BUDGE, Ian. British, b. 1936. Genres: Philosophy, Politics/Government, Social sciences, Speech/Rhetoric. Career: Professor, University of Essex, Colchester, 1976- (on faculty, 1966-). Assistant Lecturer, University of Edinburgh, 1962-64; Assistant Lecturer, 1963-64, and Lecturer, 1964-66, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. Publications: (with D.W. Urwin) Scottish Political Behaviour, 1966; Agreement and the Stability of Democracy, 1970; (with C. O'Leary) Belfast: Approach to Crisis: A Study of Belfast Politics 1613-1970, 1973; (with D. Farlie) Party Identification and Beyond, 1976; Voting and Party Competition, 1977; Explaining and Predicting Elections, 1983; Ideology, Strategy and Party Movement: Election Programmes in 19 Democracies, 1987; (with H.E. Keman) Parties and Democracy: Coalition Formation and Government Functioning in 20 Countries, 1990; The New Challenge of Direct Democracy, 1996. WITH OTHERS: Political Stratification and the Functioning of Democracy, 1972; The New British Political System, 1983, rev. ed., 1993; Party Policy and Government Coalitions, 1992; Developing Democracy, 1994; Parties, Policies and Democracy, 1994; The Politics of the New Europe: Atlantic to Urals, 1997; The New British Politics, 1998; Party Government in 48 Democracies 1945-1998, 2000; Mapping Policy Preferences: Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments, 1945-1998, 2000.