Fourteenth-century Byzantine monk and anti-Palamite theologian; d. c. 1360. A spiritual son of Matthew of Ephesus, Theodore received his habit as a monk from Nicephorus Gregoras. He joined Gregory Akindynos in his propaganda against Palamism in Thessalonika and repudiated the use of the dialectical method in theology. He wrote a four-part work against john vi cantacuzenus and the Tome of the synod of 1351. He expressed an agnostic attitude in regard to the essence of the Light of Mt. Tabor, and he claimed that as the divine essence was incomprehensible, theologians who attempted to discuss it were temerarious. For Dexios, the Light of Mt. Tabor was the Word of God, the Second Person of the Trinity, who manifested Himself to the Apostles not as He is in heaven, but with His humanity shining like the sun. This opinion brought him into conflict with his anti-Palamite friend Isaac Argyros (d. 1375), and he wrote three short apologies to justify his position. While he favored the mystical elements in Palamism, he maintained it was both foolish and impossible to give any explanation beyond that which was furnished by the Gospels.
Bibliography: h. g. beck, Kirche und theologische Literatur im byzantinischen Reich (Munich 1959) 330, 716, 729. m. jugie, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. a. vacant et al. (Paris 1903–50) 11.2:1804–05. g. mercati, Notizie di Procoro e Demetrio Cidone (Studi e Testi 56; 1931) 225–229. e. candal, "Argiro contro Dexio," Orientalia Christiana periodica 23 (1957) 80–113.
[f. x. murphy]