the Apparebit repentina dies magna, one of the precursors of the famed Dies irae. It is a poem containing a detailed description of the Last Judgment, based on scriptural background, and was once believed to be of the late classical period. K. Strecker sees in it reflections of the sermon tradition of St. Ephrem.
The 8th century produced another harvest of Spanish hymns, many of them composed in the territory occupied by the Arabs and therefore called mozarabic. Some are unusually long, such as the Christopher hymn, 0 beate mundi auctor, based largely on the Oriental branch of the St. christopher legend. Two hymns can be attributed to Bp. Cixilanus of Toledo (d. 783): the Exulta nimium turba (on St. Thyrsus) and the Urbis Romuleae iam toga (on St. Torquatus). A St. James hymn (james [son of zebedee]) in 12 strophes has an acrostic, indicating that it was composed during the reign of King Mauregato between 783 and 788. Many Irish-Latin hymns recorded in the Irish Liber hymnorum (MSS from the 11th century) are ascribed to persons living during the period: St. Ultan of Ardbreccan (d. 656); Colman MacMurchon, abbot of Maghbile (d. c. 731); Oengus MacTipraite (c. 741); Cuchuimne (c. 746); and St. Maolruain, abbot of Tallaght (d. 792). Among the saints celebrated in these hymns are brigid of ireland, Kiaran of Cluain-Macnois, Michael, Peter, martin of tours, Aed MacBricc, and Andrew.
Carolingian period. The first stage of early Christian and medieval hymnography ends with a succession of Carolingian poets belonging to several generations. The earliest group lived as part of the entourage of char lemagne and as members of his court were strongly influenced by classical literary traditions.
The Court Circle. paul the deacon (d. 799), who came from northern Italy, in addition to a St. Benedict hymn, the Fratres alacri pectore, was credited also with the authorship of the famous hymn in honor of St. John the Baptist, ut queant laxis resonare fibris. This view is no longer held; but this hymn, a masterpiece in its own right, is regarded as a product of the Carolingian era. The attribution to Paul of the Marian hymn Quis possit amplo famine is uncertain. His contemporary alcuin is the author of the St. Vedast hymn, Christe, salvator hominis, of the evening song Luminis fons, lux et origo, and the Holy Cross hymn Crux decus es mundi. Two hymns called the Rhythms of Gotha, written c. 800, belong to anonymous poets in Alcuin's circle. The first, a double alphabetic poem, Altus auctor omnium, was directed against the heresy of adoptionism. A large number of hymns is associated with the name of paulinus of aquileia, but his authorship is not quite clear. Of these, the Peter and Paul hymn Felix per omnes shows some affinity to that attributed to Elpis, and the two appear as an amalgam in the Roman Breviary. The hymn to St. Mark, the Jam nunc per omne lux, is clearly linked with Aquileia. His accentual hymn on the resurrection of Lazarus is unusually long. According to D. Norberg, the Congregavit nos in unum, a laud of fraternal charity that later became a part of the mandatum ceremony, is also the work of Paulinus. walafrid strabo asserted that Paulinus wrote hymns for private Masses, a statement that some scholars interpret in favor of the early origin of the sequence. The Spaniard theodulf of orlÉans is the author of the processional hymn for Palm Sunday, the gloria, laus et honor.
With this period are associated numerous Carolingian"rhythms," chiefly hymns without liturgical function, which closely adhere to the principles of accentual versification. Most of them are edited (in Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Poetae [Berlin 1826–]). No fixed chronology can be assigned to these works, but some of them go back to the Merovingian period. Several have eschatological character; others are Christmas and Marian hymns. One of them, the Gratia excelso regi, was written by a certain Gaidhaldus, a parish priest in Verona. Another, the unusual Audiat coelum atque terra, describing Christ's harrowing of hell, closely follows the story of the apocrypha. [see bible] The Venetian bishop Christophorus (c. 800) is credited with the translation of a Marian hymn, the Akathistos (Meersseman). Among the anonymous hymns are two that are particularly beautiful: the veni creator spiritus, a hymn of the Holy Spirit (not by Rabanus Maurus), and the famous Marian hymn ave maris stella, a glorification of the Virgin Mary, who changed Eve's heritage. The hymn Alleluia dulce carmen refers to the symbolic liturgical ceremony of the time in which one bade farewell to the alleluia during lent.
Later Carolingian period. An outstanding figure of the time was rabanus maurus, archbishop of Mainz (d.847), whom G. M. Dreves credited with some 27 hymns, most of which are of uncertain ascription and are even earlier than Rubanus. Walafrid Strabo (d. 849), a pupil of Rabanus, left many works, including several hymns and related types of poetry. His lengthy hymn on the the ban legion is particularly impressive, showing the influence of Prudentius. The renowned Lupus of Ferrières (d. after 862) was a gifted letter-writer, but the two Wigbert hymns associated with his name are somewhat less than outstanding. The deacon florus of lyons, the adversary of the liturgist amalarius of Metz, apart from psalm paraphrases, left several hymns (Michael, John and Paul, etc.) and a Laus cerei paschalis. His hymns are dramatic and vivid, conjuring up great scenes and visions and contrasting Christianity and paganism.
The greatest hymnodist of the time was gottschalk of orbais (or Fulda), who was involved in the predesti-nation controversy and was excommunicated over that issue. His hymns are the moving expression of a soul seeing its own sinfulness and helplessness. Gottschalk left two series of hymns, the second of which was discovered by G. Morin and N. Fickermann. Eight of these are for the Hours of the Office; another is a "kind of personal litany full of melancholy but of considerable poetic power" (M. L. W. Laistner, Thought and Letters in Western Europe, a.d. to 900 [New York 1957]). Five of the older series are personal confessions and prayers to Christ, and the sixth is a much-discussed poem in praise of the Trinity. Trust in the mercy of God is one of the dominating themes of these poems.
Abbot ermenrich of passau (ellwangen), who also belonged to the circle of Rabanus, wrote a St. Sualo (Solus) hymn. Wandalbert of Prüm (d. c. 870) is known for his versified martyrology. His hymn of All Saints, the Christe coelorum modulans caterva, is not recorded in liturgical MSS. The Unam duorum gloriam, on SS. Chrysanthus and Daria, whose relics were translated to a church associated with Prüm, may also be by Wandalbert. bertharius of Monte Cassino wrote several hymns about which there is some confusion. Among the Spanish hymnodists of the Carolingian period were the martyr eu logius and his friend Albar of Córdoba. According to B. Thorsberg, three hymns honoring SS. Euphemia, Dorothy, and Sebastian belong to Eulogius. Albar honored his friend in the acrostic poem Almi nunc revehit. He may have also written a hymn on St. Jerome, the Christus est virtus, and a nuptial hymn, Tuba clarifica plebs. hucbald of saint-amand (d. 930), important for the history of early Offices, was the author of hymns (listed by R. Weakland), sequences, and poetic offices. Bishop Stephen of Liège is credited with the composition of the earliest Trinity Office. Abbot Gurdestin (Wurdestinus, d.884) and the monk Clement (c. 870) represent the monastery of Landévennec with hymns and an Office of St. Winwaloe. The celebrated Irish poet Sedulius Scotus, living on the Continent, wrote three religious poems for the feast of the Resurrection and another praising the Irish victory over the Norsemen. His splendid Easter song, Haec est alma dies almarum, drew its inspiration partly from the work of Fortunatus. About 886 an unknown monk wrote two hymns in honor of St. Cornelius, and the 9th century also saw the birth of the Caritas songs, extolling fraternal charity in the monasteries.
Perhaps no monastery in the 9th century contributed more to the growth of hymnody than sankt gallen. Three particular hymn types flourished there, the versus, the trope, and the Sequence. Three monks of the abbey wrote versus (processional hymns): Ratpert (d. 890), Hartmann the Younger (d. 925), and Waldram (c. 900). The authorship of Hartmann is doubted by some. Sankt Gallen produced also semiliturgical hymns of greeting (susceptacula regum ) for members of royal families. A master, but not the inventor of the trope, was Tutilo, whose Christmas trope, Hodie cantandus est, has dramatic character.
Tropes are particularly important since they form the starting point for the development of the liturgical drama. The Sequence, on the other hand, is essentially a textual and musical trope attached to the Alleluia of the Mass. The first Sequence, as is now known, came from jumiÈges (Gimedia) to Sankt Gallen just after the middle of the 9th century. Its pattern was greatly developed and extended by notker balbulus (d. 912), who wrote his first Sequences between 860 and 870; his Liber ymnorum, a generous selection of early Sequences, was edited by W. von den Steinen. In other monasteries, however, Sequences were composed before and simultaneously with Notker (e.g., the Stans a longe ); there is also early evidence of them in a MS from Verona (before 900), at Toul, and soon afterward at the Abbey of St. Martial in Limoges. The Notkerian Sequence became the model for the German type, and that of Limoges served as an example for France. Notker wrote at least 40 Sequences and several tropes as well; his most important compositions are Laudes Deo, Psallat ecclesia and Sancti Spiritus assit nobis (to the Holy Spirit). His Peter and Paul Sequence, the Petre, summe Christi pastor, had widespread acceptance. In the early non-Notkerian Sequence tradition are a Swan-sequence, the Clangam filii, a lyrical allegory; the Alleluia dic nobis, a "sequence counterpart" of the farewell to the Alleluia; and a number of "double sequences" (called also da capo sequences), e.g., the Dulce carmen et melodum (a St. Maurice Sequence). The Notkerian and early French Sequences may be called "irregular"; after the 11th century the Sequence type becomes "regular," or normalized; those lying between may be regarded as transitional.
Tenth and eleventh centuries. The 10th century marks the extension of the hymn tradition. At the turn of the century lived such authors as Peter the Deacon of Naples (Barbara, Martin the Hermit, and Agnellus hymns) and eugenius vulgarius (d. c. 928). Bishop radbod of utrecht was credited with the Sequence Ave summa praesulum (about Martin of Tours), which is not his. However, he wrote an Office and a long hymn in honor of St. Martin. Other hymnologists include Abbot Pilgrim of Bremati (Belegrimmus, early 10th century), the author of a Marian hymn, and odo of cluny (d. 943), with hymns about St. Martin of Tours. The first Mary Magdalen hymns, the Jesu Christe, auctor vitae and Votiva cunctis orbita, and one Sequence, the Adest praecelsa, are from the 10th century. Some uncertainty prevails about the identity of the poet Cosmas of Matera (or Cosmas of Japygas, 950 or early 11th century?). The Sequence Gaude coelestis sponsa was once wrongly attributed to the nun roswitha of gandersheim (P. von Winterfeld). ekkehard of sankt gallen (910–973) had six Sequences and one hymn; his Columbanus Sequence and that on the Trinity were composed c. 950; other hymnodists of Sanki Gallen were Notker Physicus (d. 975) and Ekkehard II (d. 990). In this period the early Sequence was gradually replaced by a new type, the Ottonian Sequence. Also at that time an anonymous poet of Reichenau (c. 1000) was the author of five Pentecost Sequences; the Office of St. Folcwin was written by folc win of lobbes (d. 990); Bishop Reginold of Eichstätt composed a multilingual (Latin, Greek, and Hebrew) "Sequence" of St. Willibald and several poetic Offices; and adso of montier-en-der (d. 998) wrote hymns not yet identified.
The English hymnodist Wulfstan of Winchester (d.990), cantor of S. Swithun, wrote many hymns, Sequences, and tropes of local and English saints (Ethelwold, Swithun, Birinus, Augustine of Canterbury). He often followed patterns created by Bede. Two important MSS of the period are the Winchester tropes; and another liturgical book of hymnological interest is the Hymnarium of moissac (i.e., Saint-Martin of Montauriol, c. 1000), with two series of hymns (about 140 items). The Hymnarius Severinianus is a Neapolitan hymn collection of liturgical poems used in southern Italy. In Spain many hymns are associated with the monastery of Silos. Several hymnodists of this period are Abbot Salvus Albeldensis, Orientius, Sarracinus, and Grimoaldus. The curious and dramatic processional Sancta Maria quid est was used in Rome about the turn of the millennium; Meersseman associates it with the name of Pope sylvester ii. It is difficult to date the strange hymn on the divine names, the Deus pater piissime, which probably originated in France under Irish influence and spread to the North. Other hymnodists c. 1000 are Abbot heriger of lobbes (d. 1007), author of a St. Ursmar hymn; Virus Felix Decanus, with a hymn to St. Genevieve; and the Anonymus Augiensis of Reichenau, author of three long, interesting hymns on the life of the Virgin Mary and the Holy Cross.
The greatest representative of the poetry of the cathedral schools is fulbert of chartres (d. 1029). Some of his hymns have Oriental (Byzantine) inspiration and background (A. Baumstark), especially his hymn on the Magi and his famous Easter hymn, Chorus novae Jerusalem. His hymn on peace, the Sanctum simpliciter patrem cole, betrays classical influences (Horace, Vergil, Juvenal), but basically it is an echo of the Treuga Dei movement of his age (see peace of god). The morning song of Fleury, the Phoebi claro nondum orto, has bilingual features and is thought to have been influenced by Mithraic traditions.
Hymnodists of the 11th century are Adenulphus of Capua (d. 1058); Melus; Carus; Giraldus, a monk of Fleury; Frulandus of Murbach; Dietrich of St. Matthew in Trier; and above all, Adhémar of Chabannes (d. 1034), whose several Eparchius hymns have survived. The friends Meginfred of Magdeburg and Arnold of Vohberg (d. 1035) wrote St. Emmeram hymns. Bishop Heribert of Rothenburg (d. 1042) left a legacy of hymns in honor of the Holy Cross; of All Saints; and of SS. Willibald, Walburga, Stephen, and Lawrence. Mention should also be made of Olbert of Gembloux (d. 1048); Odoramnus of Sens (d. 1046), author of an Office (c. 1029) of SS. Savinian and Potentian; and berno of reichenau, author of tropes, hymns, and Sequences. Wipo of Burgundy, the chaplain of Emperor Conrad II, was the author of the Easter Sequence victimae paschali laudes. J. Handschin sees distinct apologetic tendencies in this beautiful Sequence of the transitional period. It was soon accepted by various liturgies and is still in use. odilo of cluny (d. 1048) composed, among other works, some eight Maiolus hymns. hermannus contractus of Reichenau was credited with the authorship of the Marian antiphons the alma redemptoris mater and the salve regina (mater) misericordiae. Others named as possible authors of these hymns are Adhémar of Puy and Peter of Compostella. Hermannus, moreover, composed several outstanding Sequences: the Grates, honos (Holy Cross), Ave praeclara (the Assumption), Exsurgat almiphonus (Mary Magdalen), Benedictio trinae unitati (Bl. Trinity), and an Office of St. Afra. Pope leo ix (d. 1054) left an Office of St. Gregory the Great and several other poems.
Italian poets of the second half of the 11th century are Guaiferus, Amatus of Monte Cassino, Alberic of Monte Cassino, and Wido of Ivrea (d. 1075), who produced a number of hymns honoring Irish and other saints. Albertic has hymns on SS. Dominic of Sora and Scholastica, but he may also have been the author of many others (O. J. Blum). peter damian, cardinal bishop of Ostia (d.1072), was credited with many hymns, among them four eschatological poems. The beautiful Quis est hic qui pulsat, inspired by the Song of Songs does not belong among his poems. Alphanus of Salerno (d. 1085) composed more than 30 liturgical and nonliturgical hymns; some were elegant odes that are among his best. The o romanobilis, a song on SS. Peter and Paul, is not a poem from Verona but probably from southern Italy or Monte Cassino (B. Peebles). othlo of sankt emmeram (d. 1072) has two Easter hymns; Eusebius Bruno, bishop of Angers (d. 1081), with 11 hymns, and berengarius of tours, with one, are all contemporary hymnodists. Gottschalk of Limburg, monk and imperial chaplain, is a master in Sequence composition (23 Sequences). The Christmas Sequence Laetabundus, one of the most frequently imitated of the time, is a lofty piece by an anonymous author. The first of the "regular" Sequences appear at the end of the 11th century; among them are many Marian Sequences and the famed Verbum bonum et suave for Christmas.
Twelfth century. anselm of canterbury was not a hymnodist, as Dreves had assumed. reginald of can terbury (d. 1109) wrote poems on St. Malchus, some of them possessing hymn characteristics. A typical expression of monastic mysticism is the long Epithalamium Christi virginum by a monk of hirsau (Peregrinus or Conrad of Hirsau?). Abbot thiofrid of echternach (d.1110) is the author of the Holy Cross hymn Salve crux sancta but not of the Willibrord Sequence Willibrordi sancti. Franciscus Camenus Perusinus (fl. 1098–1117?), a somewhat mysterious poet, composed a hymn in sapphics honoring Nicolas of Trani. A Spanish monk, Grimoald, wrote, among other works, three hymns on St. Felix. Some scholars have ascribed the hymn Cives coelestis patriae to anselm of laon (d. 1117) or to mar bod of rennes (d. 1123), who has many other hymns, among them several on Mary Magdalen. hildebert of lavardin (d. 1133), along with Marbod, is representative of the hymnography of the 12th-century Renaissance. His best-known hymn is the Alpha et O, magne Deus, a praise of the Trinity; his Christmas hymn, Salve festa dies, follows Fortunatus and echos Vergil's fourth Eclogue. Baudry of Bourgueil (d. 1130) is less important (hymns on Samson of Dol and on St. Catherine). geoffrey of vendÔme (d. 1132) wrote Marian hymns and several on Mary Magdalen. Reginaldus of Colle di Mezzo (d. 1165) is associated with hymns of St. Placid. ordericus vitalis, a historian, reworked several hymns written by Wulfstan, in addition to writing his own compositions.
Peter abelard, abbot of St. Gildas, was one of the most original and prolific hymnodists of the century with his Hymnarius Paraclitensis (133 hymns) and his series Planctus. By contrast bernard of clairvaux wrote only two hymns, one on St. Victor, the other on Malachy of Armagh. The famous Jubilus, Dulcis Jesu memoria, later in the Roman Breviary "reformed" to jesu, dulcismemoria, is not Bernard's. It belongs to an English Cistercian at the end of the 12th century who was influenced by Bernard's ideas. Nicholas of Clairvaux (d. 1176) wrote some ten Sequences, only recently discovered. Bishop Hatto of Troyes (d. 1145) may have been the author of one hynmn in the Codex Calixtinus (see below). bernard of cluny (Morlas, d. 1140) wrote the poem De contemptu mundi and a long Mariale, which also contains the hymn omni die dic mariae.
Other hymnodists of the period include Abbot Udalric of Maissach (d. 1150), peter the venerable (d.1156), and the Goliardic poet Hugh of Orleans or Primas (d. 1160), who is the author of the Holy Cross Sequence Laudes crucis. adam of saint-victor is credited with many regular Sequences, e.g., Profitentes unitatem and some 50 others. He uses many ideas borrowed from contemporary theology, biblical allusions, and legendary material and presents a highly developed system of symbolism (allegories, typology, etc.) well-established in homiletic and exegetic literature. In Adam's Sequences "the whole visible universe in its smallest details appeared … as fraught with a hidden meaning" (Raby). His Sequences were acclaimed and imitated as well as plagiarized. His melodies were composed not by him but by a fellow monk (H. Spanke). Another great poet is wal ter of chÂtillon (d. 1180), author of many Christmas and Marian songs (nonliturgical and paraliturgical texts). The Codex Calixtinus, originally from the 1160s, is the chief monument of contemporary polyphonic music. Its St. James hymns (about 25) are ascribed in the MS to a variety of poets. The canonization of Charlemagne by the antipope Paschal III in 1165 brought about the composition of the famous Sequence Urbs Aquensis, urbs regalis, followed by many used in the Diocese of Aachen. Other hymnodists are the Englishman Osbert of Clare (d. 1160), with the first hymns of St. Anne; Bishop Adalbert III of Tournel (or of Mende, d. 1187), with 11 hymns on St. Privatus; and eckbert of schÖnau, belonging to the circle of German mystics. In the same group were St. hilde garde of bingen (d. 1179) and the Abbess herrad of landsberg (d. 1195), compiler of the Hortus deliciarum. Thomas becket, too, wrote a hymn on the joys of the Virgin. godfrey of saint-victor (not Godfrey of Breteuil) is the author of the famous Planctus ante nescia (end of the 12th century). Contemporary poets are Stephen of Tournai (d. 1203), with hymns honoring St. gerard of sauve-majeure; alan of lille, one of the most outstanding poets and thinkers of the fin du siècle, with three hymns and a rather curious Christmas song about the failure of the arts, the Exceptivam actionem ; and Guy of Bazoches (d. 1203), with a long series of hymns for friends and acquaintances. Mathieu, Cantor of Rievaulx, was identified by A. Wilmart as a hymnodist, a contemporary of the Cistercian Anonymus Noanus. The beginnings of Scandinavian hymnody are also associated with the 12th century.
Thirteenth century. After 1200 the Dominicans, Franciscans, and Cistercians created a new hymnody. al exander neckham (d. 1217), abbot of Cirencester, was a schoolman writing among other works Marian Sequences. Peter Corbeil (d. 1222, as bishops of Sens) compiled the texts of the Office of the feast of fools. The authorship of the Pentecost Sequence veni sancte spiritus, still used in the liturgy, is a debated subject; it is likely that the author was stephen langton, archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1228). The Cistercian Gosswin of Bossut (d. c. 1230) wrote hymns on St. Arnulf of Villersen-Brabant. The most distinguished poet of the period is philip, the chancellor of the University of Paris (d. 1236 or 1237), wrongly identified with philip of grÈve. His Mary Magdalen hymns and songs (conductus, motets, etc.) for Easter and Passiontide are unsurpassed. The Premonstratensian herman joseph (d. 1241) has the distinction of producing the first hymn of the Sacred Heart, the Summi regis cor aveto. Authors of hymns in honor of St. francis are Pope gregory ix (d. 1241), Thomas of Capua (d. 1243), and julian of speyer, author and composer of poetic Offices of great importance. thomas of celano (d. 1250?) has been credited with three hymns, including the dies irae. His authorship, however, cannot be proved, since the Dies irae, though it may be a Franciscan product, seems not to have been composed by Thomas. The first hymns for the feast of corpus christi were written by John of Mont-Cornillon (c. 1246). Arnulf of Louvain (d. 1248) is a hymnodist of the Cistercian Order; and Constantine of Medici, bishop of Orvieto (d.1257), was the Dominican author of the Office of St. Dominic. Another Cistercian, Jean de Limoges (d. 1250 or after), wrote a hymn honoring St. Bernard. Three hymns on St. clare may be attributed to Pope alexan der iv. thomas of cantimprÉ wrote a St. Jordan hymn; james of voragine, author of the Golden Legend, supposedly composed several Syrus hymns.
Generally, St. thomas aquinas is credited with the Corpus Christi hymns, pange lingua, sacris solemniis, and verbum supernum prodiens, and the Sequence lauda sion salvatorem ; but his authorship is difficult to prove. The adoro te devote is certainly not by him (Wilmart). bonaventure (Cardinal John of Fidanza, d.1274) is mentioned as the poet of the Holy Cross and of the Laudismus de s. cruce, but none of these can be surely ascribed to him. Two English poets are John of Garland (d. 1258) and Henry of Avranches; but the best English poet of the century may have been john of hoveden (Howden, d. 1275), a representative of mystical poetry. Adam de la Bassée wrote poetic inserts for a dramatized form of Alan of Lille's Anticl audianus, and a Franciscan of high reputation, john peckham (Pecham), archbishop of Canterbury (1292), was the author of the long Philomena and of a poetic Office of the Trinity with hymns. Spain is represented by another Franciscan, Gil de Zamora (c. 1300); the Milanese Origo Scaccabarozzi wrote a Liber Hymnorum for Milanese churches. Although the Franciscan jacopone da todi (Jacobus de Benedictis, d.1306) is probably not the author of the Sequence stabat mater, it possesses a spirit common to his Laude. Scandinavian hymnodists are Ragvaldus I (1266) or Ragvaldus II (1321), the Dominican Jón Halldorsson (d. 1339?, author of a St. Torlach Office?), and Brynolf Algotsson (d. 1317, bishop of Skara), who wrote several hymns and other pieces.
Fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Among the hymnodists of the 14th century are Frater Honofrius of Sulmona; William of Mandagout, bishop of Palestrina (d.1321); Engelbert of Volkersdorf (d. 1331); the Cistercian Christian of Lilienfeld (d. before 1332), with some 150 hymns; the plebanus Jakob von Mühldorf (d. 1350); the English mystic and hermit Richard rolle de hampole (d. 1349); Cardinal james gaËtani stefaneschi (d.1343); the Franciscan General Gerardus Odonis (d.1349), with hymns for the feast of stigmatization of St. Francis; two Carthusians, Conrad of Gaming (d. 1360, called also Conrad of Haimburg) and Albert of Prague (d. 1386?); the Cistercian William de Deguilleville (d. after 1358); Johannes Decanus (c. 1360, in the Mosburg Cantionale ); and a series of Scandinavian hymnodists associated with St. bridget of sweden (Petrus Olavi, d. 1378; Birger Gregersson, d. 1383; nicholas hermansson, d.1391) also Raymund delle Vigne (d. 1399); Archbishop Johannes de Jetzenstein (d. 1400) and Cardinal adam easton (d. 1397), hymnodists of the Visitation. Philippe de Mézières (Frater Rostagnus, d. 1405), too, belongs to this group, composing hymns for Mary's Presentation. About the turn of the century there were Peter of Candia, the antipope Alexander V (d. 1410); Lippold of Steinberg (d. 1415); Jean gerson of France (d. 1429), with hymns and poems on St. Joseph; and John hus (1415). The monk Ronto, Dante's translator into Latin (d. 1443); Abbot Ulric of Stöcklin (d. 1443); Winand Ort von Steeg (d. 1447); and Johannes Hofmann, bishop of Meissen (d.1451), belong to another generation. Two Dominicans are Petrus Ranzanus and Martialis Auribellus (c. 1455); John Benechini and John de Beka are less important. Pope pius ii (Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, d. 1464) is credited with hymns on St. Catherine of Siena. denis the carthusian (d. 1471) left more than 120 hymns written in the mystical spirit. The spirit of the devotio moderna is expressed in hymns by thomas À kempis (d. 1471). Jerome of Wörth (Hieronymus de Werdea, d. 1475); Heinrich of Gundelfingen (d. 1490, hymns on St. nicholas of flÜe); Arnoldus Heimerich (d. 1491); and the Carthusian Antonius de Lantsee (c. 1492) are representatives of late medieval hymnody. The Franciscan Jean Tisserand (d. 1494) wrote, among other works, the Easter song o filii et filiae. Among the last names to be mentioned are Johannes Mauburnus, abbot of Livry (d. 1503), and Granciscan Bernardino de' Busti (d. 1500).
There were many minor hymnodists in the period, but the new spirit was then represented by the humanists. The tradition of Western Latin hymnody, more than 1,000 years old, was interrupted by humanism, by the reformation; and by the counter reformation, which brought forth a new hymnody, only faintly resembling the old hymns and Sequences, written for use in dioceses and religious orders, which are still found in the Roman Breviary and in local liturgies. The systematic study of hymnody did not emerge until the 19th century. It began with the work of H. A. Daniel, J. Kehrein, F. J. Mone, G. Morel, G. Milchsack, R. C. Trench, J. M. Neale, R. Stevenson, W. H. Frere, G. E. Klemming, and mainly the two Jesuits G. M. Dreves and C. Blume.
Bibliography: a. thierfelder, De Christianorum psalmis et hymnis usque ad Ambrosii tempora (Leipzig 1868). j. b. pitra, Hymnographie de l'Église grecque (Rome 1867). w. von christ and m. paranikas, eds., Anthologia Graeca carminum Christianorum (Leipzig 1871). p. maas, Frühbyzantinische Kirchenpoesie (2d ed. Berlin 1931), cf. also g. cammelli, ed., Romano il melode (Florence 1930). e. j. wellesz, "The Earliest Example of Christian Hymnody," Classical Quarterly 39 (1945) 34–45. h. follieri, Initia hymnorum ecclesiae Graecae, 4 v. (Studi e Testi 211–214; 1960–63), a complete list of Greek and Byzantine hymns known to date (a most important instrument of research and study). e. wellesz, A History of Byzantine Music and Hymnography, a summary of modern research with extensive bibliog. m. simonetti, "Studi sull'innologia popolare cristiana dei primi secoli," Atti dell'Accademia nazionale dei Lincei. Memorie Classe di scienze morali, storiche e filologiche, Ser. 8, 6 (1952) fasc. 6. Texts. Analecta hymnica (Leipzig 1886–1922) is the largest single collection. w. bulst, ed., Hymni Latini antiquissimi LXXV (Heidelberg 1956), an excellent source for the earliest hymns, superseding in many ways a. s. walpole, ed., Early Latin Hymns (Cambridge, Eng.1922). Still indispensable are h. a. daniel, Thesaurus hymnologicus, 5 v. (Halle-Leipzig 1841–56). f. j. mone, ed., Lateinische Hymnen des Mittelalters, 3 v. (Freiburg 1853–55). Repertory. u. chevalier, Repertorium hymnologicum (Louvain-Brussels 1892–1921), with correction by c. blume, Repertorium repertorii (Leipzig 1901) and j. mearns, Early Latin Hymnaries (Cambridge 1913). Melodies. b. stÄblein, ed., Die mittelalterlichen Hymnenmelodien des Abendlandes (Monumenta monodica medii aevi 1; Kassel 1956). b. rajeczky, Melodiarium Hungariae medii aevi (Budapest 1956—) v. 1. History. j.szÖvÉrffy, Die Annalen der lateinischen Hymnendichtung, 2 v. (Berlin 1964–65), the most detailed work at present. r. e. messenger, The Medieval Latin Hymn (Washington, D.C. 1953), a good summary of all problems involved. f. j. e. raby, A History of Christian-Latin Poetry from the Beginnings to the Close of the Middle Ages (2d ed. Oxford 1953); A History of Secular Latin Poetry in the Middle Ages (2d ed. Oxford 1957). h. leclercq, Dictionnaire d'archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie, ed. f. cabrot, h. leclerq, and h. i. marrou (Paris 1907–53) 6.2:2901–28. Roman liturgy. j. connelly, Hymns of the Roman Liturgy (Westminster, Md. 1957). w. h. frere, Historical Edition of "Hymns Ancient and Modern" (London 1909). m. frost, ed., Historical Companion to "Hymns Ancient and Modern" (London 1962). The Hymnal 1940, Companion (3d rev. ed., New York 1951). g. p. jackson, Spiritual Folk Songs of Early America (New York n.d.). h. a. l. jefferson, Hymns in Christian Worship (London 1950). b. stĀblein, "Hymnus," Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart 6:987–1032. o. westendorf, "The State of Catholic Hymnody," The Hymn 28 (1977) 54–60.
r. b. haller/eds.]