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The Blarer (Blaurer) family was prominent in 16th-century Church reform and in the politics of Southern Germany and the cantons of Switzerland.

Ludwig, benedictine, Catholic reformer; b. c. 1480;d. Feb. 26, 1544. Ludwig became a monk of the Abbey of saint gall in Switzerland, where he served as cellarer. In 1528 Clement VII confirmed his appointment as administrator of the Abbey of einsiedeln and, in 1533, instated him as abbot. Because of the religious upheavals, the pope later granted Ludwig the right to administer the Sacrament of confirmation and to consecrate churches. In modern Church history Ludwig is considered a transitional a figure who strove to reform the Church from within.

Ambrosius, Protestant reformer in southern Germany and Switzerland; b. Constance, April 4, 1492; d. Winterthur, Dec. 6, 1564. Ambrosius entered the Benedictine Abbey of alpirsbach in the Black Forest, but while pursuing further studies at Tübingen, he made the acquaintance of melanchthon and other humanists, and he retained contact with Melanchthon after returning to the monastery. The spirit of luther's writings so impressed him that he left the abbey in 1522 and returned to Constance, where he preached with zeal for the new movement. He was active later in Württemberg and Switzerland.

Gerwig, Benedictine, Catholic reformer; b. Constance, May 25, 1495; d. Weingarten, Aug. 30, 1567. Gerwig made profession in the Abbey of Weingarten in 1513, then studied Church law in Freiburg im Breisgau, Vienna, and Ferrara. In 1520 he was elected abbot of Weingarten, and in 1547, at the insistence of Emperor Charles V, he also became abbot of Ochsenhausen. Gerwig, always conservatively inclined, not only resisted energetically the efforts of the Protestant Reformers, but also became engaged in conflicts with the Jesuits. The preservation of the Catholic religion in Swabia is in part due to his political activity.

Thomas, politician and Protestant reformer; b. Constance, after 1492; d. Gyrsburg (Thurgau), March 19, 1567. After completing law studies in Freiburg im Breisgau, Thomas studied theology in Wittenberg where he sided with Luther. He was influential in inducing his brother, Ambrosius, to leave the monastery. Upon returning to Constance, Thomas entered political life, serving as mayor from 1537 to 1547, but was compelled to leave the city in 1548. He was an important influence in discussions among the Reformers who were attempting to reach an agreement about the teaching of the Lord's Supper.

Diethelm, Benedictine, religious reformer; b. 1503;d. Saint Gall, Switzerland, Dec. 18, 1564. Diethelm became a religious in 1523 and was elected abbot of Saint Gall in 1530. While in exile in Mehrerau, where he became abbot in 1532, he made arrangments with the civil authorities of Saint Gall to restore the famous abbey. At Mehrerau and Saint Gall he instituted sound spiritual life, and he extended the same spirit to the secular clergy, effecting the restoration of many religious houses for women in Switzerland.

Jakob Christoph, bishop of Basel, Catholic reformer;b. Rosenberg, May 11, 1542; d. Prunktrut (Canton Bern), April 18, 1603. When appointed bishop of Basel in 1575, Jakob Christoph found the diocese spiritually and materially impoverished. He resisted the inroads of the Protestant Reformers and carried out the instructions of the Council of Trent; he also erected a Jesuit college in his residential see of Prunktrut. He ranks as one of the fore-most figures in the counter reformation in Switzerland.

Bibliography: Ludwig . r. henggeler, Professbuch der fürstlichen Benediktinerabtei Unserer Lieben Frau zu Einsiedeln, v. 3 of Monasticon-Benedictinum Helvetiae, 3 v. (Einsiedeln 193034). r. tschudi, Das Kloster Einsiedeln unter den Aebten Ludwig II Blarer und Joachim Eichorn 152669 (Doctoral diss. unpub. Fribourg U. 1946); Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 2:523. Ambrosius . p. stÄrkle, "Zur Familiengeschichte der Blarer," Zeitschrift für Schweizer Kirchengeschichte 43(1949) 100131, 203224. o. feger, Neue deutsch Biographie. (Berlin 1953) 2:287288. o. vasella, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 2:523. Thomas . p. stÄrkle, op. cit. o. feger, Neue deutsch Biographie (Berlin, 1953) 2:288. o. vasella, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 2:523524. Gerwig . Briefe und Akten, ed. h. gÜnther, 2 v. (Stuttgart 191421). h. gÜnther, "Abt Georg Blarer von Weingarten und die Gegenreformation," Festschrift Georg von Hertling (Kempten 1913) 342349. r. reinhardt, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 2:523. Diethelm . a. baumann, Die Fürstabtei St. Gallen unter Abt Diethelm Blarer 153064 (Doctoral diss. unpub. Fribourg U. 1948). g. thÜrer, St. Galler Geschichte (St. Gallen 1953) v. 1. o. vasella, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 2:524. Jakob Christoph . b. bury, Geschichte des Bistums Basel und seiner Bischöfe (Solothurn 1927). w. brotschi, Der Kampf Jakob Christoph Blarers um die religiöse Einheit im Fürstbistum Basel 15751608 (Studia Friburgensia, ns 13; Fribourg 1956). a. chÈvre, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 2:524.

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