ARIE, RAFAEL (or Rafaele ; 1922–1988), singer. Born in Sofia, Arie was a pupil of Brambaroff, the chief baritone of the Sofia Opera. He won first prize in the Geneva International Competition in 1946, and later sang leading basso roles at La Scala, Milan, and other European and American opera houses. In 1951 Igor Stravinsky chose him to sing at the Venice premiere of his opera The Rake's Progress. Arie visited Israel many times and eventually became an Israeli but continued his international concert career as one of the leading bassos of his generation.