Hugh of Remiremont

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Cardinal, known also as Hugo Candidus, early promoter and later adversary of the gregorian reform; b. Lorraine, c. 1020; d. after 1098. He was called from his Abbey of remiremont with the original group brought to Rome by Pope leo ix and was created cardinal priest of S. Clemente in 1049. He next appeared in 1061 opposing the reform party and supporting Cadalus of Parma (d. after 1071), the antipope Honorius II. Soon disillusioned, he was absolved by Pope alexander ii and made his legate to Spain in 1063; he subsequently convoked synods in Avignon (1063), Aragon (1065, 1067), Auch, Toulouse, Barcelona, and Gerona (1068). After an interval in Rome Hugh again returned to Spain in 1071 but conflict with cluny, whose hitherto exclusive interest in Spain was thus reduced, culminated in charges against Hugh at a Roman synod in February 1073. Hugh was exonerated, perhaps with the help of Hildebrand, in whose election as Pope gregory vii he had a leading part. His Spanish legation was renewed in 1073 (Registrum 1.6, 7). Thus under two popes Hugh zealously promoted the aims of the Holy See: moral reform, establishment of papal authority and liturgical uniformity, and reconquest of the Spanish Muslim dominions (see spain, medieval). In conformity with his instructions he made special efforts in the kingdom of Aragon to replace the mozarabic rite with Roman usages. For reasons still obscure, from 1075 he definitively joined the anti-Gregorian party and took a decisive part in synods convoked by Emperor henry iv in Worms, January 1076, incurring excommunication the same year and deposition in 1078 (Registrum 5.14a). He was at Brixen in 1080, where he signed the decree deposing Gregory VII and supported guibert of ravenna (d. 1100) as the antipope Clement III. As Clement's legate in Germany he was excommunicated by the quedlinburg Synod of 1085, and an attempt to win England to the anti-Gregorian party was thwarted by lanfranc of Canterbury. At Rome in August 1098 he signed the proclamation of the schismatical cardinals against Pope urban ii as bishop of Palestrina, a post Hugh had received some years before. The harm done by a quarter century of relentless schismatical activity overshadowed his earlier services for the reform.

Bibliography: Sources. bonizo of sutri, Liber ad amicum, Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Libelli de lite. (Berlin 1826) 1:568620. Benonis aliorumque cardinalium schismaticorum contra Gregorium VII. et Urbanum II. scripta: Epist. IV, V, VIII, ibid., 2:403405, 405407, 408416. Literature. a. fliche and v. martin eds., Histoire de l'église depuis les origines jusqu'à nos jours (Paris 1935) 8:3637, 4748, 53, 65, 90, 96, 133, 149. f. lerner, Kardinal Hugo Candidus (Historische Zeitschrift Beiheft 22 (1931). g. b. borino, "Note gregoriane, 2: Quando il card. Ugo Candido e Guiberto arcivescovo di Ravenna furono insieme scomunicati," Studi gregoriani, ed. g. b. borino 4 (1952) 456465. a. dumas, Catholicisme 5:104748. a. posch, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 10 v. (2d, new ed. Freiburg 195765) 5:516.

[j. j. ryan]