BUDKO, JOSEPH (1888–1940), painter and graphic artist. Budko, who was born in Plonsk, received a traditional Jewish education. In 1902 he went to study at the art school in Vilna. In 1910 Budko moved to Berlin where he learned metal-chasing and also studied at the Museum of Arts and Crafts. In Berlin Budko met Hermann *Struck who taught him the technique of etching. Eventually he also took up woodcutting, lithography, and painting. In 1933 Budko settled in Palestine. In 1935 he became the director of the reopened New *Bezalel school of arts and crafts. Budko stressed the teaching of graphic design and utilized the ornamental value of the Hebrew letters. Budko's subject matter was determined by the Jewish environment in which he grew up and to which he returned in Jerusalem. Budko developed a style that combined the personal with the Jewish, being a synthesis of Jewish tradition and modern art. He also revived the spirit of Jewish book illustration, adapting it to modern design. Among the books he illustrated are the Haggadah, and he designed many bookplates.