Hugh of Newcastle (Novocastro)
HUGH OF NEWCASTLE (NOVOCASTRO)
Franciscan theologian, Doctor scholasticus; b. Newcastle, Durham (or Neufchâteau, Lorraine), c. 1280; d. Paris, after 1322. He studied at the University of Paris as a disciple of duns scotus, and between 1307 and 1317 commented on the Sentences of peter lombard. He was a master of theology and doctor of both laws, exercising his regency c. 1322. Hugh attended the Franciscan general chapter in Perugia (1322), where, with william of al nwick, he signed the declaration concerning the poverty controversy.
Only a few questions of his commentary on the Sentences have been edited: Franziskanische Studien (Müster-Werl 1914–) 20 (1933) 177–222; Studi Francescani 41 (1944) 126–47; Recherches de théologie ancienne et médiévale (Louvain 1929–) 18 (1951) 112–13; 21 (1954) 111; 22 (1955) 294–302; and Mélanges J. de Ghellinck (Gembloux 1951) 2:867–871. Hugh wrote also a series of Quaestiones quodlibetales (mentioned in his In 2 sent. 2.5; Cod. Vat. lat. 4871, fol. 25a), in addition to De victoria Christi contra antichristum. Certain other works whose authenticity is yet to be established, such as De commercio indulgentiarum, Mariale, and the Collationes, are also attributed to him.
Hugh is a faithful, though independent, follower of Duns Scotus, not infrequently developing his own points of view. His doctrine is presented clearly and precisely. In his discussions he often deals with Thomistic doctrines, which he frequently, but not invariably, rejects. Some names that repeatedly occur in Hugh's commentary are henry of ghent, durandus of Saint-Pourçain, godfrey of fontaines, giles of rome, and james of viterbo.
During the 14th and 15th centuries Hugh enjoyed considerable fame among Franciscans. An unnamed 15th-century Franciscan of Greifswald remarked that "the Doctor scholasticus, Hugh of Novocastro, leads students marvelously from natural philosophy and metaphysics to growth in virtue; his discussion of predestination and divine foreknowledge in In 1 sent. pleased me very much when I read it" [F. Ehrie, Die Ehrentitel der scholastischen Lehrer des Mittelalters (Munich 1919) 47.10]. He was repeatedly quoted by Prosper of Reggie (fl. 1320), Alphonsus of Toledo (fl.1345), John Bremer (fl. 1429), and william of vaurouillon.
In his question De conceptione B. M. V. he defends in a modest, fully impersonal way, the immaculate conception, relying principally on Duns Scotus and secondarily on St. bonaventure and william of ware. As a defender of the Immaculate Conception he influenced Bernard de Deo (fl. 1320), Thomas de Rossy (fl. 1373), and Andrew Novocastro (fl. 1387). He is quoted as one of the earliest defenders of this doctrine by Gerard Rondellus (fl. 1400), by Ludovicus a Turre (fl. 1485), and by Anthony de Cucharo (fl. 1507).
Bibliography: a. emmen, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 10 v. (2d, new ed. Freiburg 1957–65) 5:515–516. j. h. sbaralea, Supplementum et castigatio ad scriptores trium ordinum S. Francisci a Waddingo, 2 v. (Rome 1806; new ed. in 4 v. 1906–36) 1: 383. c. v. langlois, "Hugo de Novocastro," Essays in Medieval History, ed. a. g. little and f. m. powicke (Manchester 1925) 269–275; Histoire littéraire de la France (Paris 1814–1941) 36:342–349. e. auweiler, "De codice commentarii in IV librum sententiarum H. de N., OFM, Washingtonii servato," Archivum Franciscanum historicum 28 (1935) 570–573. f. stegmÜller Repertorium Commentariorum in Sententias Petri Lombardi (Wurzburg 1947) 1:nos. 366, 366.1. v. heynck, "Der Skotist H. de Novo Castro, OFM," Franziskanische Studien 43 (1961) 244–270.