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Dryburgh, Monastery of

DRYBURGH, MONASTERY OF

Former Premonstratensian abbey on the Tweed River, about 50 miles south of Edinburgh in Berwick-shire, Scotland; Diocese of Saint Andrew's. It was founded in 1150, probably by the Anglo-Norman Hugh de Moreville (d. 1162), constable of Scotland. The first premonstratensian (or Norbertine) canons arrived in 1152 from Alnwick, an English daughterhouse of Newhouse, the first Premonstratensian foundation in England. Established on the site of an ancient Celtic monastery, Dryburgh joined the relatively new abbeys of melrose, jedburgh, and Kelso in Scotland's monastery-rich Border country. Adam Scotus (Adam of Dryburgh) was abbot, or at least coadjutor there (c. 118488), but his successors are little known. The poet Patrick Strode lived there, as did the poet and philosopher ralph strode (c. 1354). The 14th-century Wars of Independence resulted in internal laxity of discipline at Dryburgh, and serious external destruction. In 1322 it was burned by King Edward II's retreating forces, and in 1385, when King Richard II raided Scotland, the abbey was again burned; this time it never fully revived. From 1509 on, the abbey was held in commendation, the Erskines soon becoming hereditary commendatory abbots. Dryburgh was attacked again in 1522, while in 1544 English raiders burned the entire monastery, except for the church, and the abbey was never rebuilt. Thereafter the number of canons in residence continually dwindled until only two remained in 1584. In 1604 King James VI (I) of Scotland and England erected Dryburgh and other temporalities into the Barony of Cardross. Since 1918 the ruins have been a national monument. Sir Walter Scott is buried there.

Bibliography: Liber s. Marie de Dryburgh, ed. j. spottiswoode (Bannatyne Club; Edinburgh 1847). d. g. manuel, Dryburgh Abbey in the Light of Its Historical and Ecclesiastical Setting (Edinburgh 1922). l. h. cottineau, Répertoire topobibliographique des abbayes et prieurés, 2 v. (Mâcon 193539) 1:1003. The Chronicle of Melrose, ed. a. o. and m. o. anderson (London 1936). n. backmund, Monasticon Praemonstratense, 3 v. (Straubing 194956) 2:100103. n. backmund, "The Premonstratensian Order in Scotland," Innes Review 4 (1953) 2441; Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, ed. a. baudrillart et al. (Paris 1912) 14:823824. Dryburgh Abbey: Ministry of Works Official Guide-book, ed. j. s. richardson and m. wood (2d ed. Edinburgh 1948).

[m. j. hamilton]

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